« 上一頁繼續 »
For their statistics and prevailing influence, see Table VIII of the Appendix; for a summary of their statistics, a corresponding table in the report of the Commissioner preceding.
SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTION.
SCIENTIFIC. The University of California still offers 4-year scientific courses in agriculture, mechanics, mining, civil engineering, and chemistry; also graduate courses for the degrees of mechanical engineer, civil engineer, mining engineer, master of science, and doctor of philosophy, which courses, however, seem to be but little prosecuted, though graduate students desiring to pursue advanced studies for the above degrees find every facility which the libraries, laboratories, and museums of the University offer.' The general library contains 27,000 volumes, against 22,000 in 1883-'84. The museums include the State geological collections, and others of great value from all parts of the world. The laboratories are planned after careful study of the best arranged ones in this country and Europe. Of colleges outside of the University, 9 offer scientific courses of 2 to 4 years.
There is also a school of practical civil, mining, and mechanical engineering, surveying, and drawing, under private direction at San Francisco.
For statistics of those schools that have reported, see Table X of the Appendix, Parts 1 and 2.
PROFESSIONAL THEOLOGY continued to be taught in 3-year courses at the Pacific Theological Seminary, Oakland (Congregational), and at the San Francisco Theological Seminary, San Francisco (Presbyterian). Both test by examination the qualifications of candidates for admission who do not present evidence of academic or collegiate training. The former had, in 1884-'85, under 9 instructors, 4 students, of whom 3 graduated; the latter, under 3 instructors, 4 students, one of whom graduated. Volumes in its library, 16,000; un. bound pamphlets, 8,000.
Pierce Christian College, College City, and Hesperian College, Woodland, both “Christian," give, as before, instruction in the sacred Scriptures, Christian evidences, and other things which, to some extent, prepare for ministerial work. At the University of Southern California (Methodist Episcopal) students looking toward the ministry are offered instruction in Hebrew and in historical and systematic theology, studies which, with others prescribed by the church, they are expected to follow up after entrance on ministerial work.
LAW.-The University of California, in its Hastings College of the Law, San Francisco, shows still a 3-year course of 32 weeks each year. All the classes are trained in moot courts. Applicants for admission must be 18 years of age, of moral character, and good education and culture. To graduate, they must complete the prescribed course and pass all the examinations. Such as do, receive the degree of B. L., and are admitted to the bar of the State courts. March 18, 1885, as before stated under “New legislation," it was required by law o add to its course lectures on the duties of municipal officers in San Francisco, and upon legal ethics, and morality in business.
MEDICINE. — Cooper Medical College, San Francisco, and Toland Medical College, of the same city, the latter a departnent of the University of California, report, for 1884-'85, the former, 83 matriculates and 19 graduates, under 16 instructors; the latter, 56 matriculates and 12 graduates, under 19 instructors. Both are "regular," have ample courses: Cooper, 3 annual summer cres of 23 weeks each, and an intermediate one of 18 weeks, making substantially a 4-year course of 22 weeks each year; Toland, a graded 3-year course of 9 months each year.
Besides these, a new "regular" school appears in connection with the University of Southern California, Los Anguies, with 18 1 rofessors, a 3-year graded course of 25 weeks each year, and an intermediate one of 8 woeks in the last year. An article of the Act establishing it in 1884 says that its standard for admission shall be as high, its course as varied and thorough, and its requirements for graduation as rigid, as in the recognized first-class colleges of medicine in the United States.
The “Women's Medical College of the Pacific Coast” makes also a new appearance in the year 1883, announcing a third annual session to begin January 5, 1881, and to continue 20 weeks, the course of study graded and extending through 3 years.
All these have examinations for admission of candidates that present no other satisfactory evidence of preparation for medical studies.
The deputy superintendent of public schools, in San Francisco, after two visits to the University in 1884-'85, arraigns these statements as to facilities, and seems to show great room for doubt
as to the thoroughness of the practical instruction in scientific liues.-Municipal Leports of Sun Francisco, 1884–85, pages 618 to 622.
California Medical College, Oakland (elective), with a regular winter term of 26 weeks, and an intermediate or summer term of 12 weeks, annually, recommends, but does not require, a 3-years' graded course of study. For admission to its instruction, candidates must present evidence of good character, and, if without a diploma from a high school, college, or university, must submit to an examination as to their preparation for medical study. Matriculates of 1884–85, 26; graduates in that year, 5. Faculty, 9 professors and a demonstrator.
Hahnemann Medical College of San Francisco (homæopathic), with a faculty of 19, a full graded course of 3 years, covering 5 months each year, and an apparently optional intermediate term of 6 weeks yearly, has also an examination of all non-graduates applying for admission. Matriculates of 1884-'85, its second year, 17; graduates of the
Before being admitted to practice in the State, all graduates of these or other medical schools must secure the approval of a State board of medical examiners.
