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tor, 2 full courses of lectures, 3 full years of stody, 1 course of dissection, and the passiug of a tinal examination in all brauches taught in the schoude Matriculatois for 1884–86, 44; graduales, 21.
EDUCATION OF DRAV MUTES AND TUB BLIND, New Hampshire continnes to provide for the instruction of its deaf-mntes in the Clarku luotitution, Northampton, Mass., wbicb reported 2 pupils from New Harupshire, and in tbe American Asylum for the Instruction of the Deaf aud Dumb, Hartford, Coon., wbicb bad 17 from the same Stato during 1884-'85.
Provision also is made for the instruction of the blind in the Perkins Institution, Bostou, Muss.
BEFORMATORY AND INDUSTRIAL TRAINING. The State Industrial School, Manchester, gives moral, educational, and industrial training to youthful offenders. The institution in 1894-'85 reported 146 inmates. Of these, 19 were discbarged at the expiration of term-12 on probation, 6 bouorably, and 1 seut to alternate sentence, leaving at the close of the year 108. Of the wbole dumber, oply 67 were Americans, more than half being of foreigu parentago ; 61 were commiited during minority, and the remainder for different lengibe of time. Notwithstanding the receipts from some of the industries being smaller than usual, the year is said to have been one of great prosperity.
EDUCATIONAL BENEFACTIONS. For a new chapel for St. Paul's School, Concord, $70,000 were rained in 1884–85 for buildiug, and an endowment fuod of $30,000 was more than balf raised.
The Chavdler Scientific Scbool of Dartmoutb College was made resid nary legatee in the will of the widow of the late Prof. John 8. Woodman, says the Congregationalist, and will probably receive some $20,000.
NEW HAMPSHIRE STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION. The thirty-first app al session of the State Teachers' Association was held in Concord October 24 and 25, 1884, E. J. Goodwin, of Nashua, in the chair. The session was opened by a paper from Mr. Craig, op "The Wade system for country sobvols,". wbicb provides for a grading of pupils according to advancement, an examination of thom yearly in a prescribed course, and a granting of diplonias at the conclusion of the course, the works for eacb term being carefully laid out, and followed by examiDations. The advantages are that the school work is done thorougbly, and all the papila graduate on the same general plan. Better teaching is required by Ibis plan, as few of the country schools have systems that call for uniform requirements. So far as tried it has proved a great benefit, leading pupils to desire to complete the course and graduate, increasing the interest of parents and children, unifying the work done, and thus elevating the obaracter of the couotry schools. C. C. Rounds, principal of the State normal school, testified to the value of the system, as be bad seon its workings in Maine, and thougbt it could be adopted in all the country sobnolo in the State.
Then followed a lectnso on the "Elements of minaralogy," by Mr. William F. Young, of Nasboa; after which came a paper on “Training for teachers," by Miss lola Rounds, of Plymoutb; this was followed by an address on “ The comparative value of experience and professional training," by J. G. Edgerly, superintendent of Fitchburg (Mass.) schools, said to have been able and practical, and to bavo given rise to con. siderable discussion.
"Self-culture for teachers" was the topic of a carefnlly written paper read by Miss Frances A. Matbes, of the Portsmouth bigb school, in which was presented the importance to the teacher of personal pbysinal culture, good air, abundant exercise, refreshing sleep, and proper diet; also that the most refining sources of mental culture should be eagerly improved, that books should be wisely chosen, that desultory reading should be avoidea, and that the refining influence of art sbould be sought id pictures of excellence, in careful reading of good newspapers, in attendance op teachers' weetings and on good general society, as well as in travel and study of now places and scenes, all these being aids to self-culture. The tones of the voice, too, sbould be carefully coltivated, as their influence in the school-room can hardly be over-esti. mated. A brief discussion followed, warmly approving the suggestions of the paper.
The following subjects were tbon considernd The place of Grook is a liberal edacation," by Prof. J. H. Dwighing of Dertinonth; " Moral dinciplina in the rabook room," by Miss L. J. Forest; “Examinations,” by Mr. J. H. Stetson, enperintendent Burk, E. R. Goodwin, and others; “A substitute for Latin in high schools,” by C. C. Boynton and otberg.
