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structors in music, had 40 pupils in it in 1884-'85; Methodist Episcopal College 3 instructors in a 6-grade course, including harmony, solo, chorus, organ, piano, and violin, which seenis to be especially thorough.

EDUCATION OF THE DEAT AND DUMB. The Nebraska State Institute for the Deaf and Dumb, Omaha, offers free educational and industrial training to all deaf-mute persons in the State who are of sound mind and between the ages of 7 and 25 years; and persons either older or younger may be admitted, at the discretion of the proper authorities. Common school studies are pursued as well as the trades heretofore reported, such as carpentry and printing for the boys, and sewing, fancy work, and general housework for the girls. The methods employed are the aural and the oral; the former has been carefully tested, with the happiest results, and it has been demonstrated that through its use the dormant senso of bearing can be aroused, cultivated, and utilized in the education of the partially deaf.

EDUCATION OF THE BLIND. The Nebraska State Institute for the Blind, Nebraska City, has its literary department thoroughly graded in primary, intermediate, and bigher studies, each grade occupying 3 years. Music, both vocal and instrumental, is taught in the various departments, with a view, in part, to develop teachers in this brancb among the students, while industrial training enables graduates from the institution to become self-supporting. Sewing by band and machine, knitting, crochetting, and bead-work are the main occupations of the girls, and broom-making and chair-caning those of the boys. This department pays its own expenses from the sale of manufactured articles.

REFORMATORY TRAINING. The State Reform School, Kearney, opened for pupils in 1880, receives juvenile offenders onder 16 years of age, and aims to reform those committed to its charge, by means of instruction, labor, and thorough discipline, accompanied by rewards or punishments, as may be deserved. The cominon school branches, including music, are taught, as well as the industries of baking, tailoring, shoemaking, and fa ming. The State makes an annual appropriation of $42,000 for all purposes, and in 1884–85 the total earnings of the inmates, including the proceeds of the sale of farm products, was $3,000. The number of boys in the institution for the year was 77, of girls 17, all under 6 teachers and other officers.

EDUCATIONAL CONVENTION.

NEBRASKA STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION. This association held its annual convention at Lincoln, March 31-April 2, 1885. A full account is not given, only gleanings thereof. Mr. Wilson, of Lincoln, said that the percentage of college-bred men had rapidly increased in the last 50 years, and that there bad never been a greater demand than at present for etficient workers in every business of life. The question now is not “What do you know?” but “What can you do?” Professor Randall, of Fairfield, said: “ To make a good citizen a child is not to be educated as a bread-winner merely, but in the science of government. Above all, he should be taught that the voluntary submission of a subject to the authority of the government is the keystone of the arch of a full, pure, systematic citizenship." Superintendent Sabin, of Clinton, said there were three questions propounded to the American people: “(1) Can the nation allow, with safety, a people to obtain firm lodgment in its western territory who have no regard for law i (2) Can the pation, because it was able to strike the fetters from 4,000,000 slaves and afterward make them citizens, allow with safety the same people, with their descendants, to dwell in the borders of the valley of the shadow of death, too weak and ignorant to ohiain their rights by force, and yet too restless and aspiring to bear a long infliction of their wrongs? (3) Can a nation renowned for the freedom of its institutions, becanse it is not willing to abridge in the least the personal liberty of its citizens, allow with safety the saloon to overshadow the school, the gambling hell and the low resort to compete with the church, while iguorance, pauperism, and crime recruit and re-enforco their ranks from the helpless children of the State The teacher's life is narrow only to a narrow man. The duty of the hour is to establish national schools in all parts of the Territories which are subject to Mormon rule.” Miss Tibbitts, of Lincoln, said that the pupil should be taught to observe passing events; to bear and understand, and to speak the language correctly. Professor Clarenden, of Fremont, said: “ Educational etiort suffers from the exactions and inflictions of per cents. Can we measure by arithmetic the moral questions of the houri The examination is made the grand arbiter of the pupil's school career. Upon it depends his advancement or his disgrace. Among the educative processes of the schools, the recitation stands chief."- Mr. Valentine, of Nebraska City, said: “There are three parties concerned in education, the child, his parents, and the teacher. You can teach a child carpentry, but you cannot expect him to earn a living at the trade, unless he is made to work at it. He must learn the dignity of labor by actual experience and encouragement.” Miss Austin, of Wisner, addressed the convention on

Civil service reform"; Colonel Parker delivered his lecture on “Learning to do by doing"; and Mrs. Parker gave a talk on " Elocation.” Papers were read on “Laws of nature naturally taught,” and “The proper pronunciation of Latin." Kindergarten work from St. Clair Hall was on exhibition during the convention and was the wonder and surprise of the teachers, of whom many visited the school. This is 'the only kindergarten school in the State. A committee was appointed to report at the next meeting concerning the best metbods of study and investigation of the effects of alcohol upon the human system. The convention then adjourned.

CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICER.
Hon. W. W. W. JONES, State superintendent of publio instruction, Lincoln.

[Third torm, January, 1885, to January, 1887.)

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(From report of Hon. Charles S. Young, Stato superintendent of public instruction, for the biennial school term ending August 31, 1884.)

STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM.

GENERAL CONDITION.
The retards from the counties for 1884–85 have been so meager and incomplete that
Superintendent Young is unable to furnish any fair statement of the general educa-
tional condition, or to give the figures for that year. He therefore prefers that the
Office present anew the statistics given in the Report of the Commissioner for 1883–81.

ADMINISTRATION.
The general supervision of public school interests is in the hands of a State super-
intendent of public instruction, chosen by the people for 4 years, and a State board of
education, consisting of the governor, the surveyor general, and the State superin-
tendent, the last-named officer being secretary of the board. County school affairs
are administered by county superintendents, elected biennially by the people. Dis-
trict schools are supervised by boards of trustees elected by the people, and consist-
ing of 3 or 5 members according to population.

Kindergarten, primary, grammar, and bigb school departments must be established in connection with the public school system, provided the funds be sufficient for all; if pot, preference is given to the lower grades, with the exception of the kindergarten, wbicb may not take precedence of any other department. "Public schools are free to all youth 6 to 18 years of age, and those 8 to 14 years of age aro required to be sent to school at least 16 weeks each year, unless excused by the school officers. To entitle a district to a share in the public funds, a school must be taught therein for at least 3 months each year, but provision is made for terms of 6 months. No denominational or sectarian influences are allowed in any public school. Teachers must report to the county superintendents, they to the State superintendent annually, and he to the governor biennially.

FINANCES. Public schools are sustained from the interest on a State school fund, which is apportioned to each county according to the number of youth 6 to 18 therein ; a State school tax of half a mill

on the dollar of taxablo property; and a county tax of from 15 to 50 cents on the $100. When these funds are not sufficient to keep schools open at least 6 months of the year, trustees must levy a district tax sufficient to make up the deficiency. The schools may be taught for a longer term by additional taxes, if the voters of the district so decide, or by rate bills levied by the trustees on persons sending children to school. State and county school funds are apportioned by county superintendents to the several districts, 40 per cent. of them in proportion to the number of teachers employed, one teacher being assigned for each 100 children or fraction thereof; the remaining funds, according to the number of youth 6 to 18 years of age.

CITY SCHOOL SYSTEMS.

.

ADMINISTRATION. Each village, town, or incorporated city constitutes but one school district, the schools therein being onder the control of a board of trustees elected by the people, numbering from 3 to 5 members, according to the population.

SCHOOLS OF VIRGINIA CITY. Virginia City, with a population of 10,917 in 1880, reported, in 1884–85, school youth (6 to 18 years of age), 1,808; enrolled in public schools, 1,408; average daily attendance, 868. These numbers indicato a decrease in the past 2 years of 40 in school youth, of 379 in enrollment, and of 186 in attendance, the number of teachers being reduced from 25 to 20. The schools were classed as primary, grammar, and high schools, and the length of term increased from 200 to 294 days. The decrease in attendance upon the public schools is possibly due to the fact that the attendance upon private schools increased from 156 to 1,550. The estimated value of school property in the city was $20,500. PREPARATION AND QUALIFICATIONS OF TEACHERS.

GENERAL STATE REQUIREMENTS. The county superintendent and 2 persons appointed by him constitute a board of examination, of which he is chairman. Said board grants certificates of the first and second grades to persons who pass a satisfactory examination in the branches of study pursued in each specified grade. Certificates of the first grade, for teaching unclassified, grammar, and high schools, are good for 3 years; of the second grade, for teaching primary schools, 2 years. The State board of education grants State certificates, and any certificate may be renewed upon evidence of successful teaching, without re-examination.