DENTISTRY.—The College of Dentistry in the University of California, with 10 professors and 18 other instructors, has an annual session of 36 weeks, and a regular course of 2 years.' For admission there are fairly high requirements; for graduation, the standard of the best schools of its class. An Act to regulate the practice of dentistry in the State through a board of seven examiners, themselves engaged in the practice, was passed March 12, 1885.2
The College of Pharmacy in the State University, with 4 professors and 4 assistants, continues its two-years course of 24 weeks each.
For admittance the applicant must have had a good English education up to the highschool grade, or pass an examination in the common English branche. Instruction in Latin, sufficient to enable the student to read prescriptions accurately, is given. Candidates for the degree of “graduate in pharmacy" must be recommended by the faculty and the examining board to the regents of the University, who corfer the degree. A woman was among the graduates of 1884.
For statistics of the above medical schools, so far as reported, see Table XIII of the Appendix; for their summary, report of the Commissioner preceding.
TRAINING IN ART. The School of Design of the San Francisco Art Association reports for 1884–85, 78 pupils in the regular classes, 22 in the Saturday class, and 17 in the life class. Officers--a director, assistant director, and teacher of life class.
Music, drawing, and painting enter into the arrangements of nearly all the colleges, both for young men and young women, and considerable numbers of the students appear to have prosecuted courses in these lines. In the public schools of the chief cities drawing has commonly a place, and it has a full and special development at Oakland.
EDUCATION OF THE DEAF AND OF THE BLIND. The California State Institution for the intellectual and manual improvement of these classes of unfortunates, Berkeley, continued in 1884-'85 its combination of the manual and oral systems for the deaf, with finger reading for the blind. Of the deaf, there are reported at the close of that year 133 (81 males, 52 females), making a total of 279 since the foundation of the institution; and 32 of the blind, making a total of 123 from the opening of the school. The instruction of both classes includes all branches commonly taught in common schools and seminaries, with printing, wood working, and gardening for the deaf. A few are prepared for college. À bakery and cooking school, for which $5,000 has been appropriated, was under way and was expected to be opened in January or February of 1885. As noted under "New legislation,'' provision for instruction of the blind in productive occupations that would prepare for self-support was made by the legislature in March, 1885.
EDUCATION OF THE FEEBLE-MINDED. Under the head of "New legislation" it may be seen that imbecile youth will hereafter have provision for training in letters and industries.
EDUCATION OF ORPHANS. For statistics of attendance and instruction in homes for orphan children in the State, see Parts 1 and 2, Table XXII of Appendix.
1 After January, 1896, the course will be 3 years. ? Laws of California, 1855, pages 110-112
INDUSTRIAL AND REFORMATORY TRAINING. The City and County Industrial School, San Francisco, which seems to have come under greatly improved supervision and management in January, 1885, presents a total of 406 inmates for 1884–85, of whom 162 came over from the previous year, 171 were received during the year, 49 recalled by the school committee, 19 surrendered by parents and guardians, and 5 that had escaped were captured and returned. Of the 406 thus made up, 175 were granted indefinite leave of absence, 44 were discharged, and 7 escaped, leaving 180 remaining in the school, July 1, 1885. The average belonging in school studies, which include a fair English educational course, was 82; the average daily attendance, 73. Saturday and Sunday evenings were given to miscellancous reading. A band leader trained in music from 14 to 16 of the inmates. The industrial element in the school included labor on the farm as well as in a tailor-shop and a shoe-shop, and by exchanging manufactured shoes for leather and findings it was hoped that the shoe-shop might be made self-sustaining.
EDUCATION OF CHINESE YOUTH. The full account of this work for 1883–'84 came too late for the report of that year; there were, however, in the 15 California mission schools, under control of the American Missionary Association, 1,864 pupils under 27 teachers. In 1884-'85 were reported 18 schools, with 1,457 pupils, under 38 teachers. The schools were all in the hands of devoted and efficient teachers, well located and fairly on the way to become permanent. The school at Alturas, in the northeastern part of the State, though established for the Chinese, was open to all, and the Indians in the vicinity so largely availed themselves of the privilege that they greatly outnumbered the Chinese. The mission at Stockton, the first established by the American Missionary Association in California, was closed in 1884, but reopened in 1885 with a better attendance and greater promise than before.