After a choice of officers for 1885, the association adjonmned. The session was largely attended, and the papers and discussions were regarded as of great interest and value, showing a noble professional spirit among the educators of the State.
CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICER. Hon. JAMES W. PATTERSON, State superintendent of public instruction, Concord.
(Second torm, Juno 21, 1882, to JUDO 23, 1884 ; third torm, Jaro 24, 1884, to Juno 23, 1886.).
(From report of Hon. Edwin 0. Chapman, State superintendent of public instruction, for 1884–85; the figuros therein given for 1883–84 being used in preference to those previously sent, as being presumably more nearly correct.)
STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM.
GENERAL CONDITION. The new State superintendent says that while the year 1884–85 has not been remarkable for any great improvement, a steady progress has been made, which is oncouraging. He also states that there has been yearly improvement in the efficiency of the schools since the enactment of 1867, wbich formed the basis of the present law, and for which the State is indebted to the sagacity and zoal of his predecessor, Pa
Ellis A. Apgar, superintendent from 1866 to 1885. For the corrent year the statistics show, as may be seen, an increase for the year of 10,256 in scbool youth, of 5,525 in enrolled pupils, and, what is more important, of over 9,000 in average daily attendance. There were 27 new school buildings erected during the year, and 6,939 alditional sittings provided to meet the increase of school attendance; wbile 129 wore teachers were enıployed, there having been 19 less men and 148 more women, as compared with 1883–84. The statistics also show the almost total disappearance of districts with short school terms (of 6 months and less), the 2011 ber baving been reduced to 3, wbile those with terms of "9 months or more" increased to 1,293, a gain of 7 during the year. While the pay of teachers was bat slightly improved, the expenditure for public schools was $29,709 more, and the valuation of school property $182,119 more, than in the previous gear. The number reported io no school was 93,683, or about 25 per cent. of the whole. These figures, however, says the superintendent, form no basis apon which to calculate the amount of illiteracy in the State, since they include a large number of youth who have finished their education, as well as children over 5, but still considered too young to attend school. He considers that as much as 18 out of the 25 per cent. not attending school are thno accounted for; and, counting those mentally or physically unfitted and others who are instructed at home, a very sinall margin is left upon which to base any apprehension of illiteracy.
The State superintendent, in his report, divides the public schools into 5 grades, in order more clearly to present their condition: (1) as to the extent to whicb blackboards are ased; (2) as to the degree of oxcellence in recitations; (3) as to the degree of order maintained; (4) as to cleanliness in the school-room; (5) as to the general cbaracter of the school. Op all these points a slight improvement is reported. In 182 districts text-books were furnished to the pupils. Libraries were established in 747 schools. In school accommodations there is still some deficiency. Of tho 1,586 school buildings, 103 are classed as “poor," and 62 as "very poor." An overcrowding of school-rooms is reported, chiefly in the primary departments, where there should be the least. In some of the cities, and in a large number of districts in which schools are angraded, the superintendent says, so many papils are crowded into a single room, in cbargo of a single teacher, that no good work is possible. The pomber of such rooms, however, is decreasing, only 73 being reported the present year, against 105 in 1883–84. A favorable point in the school work of this State is the great degree of permanence secured to teachers in their positions. The injury resulting from a freqnent change of teachers was long ago recognized here, and New Jersey was one of the first of the Eastern States to drop the old system of a winter and summer term, with a different teacher for each. Contracts with teachers are generally made for the entire school year, and renewed for the next if the parties can agree. As a result, nearly 3 per cont. of the teachers have been in their scbools more than 20 years, nearly 7 per cent. more than 15 years, 16 per cent. more than 10, and over one-third have served more than 5 years.