STATE NORMAL TRAINING. The only provision made by the State for the training of its teachers appears to be in its State and county institutes. The State superintendent, with the consent of the State board of education, may convene a State teachers' institute annually, continuing not less than 5 days, por more than 10, and may engage auch teachers and lecturers as he deems advisable. The expenses incurred, to be paid out of the general fuud, must not exceed $100 annually. Counry superintendents may hold one teachers institute or more annually, if authorized by the county board of commissioners, the expenses of such institutes not to exceed $100 in any year. The State superiotendent says, however, that no county institute was held in the State in 1884. The eastern and western divisions of the State Teachers’ Institute met at Elko and Gold Hill, respectively, in December, 1884. A full account of their proceedings is given further on, under the head of "Educational conventions."

SECONDARY INSTRUCTION.

PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS. High sohools may enter into the publio school system whenever the funds are suficient to sustain them, and competent and legally qualified teachers must be employed. One such school is reported in Virginia City, statistics not given, . The whole noinber in the State in 1884 was 5.

SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION.

STATE UNIVERSITY. The State University of Nevada, by Act of legislatore, was removed froin Elko to Reno in the summer of 1885, and gave promise of much improvement. For the erection of the new building at Reno, the Act appropriated $10,000, to be added to the amount given by Washo County.

Two years are given to preparatory studies, followed by a university course of one year, including military tactics. For admission, candidates must be at least 15 years of age, and pass a satisfactory examination in the branches of a common English education,

INSTITUTION FOR THE HIGHER INSTRUCTION OF YOUNG WOMEN. Bishop Whitaker & School for Girls (Protestant Episcopal), Reno, presents a course of superior instruction, covering 4 years of 40 weeks each." In addition to the higher English branches, French, German, instrumental and vocal music, drawing, and painting are taught. There were 90 students during the year, of whom 30 were in the preparatory department and 50 in the collegiate, 10 being special students. SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTION.

SCIENTIFIC. The State University provides a limited amount of scientific instruction, including mineralogy, metallurgy, and assaying.

PROFESSIONAL No institutions for instruction in THEOLOGY, LAW, or MEDICINE, are reported from this State,

SPECIAL INSTRUCTION.

EDUCATION OF THE DEAF AND THE BLIND. Provision is made by the State for the instruction of its deaf and blind youth at the institution in Berkeley, Cal. Three Nevada pupils were taught here during the year, for whose instruction and transportation the State appropriated $2,500. Of this amount, $1,367 remained unexpended at the end of the year. The common school branches are taught, also carpentry, type-setting, and blacksmithing for the boys, and sewing, knitting, cooking, and general housework for the girls.

EDUCATIONAL CONVENTIONS. The eastern division of the Nevada State Teachers' Institute held its fifth annual session December 26–27, 1834, at Elko, Hon. C. $. Young, superintendent of public instruction, in the chair.. Among the subjects brought before the convention and discussed were, “Methods in history," "The practical teacher," "Reading and spelling,”, “ Our public schools,” “School supervision,", "Elocution,” “Arithmetic, "A popular cry, English grammar,", "Ungraded schools," and "Horace Manu." It was resolved that the legislature be petitioned to provide means whereby every school district in the State may have at least six months of school in each year; to make provision for State certificates and life diplomas in the State ; to employ both State and county supervision; and to pay more liberal salaries to county superintendents, to enlarge their powers and duties, and to allow them traveling expenses. The western division of the institute held its fifth annual meeting December 29-31, 1884, at Gold Hill, Superintendent Young presiding. Some of the subjects discussed at the eastern division were brought out; others were “Music in the public schools," “The uses of history as a study, and the best methods of teaching the same," "Nevada's school system,” “Fourth primary work," "Our country schools," " English grammar and language lessons,” «Grammar and composition," “ Henry W. Long1ollow," "The use and abuse of text books,".." Criticism on popular methods of primary instruction," "Novada's school laws," and "Arnold of Rugby." There were over 80 teachers in attendance and a large number of other persons. Letters were read from prominent educators, one from Senator J. P. Jones, expressing deep interest in the progress of education in Nevada. Resolutions were adopted similar to those of the eastern division, also one to urge upon the legislature the necessity for the establishment of a normal school in the Stato; and as the amount appropriated for defraying the expenses of teachers' institutes (8100) was entirely inadequate, it was resolved to petition the legislature to increase the amount to at least $300 per annum.

CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICER. Hon. CHARLES S. YOUNG, State superintendent of public instruction, Carson City.

[Elected in November, 1882: term, January, 1883, to January, 1887.)

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