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of seats for the pupils attending. Private schools enrolled 250 pnpile, and 500 are reported as in po school. The publio schools were tanght 200 days by 4 men and 26 women, all receiviug the average inonthly pay of $75. Expenditure for public schools was $2,213 more than in 1883-84.
Camden reports an increase of 1,254 in school yonth, of 206 in enrollment, and of 711 in average attendance. The seating capacity of the school-houses was 6,591, which, though less by 2,506 than the enrollment, was 1,583 more than average attendance. There were 2,000 reported in private schools, making a total of 11,097 under instruction. Schools were in session 10 months and 7 days, and were tanight by 7 men, and 121 women, the forajer receiving the average monthly pay of $132.55, the latter $39.90. School property was rated at $275,500.
Elizabeth reports for 1884-'85 4 school buildings, affording 2,453 sittings for study, having lost by fire one for primary schools.
With only 50 more school youth there was a gain of 119 in onrollment, and a loss of 13 ip average attendance, while expenditure for public schools was $2,549 beyond tbat of 1883–84. Of the 3,617 registered pupils, only 122 were over 16 years of age. The estimated enrollment in private and church schools was 2,300, nearly 61 per cent. of the public school enrollment. Oue special teacher ip drawing was e plosed. Public schools were taught 194 days, and property belonging to them was valued a $79.600.
Hoboken presents evidence of improvement in all the departments of school work. } bad 6 school buildings for its bigb, grammar, primary, annex, normal, and evenin schools. Including evening schools there was a gain of 1,013 in registered pupils, o. 412 in average attendance, and an ox preuditure of $5,346 more than in 1883–84. Dur. ing the year a new wing with 240 additional sittings was added to one of the school buildings, yot even this was insufficient to accommodate the increase of school youth, and another building was urgentiy called for. Under 8 teachers the evening schools were iu session 67 nights, enrolling 455, with an average attendance of 172. Consider. able improvement in the sanitary condition of the school-bouses is reported. In the high scbool, tbe course of study was thoroughly revised and adapted to the wants of every pursuit. The consolidation of the first class in each grammar department, plaoing all the schools upon the saino basis as to teaching, grades, and salaries, contributed to the advancement of these schools.
A carefully prepared table shows that abont three-fourths of the children leave school to contribute to the family snpport before completing one-half of the 13 years provided for by the State. And yet nearly 63 per cent. of enrolled pupils was held in average attendance. Private and church schools enrolled 1,496. Public school property was valued at $124,465.
Jersey City, while it gained 5,379 in school yonth, 802 in average attendance, and expended $17,499 more for pollic schools, lost 789 in enrollment as compared with 1883–84. Private schoolsenroled 14,725, a gain of 510during the year. The combined school force of the city seems to have made, during the year, but a slight advance on the accumulating school population, leaving 20,233 reported as attending no scbool. For the permanent attendance in tbe publio schools, the school-bouses afforded a fair supply of sittings. Schools were taught 10 months by 17 men and 333 women. The average monthly pay of the former was $139.90; that of the latter, $37.63. Public school property was valued at $598,000.
Millville, unreported last year, reports for 1884-'85 an enrollment of over 90 per cent. of its school youth, and 61 per cent. of them in average attendance. Its school accommodations seem to have been fully up to school requirements. Oply 50 were enrolled in private schools, and 167 reported as in no scbool. The public schools were taught 200 days by 6 men and 31 women, the fornier paid $69.75 per month, the latter, $37.50. The value of school property was $50,100,
Newark reports priinary intermediate, grammar, 2 industrial, and 7 ovening schools, also 1 for colored youth, 1 bigh, and I normal school. Of the 24,659 enrolled in public schools, only 356 were over 16 years of age. The 6,000 in private and church schools, added to those in the public schools inake a total of 30,659 under instruction, or only 12,604 less than the number of school youth. The evening schools enrolled 2,087 meu and 554 women, under 54 teachers, with an average attendanc. of 1,334. The high school pupils numbered 683, with average attendance of 552, onder 17 teachers. The city normal school had 36 female pupils onder 1 female teacher. Two special teachers, one in music and one in drawing were euployed. Public schools were tanght 201 days, and property belonging to them wns valued at $1.085,500.
