Spheres Of Justice: A Defense Of Pluralism And Equality
Basic Books, 2008年8月5日 - 364页
The distinguished political philosopher and author of the widely acclaimed Just and Unjust Wars analyzes how society distributes not just wealth and power but other social “goods” like honor, education, work, free time—even love.
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LibraryThing Review用户评价 - DromJohn - LibraryThing
Real world philosophy rather than the ivory tower justice of Rawls, Walzer separates the world into spheres where justice is distributed differently in each sphere, with many real world examples ... 阅读完整评价
The Israeli Kibbutz
The San Francisco Scavengers
Two Forms of Rest
A Short History of Vacations
The Idea of the Sabbath
White Australia and the Claim of Necessity
Alienage and Naturalization
The Athenian Metics
Membership and Justice
Security and Welfare
Athens in the Fifth and Fourth Centuries
A Medieval Jewish Community
The Extent of Provision
An American Welfare State
The Case of Medical Care
A Note on Charity and Dependency
The Examples of Blood and Money
Money and Commodities
What Money Cant Buy
What Money Can Buy
The Worlds Biggest Department Store
Washing Machines Television Sets Shoes and Automobiles
The Determination of Wages
Gifts and Inheritance
The Gift in the Napoleonic Code
The Chinese Examination System
The Meaning of Qualification
Whats Wrong with Nepotism?
The Reservation of Office
The Case of American Blacks
Professionalism and the Insolence of Office
The Containment of Office
The World of the Petty Bourgeoisie
The Aztec House of the Young Men
Autonomy and Equality
The Japanese Example
George Orwells Schooldays
Association and Segregation
Private Schools and Educational Vouchers
Integration and School Busing
Kinship and Love
Family and Economy
The Civic Ball
The Idea of the Date
The Woman Question
The Wall between Church and State
The Puritan Commonwealth
Public Honor and Individual Desert
The Nobel Prize in Literature
Roman and Other Triumphs
Ostracism in Athens
SelfEsteem and SelfRespect
Blocked Uses of Power
The Ship of State
The Case of Pullman Illinois
The Athenian Lottery
Parties and Primaries
Tyrannies and Just Societies
Justice in the Twentieth Century
Equality and Social Change
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argued argument Aristotle Athenian boundaries candidates chap choice citizens citizenship claim communal provision complex equality conscript crucial culture decision democracy democratic depend deserve distributive justice distributive spheres dominant economic egalitarian example exchange factory G. D. H. Cole Hence human Ibid important individuals John Rawls Karl Marx kibbutz kind kinship labor least limits live Marx membership ment meritocracy metics monopoly moral office holders parents particular perhaps person philosophical political community political power possible principle Pullman punishment qualified R. H. Tawney radically reasons recognition regard religious require Robert Nozick rule schools self-respect sense shared simple equality simply social contract social meanings society sort sphere of money Stakhanovite suggests teachers Theory of Justice things Thomas Hobbes tion trans tyranny understanding wealth women workers York
第95页 - Thus much of this will make black, white ; foul, fair ; Wrong, right; base, noble; old, young; coward, valiant. Ha, you gods! why this ? what this, you gods? why, this Will lug your priests and servants from your sides ; Pluck stout men's pillows from below their heads...
第50页 - January 1951 and owing to well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear or for reasons other than personal convenience, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country...
第95页 - Thus much of this will make black white, foul fair, Wrong right, base noble, old young, coward valiant. Ha ! you gods, why this? What this, you gods? Why this, Will lug your priests and servants from your sides, Pluck stout men's pillows from below their heads : This yellow slave Will knit and break religions; bless the accurs'd; Make the hoar leprosy ador'd ; place thieves, And give them title, knee, and approbation, With senators on the bench...
第131页 - Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are both: (a) to the greatest benefit of the least advantaged, consistent with the just savings principle, and (b) attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity.
第195页 - If all the year were playing holidays, To sport would be as tedious as to work; But when they seldom come, they wish'd for come, And nothing pleaseth but rare accidents.
第96页 - Will knit and break religions; bless the accurs'd ; Make the hoar leprosy ador'd ; place thieves, And give them title, knee, and approbation, With senators on the bench: this is it, That makes the wappen'd widow wed again ; She, whom the spital-house, and ulcerous sores Would cast the gorge at, this embalms and spices To the April day again.
第31页 - The primary good that we distribute to one another is membership in some human community.
第126页 - Munificent bequests and donations for public purposes, whether charitable or educational, form a striking feature in the modern history of the United States, and especially of New England. Not only is it common for rich capitalists to leave by will a portion of their fortune towards the endowment of national institutions, but individuals during their lifetime make magnificent grants of money for the same objects.
第19页 - In formal terms, complex equality means that no citizen's standing in one sphere or with regard to one social good can be undercut by his standing in some other sphere, with regard to some other good. Thus, citizen X may be chosen over citizen Y for political office, and then the two of them will be unequal in the sphere of politics. But they will not be unequal generally so long as X's office gives him no advantages over Y in any other sphere — superior medical care, access to better schools for...
第175页 - For every man to see to it that he really do something, for every woman too...