PACIFIC ASSOCIATION OF COLLEGIATE ALUMNE. Following the example at the East, a temporary organization of the Pacific Association of Collegiate Alumnæ was effected at San Francisco August 29, 1885. There were present graduates of Ann Arbor, Cornell, Vassar, and Berkeley. Miss Jackson of Cornell taking the chair, Miss Hamlin of Ann Arbor explained that the purpose of the association was to encourage special lines of graduate study, to maintain intellectual culture, and promote fellow feeling and co-operation among educated women from different institutions. She stated that the results already reached had been chiefly in the lines of research in local history, sanitary science, physical training of women, and health statistics in co-educational colleges. So valuable have been these last that the Bureau of Educational Statistics of Boston, Mass., has requested the use of them, and when compiled it is believed that they will materially modify the popular impression on this subject. There were found to be in the State 50 alumnæ of Berkeley, and from 15 to 20 of Ann Arbor, Vassar, Cornell, Oberlin, and Wellesley. A committee was appointed to arrange for a permanent organization. of the State Teachers' Association no report has come to hand.
CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICER. Hon. WILLIAM T. WELCKER, State superintendent of public instruction, Sacramento.
[Term, January 8, 1883, to January 3, 1887.)
a Time the graded schools were taught. 6 Time the ungraded schools were taught.
c Note what is said respecting this under "State school system, general condition." (From figures furnished by Hon. Leonidas S. Cornell, State superintendent of publio instruction.)
STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM.
GENERAL CONDITION. The figures of the preceding statistical summary show progress at almost every point: 1,713 more children to be taught; 1,023 more brought under public school instruction; 1,440 more in average attendance; additional seats for such attendance going far beyond the actual demand for them; an increase of teachers fairly corresponding with the additional number of pupils in the schools; pay of teachers greater, on an average, except in the case of men in graded schools; while, to meet these advances, there was an expenditure for the public schools $124,829 larger than in the preceding year.
School property, rated in 1883–'84 at $1,676,130, went up, as may be seen, to $2,052, 100, an advance of $375,970 on the estimated value of the preceding year. It is desired that this may be especially noticed, because, through a clerical error, the school property of the State was, on page 49 of the report from this Bureau for 1883–'84, given as “about $125,000,” which was only about the increase of the valuation of it in that year, as shown at the close of page XXVII in the same report. This error is the more regretted because a very competent authority says, “It is doubtful wbether in any State of the Union, in proportion to its age and population, can be found a greater number of first-class school buildings or better schools than in the towns of this State."
ADMINISTRATION. For the administration of the public school system there are: (1) a State board of education; (2) a State superintendent of public instruction, who is a member of the board; (3) a superintendent of public schools in each county; (4) boards of directors of school districts; those of first class districts of 6 members; those of second and third class districts of 3 members. These officers are all elected by the people of the State, county, or district which they represent; the State and county superintendents for 2 years; directors, for 3 years, with annual change of one-third. Women are eligible to the district boards and may vote at elections for them.
The schools of the State system are free to all youth 6 to 21 years of age, shown by an annual census to be residents in the districts where they are in operation. None such are to be debarred from attendance in them, or subjected to special classification, because of race or color. To obtain State school funds, schools must be kept in session at least 60 days in each year. The studies to be pursued, and the text-books to be used, are determined by each district board. Sectarian instruction is forbidden; but a fair training in good morals is provided for by the requirement that all teachers in public schools shall be of unexceptional moral character, and that school boards may suspend or expel refractory pupils." Gradation of studies is provided for up through those of high schools, which prepare pupils for the State University.
SCHOOL FINANCES. The means of support of public schools come: (1) from the proceeds of a State school fund; (2) a county tax of 2 to 5 mills on the dollar; (3) optional district taxes; and (4) the receipts from fines, penalties, and forfeitures, these last going to the districts or counties in which they have been incurred.
The State superintendent distributes the State funds to the county superintendents; they apportion these, with what is raised in the county, to the school districts that have maintained schools for at least 60 days under licensed teachers. This apportionment is according to the number of children of school age, as shown by the annual census. SCHOOL SYSTEMS OF CITIES WITH 7,500 OR MORE INHABITANTS.
ADMINISTRATION. Districts of the first class i. e., with more than 1,000 inhabitants-are under the administrative direction of boards of 6 directors, the members of which are liable to an annual change of 2. Each board elects a president from its own members; a secretary, who may be a member of the board; and a treasurer, who must not be a member. Every board of this class has power to make by-laws for its own government and the government of its public schools. It may employ or discharge teachers, enforce the rules and regulations of the State superintendent, fix the course of study, and determine the textbooks to be used for 4-year terms. Denver and Leadville, the only cities in the State that have a population sufficient for report here, have superintendents of their public schools, elected by their respective boards.
1 As to morul influences in school, see further on a resolution adopted at the close of the State Teachers' Association.