Nero Brunsuick presente statistics showing ar enrollment in private and parochial schools, exceeding by 841 that of the public schools, the former oombering 3,500, the lattor. 2,679. This indicates a much larger foreign population than has been beretofore reported. The public schools occupy 6 buildings, with 1,300 sittings for primary and intermediate schools, 715 for granımar scbools, and 160 for the high school. Of the 2,679 enrolled, only 91 were over 16 years of age. The high record for ponctuality continued, there having been during the year a loss frou tardiness of only 7 hours and
48 minntes. The standard of deportment had been raised by the influence of new laws of condnet, which were approved by the scholars. The daily sessions continued as beretofore, no general recess being allowed. The results of this system, it is thought, are beneticial. Public schools were taught 199 days. Schvol property was rated at $125,200.
Orange provides 4 school buildings with 1,468 sittings for its primary, grammar, and high schools, valued, with other property, at $105,000. It shows for the current year a gaio of 104 in school youth, of 87 in registered pupils, of 57 in average daily attendance, with an expenditure for public schools of $2,509 more than in 1883–84. of the 1,659 enrolled, only 51 were over 16 years of age, and only 100 under 6. The estimated oumber id private aud parochial schools was 1,200, being only 459 less than in the public schools. The enrollment of both classes reached to within 1,556 of the number of school youth. Public schools were taught 197 days. The city superiotendent says that the enrollment for 1884-'85 exceeded that of any previous year, the increase keeping pace with that of population. The school board has ordered the erection of a new school building, the cost not to exceed $20,000.
Paierson reports progress in all departments, showing a gain of 1,084 in school youth, of 739 in enrollment, of 1,254 in average attendance, of 16 in teachers, and expended $14,989 more for public schools than in the previous year. There were 22 such scbools, consisting of i normal training school, 1 high school, 8 grammar schools, with primary departinents, 4 primary schools, aod 8 evening schools, affording 6,357 sittings in all, the teaching force comprising 11 men and 152 women. Although soino increase bad been made in scbool accommodations, there was still an overcrowded condition in nearly all the schools. The city bad not sufticiently provided for the increase of school youth, there having beep but 6,357 sittings for the 12,609 enrolled. The superintendent estimates that there were 9,000 children of school age who must bave eitber attended privato ecbools or received no schooling. Most of tbese were boys over 12 years of age, or girls over 14, who were employed in the various places of industry. There were 2,796 attending evening schools. Efforts have been made to lessen trnancy, tardiness, absence, and disobedience, and the superintendent urges that an institution be opened by tbe city where truants and those who refuse to obey in the regular schools may be made to attend and be kept under proper restraint and instruction.
Plainfield, for the current year, reports a little more than one-half of school youth enrolled in the public schools and 500 in private ones, making a total attendence of 1,865 iu botb classes, and leaving 477 out of school. Average daily attendance was about 43 per cent. of school youth, and 73 per cent of enrollment. School buildings are all reported as in “very good" condition, and afford nearly enough seats for the daily attendance. The public schools wore held in session 10 months, the teaching force comprising 1 pale and 24 female teachere; the former receiving the average nontbly pay of $120, the latter, $56. School property was rated at $95,000.
Trenton grades its public scbools as pritoary, intermediate, grammar, and high, with courses covering 8 years, giving to each grade 2 years. There was in 1884-'85 a gain of 136 in enrollment, a falling off of 238 in school youth, of 252 in average attendance, and of $8,038 in expediture for public schools, as compared with the previous year. The enrollment in private and cburch schools was 1,445 less than in 1883-'84. For 12 public schools there were 13 school buildings, with 4,090 sittings, all school property being valued at $161,800, an advance of $70,800 over the valuation in 108:3–84. The combived enrollment of public and private aud cbnreb schools, the latter being 1,555, leaves 2,996 of school youth apparently without school training. But allowing that about one-fourth of the school youtb are over 16 soars of age, and, having completed their public schooling, are in higher schools or porsning the various industries, few, if any, are left as illiterates. Public schools were tanght 200 days, retaining in average attendance about 66 per cent. of the pupils enrolled.
