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(3.)* SURNAME. n.S: (furnom, Fr.11: The name Caleb io denominated the son of Jephunneh, and
of the family; the name which one has Joshua the fun of Nun. But it is evident that over and above the Christian name.- Many which these were not used as surnames. Even so late as were mere English joined with the Irish against our Saviour's time the Jews bad no regular fa. the king, taking on then Irish habits and customs, mily furnames. Some had nicknames, or personal of which fort be most of the surnames that end in epithets from accidental or characteristical cir. cs, as Hernan, Shinan, and Mungan. Spenser.- cumstances, as Simon Peter, Judas Lebbeus, JoHe, made heir not only of his brother's king. Jeph Barsabas Juftus, Judas Iscariot, &c. But dom, but of bis virtues and haughty thoughts, none of these were hereditary, as all surnames and of the surname also of Barbaroffa, began to properly are. Iscariot is thought by fome com. aspire to the empire. Knolles.-The epithets of mentators to have been a name taken by Judas great men, monsieur Boileau is of opinion, were from his landed property. We admit that in all in the nature of surnames. Pope. 2. An appella. nations, while men had but one name, it was usual tion added to the original name.
to distinguish them, by mentioning the name of Witness may
their fathers. That the ancient Greeks, as well as My furname Coriolanus : the painful service, the Jews did so is evident from the very first line of The extreme dangers, and the drops of blood the Iliad : Agimanos IInAnados, “ Achilles tbe son of Shed for my thankless country, are required
Peleus." This perhaps gave rise to surnames, But with that surname.
Shak. which at laft became common among most na(2.) SURNAME is that which is added to the pro- tions. The old Normans used Fitz, which fignifies per bame for diftinguishing persons and families. fon; as Fitzherbert, Fitzsimmons, the son of Her. It was originally distinguished from sirname, bert, the fon of Simon. The Irish used 0, or which denotes the name of the fire or progenitor; Oy, for grandson, which is till used in many parts thus Macdonald and Robertson, are firnames ex
of Scotland; the compiler's maternal great.grand. prelling the fon of Donald, the son of Robert. The mother boasted that the had 100 oyes : O Neal, word surname, again from fur, Fr. above or upon, O'Donnel, &c. therefore signify the grandson of and nom, name, fignified some name fuperadded Neal and of Donald. The Scottish Highlanders to the proper name to distinguish the individual, employed Mac; as Macdonald, the son of Donald. as Artaxerxes Longimanus, Harold Harefoot, The Saxons added the word son to the end of the Malcolm Cunmore. From this it is evident, that father's name, as Williamson. The Romans geevery firname was a furname, but every surname nerally bad three names, often four or five. The was not a firname. In modern times they are first called prænomen answered to our Christian nearly contounded; and as there is now 'little name, and was intended to distinguish the indivi. pecafion to preserve the distinction, Dr Johnson duals of the family; the ad called nomen correhas reje&ted the word frname altogether ; where- fponded to the word clan in Scotland, and was in te certainly did wrong, for he has retained words given to all those who were sprung from the fame much more obsolete. See Name. Surnames have stock; the 3d called cognomen exprefled the parbeen introduced among most nations, but among ticular branch of the tribe or clan from which an meny not at a very early period. They seem to individual was sprung. Thus Publius Cornelius Lave been formed at first by adding the name of the Scipio : Publius corresponded to our names John, fatter to that of the son. Among the Hebrews, Robert; and William : Cornelius was the name of VOL. XXII. Part 1