ADMINISTRATION. The general supervision of tho pablic school system is committed to a State board of education, which appoints triennially a Stato su periutendeut of public instruction and a superintendent of pablic schools for each county, the latter subject to the approval of the board of freeholders in the county. The interests of school districts are managed by 3 trustees, elected by the people for 3 years, witb apnaal change of 1. The district trustees of each township constitnte a township board of trustees, and meet the county superintendent semi-annually for consultation. All persons. without regard to sex, who are residents of the district, are eligiblo to the office of district trustee, if over 21 years of age and able to read and write. Each district board elects one of its number as a clerk to record its proceedings, and take an annual census of school children. Provision is also made for State and county, and in some cases, for city boards of examiners, for the examination of teachers. The county and city superintendents together constitute the Stato association of school superiviend. ents, which meets annually, as the State board of education directs. Graded, as well as district, schools are provided for, also iudustrial schools, a normal school, and teachers' institutes.
Teachers may suspend pupils from school for cause, but may not administer corporal punishment. No sectarian school may receive any part of the public school funds. Since 1883, no boy under 12 nor girl under 14 years of age, may be employed in any factory, mine, or workshop; and no child between the ages of 12 and 15 may be so employed, unless such child shall have attended some public or private, day or eveuing school, for at least 12 consecutivo weeks, or 2 terms of 6 weeks each, within the year preceding such omployment. Nor may a child under 14 years of age be employed in any manufacturing establishment longer than an average of 10 hours a day.
SCHOOL FINANCES. The pnblic schools are made free to all resident children 5-18 years of age, by the proceeds of a State school fund, by a State taz oqual to $4 for euch child of school
age, and, when necessary, by additional amounts raised throngh township, city, and district taxation, and a poll tax not to exceed $1. Each district is eutitled to at least $200 of the school fund, and districts with 45 or more children get not less than $:350, to be apportioned by connty snperintendents. To secnro this aid districts must provide suitable school buildings, and must have maintained a public school for at least 9 months during the preceding year.
NEW LEGISLATION. An Act of Marcb 20, 1884, provides that where local anthorities to assess and levy taxes for school purposes, &c., either do not exist, or fail to do their duty as to such assessment or levy, tbe governor is to cause potice thereof to be given to the inayor or other proper local authority; and if in 10 days the default of action is not reinedied, he was appoint and commission 3 freeholders in the derelict city, town, or municipality, to be “commissioners of taxation,” to assess and levy the taxes, not to exceed 11 per cent. of the assessed value of the property thus subjected to taxation. Having made the levy, they are to apportion the proceeds, less their own appointed compensation, for the support of the scbools, repair of school-houses, and other indi. cated parposes, in the cities or other municipalities affected.
Another Act, of April 1, 1884, authorizes any city in the State to establish a free public library within its corporate limits, on receiving the assent of the majority of the qualified voters in the city, at an election fixed by law for the election of munici. pal otticers, and after at least 10 days preceding public notice of the voto to be taken on this question.
A compulsory school law of 1885 requires all persons having charge of children 7 to 12 years of age to send such to a public day school at least 20 weeks each year, unless excused by the school board of their district for proven cause. It forbids also the employment of children ander 15 years of age by any person, company, or corporation, unless such children have attended some school for at least 12 consecntive weeks, for 5 days or evenings a week. Children temporarily discbarged from employment for the purpose of attending school are to have an opportunity for schooling, unless good reason to the contrary is shown. SCHOOL SYSTEMS OF CITIES WITH 7,500 OR MORE INHABITANTS.
ADMINISTRATION. The school interests of each city or town are under the control of school boards, boards of education, or boards of school trustees, elected by the people. A city superintendent is usually the executivo oficer, and such persons as the board may appoint constitute a city board of examiners.
Population, Children of
Enrollment Averago Nombor of Expendi. cen81l8 of school
in public daily at.
ADDITIONAL PARTICULARS. Bayonne, in addition to the above statistics, reports 1,721 sittings for pupils in public schools, an increase of 157 during the year; public school property valued at $124,721 ; public schools taught for 10 months; 725 pupils attending private schools, and 620 no school.
Bridgeton, with about the same school population and enrollment, the latter about 64 per cent. of its school youth, reports 42 per cent. of these in average daily attendance, the percentage of attendance to enrollment being about 65. There was a full supply