Cauden, Gloucester City, Hoboken, Millville, Newark, Paterson, and Salem, bad evening schools during the winter, taught by 145 teachers for a total of 468 evenings, with an enrollment of 7,206, and an average attendance of 5,302, the appropriation for their support being $15,578. PREPARATION AND QUALIFICATIONS OF TEACHERS.
GENERAL STATE REQUIREMENTS. To obtain omployment in the public schools teachers must hold certificates of qnalification from the State or city board of examiners. The certificates of the State board are of three grades--for life, for 10 years, or for 7 gears. Those of the county boards are for 1, 3, and 5 years, the 5-year onos good throngbout the State. Graduates of 3. years' course in the State normal school, who have given ovidence in its modal school of ability to teacb and govera, receive a second-grade State certificate, and graduatos of the 2-years' course, one of third grade.
STATE NORMAL TRAINING. The New Jersey State Normal School, Trenton, organized in 1855, offers a 3-years' course of normal instruction, with free tuition to students who are qualified, and will pledge theniselves to teach 2 years in the State. Ip 1884-'85 there were 40 young men and 180 young women in the school onder 25 instructors. The now ber of graduates receiving diplomas entitling them to teach in the State without furtber examination was 27, all of wbow were to engage in teaching; Vocal and instrumental music and drawing are taught, and a model school is attached for practice teaching.
During the year 285 graduates and 195 undergraduates of the Stato normal school tangbt in the Stato, an increase of 19 of the former and of 36 of the latter over 1803–84.
OTHER NORMAL TRAINING. The cities of Hoboken, Newark, and Paterson include normal training in their prblic school systems. That at Newark bad 35 young women in its course of 40 weeks under 4 instructors. In 1884–85 the entire class graduated, of whow 34 were to engage in teaching, which they are permitted to do in the city without furtber examipation. A model school is attached, which is said to be in excellent condition as to its attendance, discipline, and instruction; the accommodatious both for the theoretical and training departments were entirely inadequate. The city appropriated $1,500 for the maintenance of the normal school during the year.
TEACHERS' INSTITUTES. To defray the expenses of teachers' institutes the State allows $100 for each county that may bold an institute. Where the teachers from two or more andjoining counties avite in holding the institute, each county receives $100. The State board of education must prescribe rules and regulations for holding the institutes. All loucbere are required to attend anless excused, and no deduction may be made from their salary for the time given to the institute.
PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS.
These schools are reported in most of the principal cities. That at Long Branch offers classical, scientific, and Englisb courses, each covering 3 years, the classical being particularly designed to fit students for college. Newark has a similar arrangement. With an enlarged building and the organization of the scbool opop a broader and more liberal basis, with increased appliances for objective and experimental work, it is in close relation to the normal and training schools, and, throngb tbem, to the eutire teaching force of the city. Paterson, with a bigli-uchwol registration of 230 pupils, reports an advancement of the school towards a higher standard, and a gaip of it in effectiveness and influence. Its library qui vored over 12,000 volumes, and included a good proportion of historical and classical works. The Trenton high school has a 2-years' English course; Greek and Latin optional.
OTHER SECONDARY SCHOOLS. For statistics of business colleges, private academic schools, and preparatory departments of colleges, see Tables TV, VI, VII, and IX of the Appendix. For summaries of their statistics, see the report of the Councissiouer preceding.
COLLEGES FOR YOUNG MEN. The College of New Jersey.-Princeton continned in 1884–85 to maintain its classical, scientific, and elective courses, with a faculty of 39 members, and an eurollment of 519 students, representing 31 States, 1 Territory, and 3 foreign countries. Degrees conferred are M. A., B. A., M. S., B. S., and C. E. Three houorary LL.D.,' 4 D.D's, and 2 A. M.'s were conferred in June, 1884. Entrance examinations are beld annually in all the principal cities westward to San Francisco, and in these examinations and in the regular undergraduate and graduate courses that follow them everything indicates thoroughness, while aunual fellowships, prizes, and competitive scholarships help to stimulate students.
Other institutions reporting are Rutgers College, New Brunswick (non-sectarian), and St. Benedict's College, Newark, and Seton Hall College, South Orange (Roman Catbolic). The first named offers excellent classical, scientific, special, and graduate courses of study, with numerous electives; the others preparatory, commercial, and classical courses of fair standard.
"President Arthur, Governor Abbott, and Judge Barlan, of the United States Supreme Courto
For statistics of these colleges, seo Table IX of the Appendix; for summaries of them, a corrospuuding table in the report of tho Commissioner, proceding.
INSTITUTIONS FOR THE SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION OF YOUNG WOMEN. For statistics of this class of institutions, 800 Table VIII of the Appendix; for a summary of them, a corresponding table in the report of the Commissioner, preceding. SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTION.
SCIENTIFIC The 4-years' conrses of instruction in the Sterens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, include training in eleinentary and advanced matbematics and their application to mechanical construction; mechanical engineering, including construction of macbines; mecbanical drawing; shop practice in mechanics; physics ; obemistry; applied electricity; and marine engineering-all with excellent appliances and facilities for thorongb scioutific work.
Rutgers Scientific School, constituted by the legislature the State College of Agriculte are and the Mechanio Arts, presents courses of 4 years io civil engineering and mechanics and in chemistry and agriculturo; a special course of 2 years in agriculture; and post-graduate courses in the patural sciences, agriculture, and politioal and social science, each leading to its appropriate degree.
The John C. Green School of Science connected with the College of New Jersey, Princeton, offers courses in general science to the junior year; then elective courses in chem. istry and mineralogy, biology and chemistry, biology and geology, and mathematics and mechanics; a course in civil engineering is also arranged. The branches open to special students includo geology, mineralogy, biology, pbysics, practiul astronomy, analytical and applied chemistry, assaying, and topography.
The course in oivil engineering diverges from that of general science in the boginning of tho freshipao year, proceeding to measurements of lines and angles, to plane problems and descriptive geometry, topographical drawing, chain and compass surveys, and advancing to applied mathematics, constructions, and studies of terrostrial magnetism and electrodynamics.
For statistics of scientific schools and scientific departments reporting, see Tables IX and 8 of the Appendix; for summaries of these, corresponding tables in the report of the Commissioner, preceding.
TECHNICAL SCHOOLS. A technical school was opened during the year at Newark, ander a law of 1881, which provides that when a city, town, or towuship shall raise $.3,000 for the establishment of an industrial school, the State will appropriato an equal amount for that purpose. Applicants for admission to the school at Newark must not be less than 16 years of age, and must be well grounded in common-school studies; the course of instruction covers from 3 to 4 years of 6 months eacb; tbe sessions occupying 5 ovonings a week. Studies include algebra, geometry, trigonometry, descrip.ive geometry, physics, thooretical, descriptive, and applied chemistry, free-band and mechanical drawing. Special instruction is given as to the care and proper ase of tools. Number on roll Feliruary 23, 1885, 96, representing 18 different occupations.
At Montclair á technical school has been in operation since 1882, thongh not under the act of 1881. It is attached to the public school, and is under the supervision of the district board of trustees. The boys of the grammar scbools are taught the proper use of wood-working tools, and the girls are instructed in needle-work. This industrial training may uot interfere with the regular class work. Tbe work of i be boys is pot oulike that of the manual training schools of Saint Louis, Chicago, Philadelphia, and elsewhere.
PROFESSIONAL THEOLOGICAL instruction is given in the Theological Seminary, Princeton, and tho German Theological School of Newark, Bloomfield (buth Presbyterian); Drew Tbeological Seminary, Madison (Methodist Episcopal); the Theological Seminary of the Reformed Church, New Brunswick; and in the Theological Seminary of the Immaculate Cooception, South Orange (Roman Catholic). All give at least 3-years' courses of study, Princeton and Drew addiug post-graduate studies.
For statistics of these departments reporting in 1881–85, see Table XI of the Appendix, and for a summary of them, the roport of the Commissioner, preceding.
EDUCATION OF THE DEAF.
The New Jersey School for Deaf-Vules, Trenton, a State institution founded in 1883, in 1884–85, hau 117 pupils, 51 of whom were girls. The common-school branchey arc taught, together with the industries of shoemaking and carpentering for boys,
sewing for girls. Articulation is tanght in separate classes, 2 of the teachers using this method exclusively. The State appropriated $280 per pupil for the yoar. The institution owns 9 acres of land, valued, with buildings, etc., at $100,000.
REFORMATORY AND INDUSTRIAL TRAINING. The New Jersey State Reform School, Jamesburg, receives boys between the ages of 8 and 16 years. The number of ditterent boys registered during the year was 4:26; 150 were released, indautured, or otherwise disposed of; absent on trial, and escaped, 7; remaining at the close of the school year, 269. The boys are divided into families, the State seeking to give the reforming in duence of home, rather than tho punishment of a work-house, and the plan has produced excellent results. Instruction is given in the elementary branches of learning, as well as in fario and shop work, the latter including shoemaking, tailoring, carpentry, blacksmiibing, painting, and masonry
The State Industrial School for Girls, Trepton, receives girls between the ages of 7 and 16 years, and in 18-4-85 reported 31 inmates being trained to lead lives of usefulness. The girls are divided into classes, so that all in turu are taught regularly how to wash, iron, and perform all household duties, and in the sowing-room thoy are taught to make and repair their own garients neails:
Newark City Home, Verona, which gives educational, industrial, and reformatory training to the wayward youth of the city, sonds no report for 1884-85.
NEW JERSEY STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION. This association beld its twenty-seventh anonal meeting at Newark, December 29 30, 1884, State Superintendent Ellis P. Apgar presiding. Superintendent G. H. Barton, of Jersey City, had prepared an iuteresting paper ou the "Practical teaching of by. giene in the publio schools,” but, being too ill to attend, the document was read by Mr. Patton. "The paper advocated this teaching as a means of showing the children that punishment is sure to follow any dereliction of the laws governing bealth. In the discussiou wbiob followerl, Mr. C. J. Jacobus, unperintendent elect of New Bruns. wick, said that the schools and scholars were the best means of doing the hygienio work, as they would difuse it in homes and places where it would uot otherwise be known. W. M. Griffin, of Newark, in a paper on the “ Avenuen of the mind," said, “Reason refuses to be cranimed, but the dullest reasoning faculties io stupid pupils can be made to understand by gentleness and persoverance." The evening was occupied by Rev. W. E. Crowe in an address on "The teacher and his work.' The exercises of the second day were opened by Principal Jobo Enright, of Freehold, on “Methods of teaching spelling"; he said, "Words innst be learned according to their phrases and seutences, and the spelling-book must go"; an idea which Professor Wat. son pronounced "absurd," saying that there was but one way to gain a thorough knowledge of spelling-classification and systematic study. Superintendeut c. E. Meleney, of Paterson, read an interestiug paper on elementary instruction, followed by Prof. J. W. Lycett, of Hoboken, on. "Ludustrial education"; the latter anserted that industrial education is destined ultimately to gain great prominence in the nation. At the afternoon session Prof. John Greene, of Pedalie Institute, Hightstown, in a paper on " How to extend the moral infinence of the school," said that this influence ought to be a power; that tbere is no limit to the development of this power; and that there is no place in which to exorcise moral influence more potent than the public schools. The music committee submitted a resolutiou recommending the use of the “ Tovic sol. fa system”in ibe public schools of the State, which was unanimously adopted. On motion of Superintendent Meleney, a committee was chosen to ask of the legislature permission and appropriations to organizo infant classes, to collect all possible infor. mation on the subject of such classes, and to report at the next meeting.
CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICER.
[Sixth term, March, 1882, to March, 1885. Succeeded by Edwin 0. Chapman. ]