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which seemed now awfully near, confounding me with On returning to consciousness, I found myself lying in his terrors, was before and behind and around me. I bed in a narrow crib, in the cabin of a large vessel whose looked every way, but there was no opening, not a crevice pitching and heaving motions spoke in unmistakeable lansave where the dark flood' came tumbling down in one guage that I was at sea! I need not trouble you with unbroken and impenetrable mass. The cold perspiration particulars; it is enough to say that, as the ship was being stood in large drops on my forehead-my body felt as if towed down the river, and in the act of taking on board thousands of snakes were crawling upon it, using their her last boat, I made my appearance on the surface, ribs as so many feet, and impressing their detested cold was picked up, and means were used to restore animation, track on my skin-my tongue clove dryly to the roof of which unfortunately succeeded. I say unfortunately, for my parched mouth, the shock had caused the saliva to I feel it would have been better that I had then died. cease to flow-my teeth chattered-and my whole frame The ship was bound for Australia, and as I had no alterwas agitated with a hundred various tortures. Oh, the native, I was obliged to go there also. I experienced no dark, the horrid thoughts, the dismal images, which that gratification during all the two years of my absence. The one burning and yet death-cold minute engendered! Years coasts and inland parts of Australia afforded scope enough of privations and of sufferings have not, and never can, for my propensity, but the heat was so suffocating that efface the impressions from my memory. Steep me in my health suffered considerably. I returned home-reLethe-do all and every thing which has ever yet been turned to my very few friends, as one from the grave, done to cause the past to be forgotten-yet still it will not more so as to time than as in appearance. I found cling to me like the green ivy to the withering tree, considerable difficulty in obtaining credence in regard to blasting and destroying, slowly and surely, the embraced my identity, so altered was I; indeed, unless for my estrunk, and gathering fresh vigour from its very decay. | traordinary and uncontrollable disposition, which adhered Many volumes would not contain the ideas which arose to me throughout, and which it was but too clear no man and passed with electric velocity through my mind
could simulate, I would not have been acknowledged. visions of the grave-of the meeting of long separated At length I got possession of my property, and shortly friends and kindred-of the judgment-of the bliss of afterwards came over here in search of health of mind heaven and of the frightful pains of hell. Suffice it to and body. Alas, for my prospects! I thought here to ! say, that they came and passed away ; new ideas arose, enjoy retirement and an absence of all excitement-pain and these again gave place to others, with a strange im are the hopes of man. Last night, after leaving you, I petuosity, until all at length seemed chaos and confusion.
took up a newspaper, and the first thing that caught my Still I have a fearfully distinct recollection of the locality.
eye was an intimation that the French government had There was the pillar I clung to-there the now almost sent out engineers of experience and talent to set about hidden brick arches—there the piles of loose bricks constructing a canal between the Gulf of Mexico and the tumbling down from the force of the current-while the Pacific Ocean. I cannot resist the temptation-I must go water itself was an object never to be forgotten; and there also. Many excavations must necessarily be made; 1, ever and anon, some floundering and bewildered fish many rivers must be dammed up; some lakes probably would leap madly from the element, in mortal agony at let out and drained; besides many other operations, all its unaccustomed position. The slimy eel in vain endea- calculated to afford me enjoyment-if enjoyment it may youred to insinuate its slippery folds into the crevices of be called. I shall see them all-I shall have a rare time the bricks; the current was too strong, and it too, like of it! The thought inspires some comfort in me for the all other living things except myself, who grasped like a moment. God grant it may continue ! The only gleam of giant to my pillar, was hurried wildly away in the mad real satisfaction I have felt for many years illuminates career of the flood. And now the waters were rising fast.my enfeebled frame as I write. The hitherto almost unI thought they must have more than reached the entrance, feit influence of hope at last takes possession in earnest for they seemed to swell and swell, like the dark and of my soul, and-glorious idea!-it is yet possible that I ominous thunder-cloud gathering strength for a discharge, may conclude my few remaining days in peace—that the at the same time that the current seemed rather if any- | dreadful struggle of my mind after unattainable and unthing diminished in force. At this moment an idea of known objects, may gradually expire as the partial gratiescape occurred to me, which had some appearance of fication is obtained at the Isthmus of Panama-and that success, strange though it may appear, and which I clung I may have the satisfaction of experiencing the feelings of to with every nerve alive and strurg to endeavour to put my fellow-men. Vain, I fear, is the hope. The past init in execution. It occurred to me that, from the vast trudes itself like an incubus during sleep : the wings of velocity and power of the current, the water would con- hope are only expanded for flicht and I to
| hope are only expanded for flight, and I fear she is too tinue to run on in the same direction for a short space of
young to soar. I go, however, to make the attempt; and time, after the Tunnel was full, rising higher in the shaft | if I succeed I shalt not fail in letting you know; if I am than the surface of the river, and then, when that force unsuccessful. my silence will be sufficient to tell you of had exhausted itself, return through the breach in the my fate. Farewell bed of the river to the Thames, until it regained its proper level, carrying me up along with it. The post to
ANECDOTES OF DOGS. which I was clinging was within three yards of the breach, and thus I could not have had a more favourable position. SOME months ago we directed the attention of our readers I climbed with dreadful energy to its very top-my head to Mr Jesse's Gleanings in Natural History,' and we have touched the arch-and instantly afterwards my whole again before us another delightful volume of the same in- ' body was immersed in water. I feared now that I could | teresting class. The author's tastes and pursuits are cernot refrain from breathing until the revulsion in the flood tainly to be envied. Apart from the war of politics and took place, but I held firmly on to the post, resolved not polemics, and the thousand distracting pursuits of active to lose my chance by any error if possible--I began to life, he follows his favourite studies of nature, animate and grow giddy and confused was it real? Yes! I had enough
inanimate, and gathers the materials of instruction and of sensation left to feel my legs turning towards the entertainment from those cool and shady places, those breach with the backward rush of the water-I had enough bright meads and blossomed hill-sides, where u of sensation left to perceive that now was the time to let the man of the world is never privileged to tread. For s go my hold of the pillar. I must then have done so, but week after laying down one of his volumes we are haunted! my consciousness was gone so soon as the idea was gene- with the music of running waters, and, like Falstaff, could rated. Still I heard the hissing, bubbling, gurgling, babble of green fields. The present volume carries the deafening sound of the water in my ears, and strango assurance of its own popularity on the title-page. Illas dreamlike visions of the past flitted about me like phantasmagoria. But they were of the past alone; the present By EDWARD JESSE, Esq. With illustrations. London: BeniI was insensible to, and the future was not yet come. lley. 1846.
ne foot of
trations of the habits, instincts, and capabilities of the "The extraordinary sense of a dog was shown in the follower animals are always interesting; but the dog is such lowing instance. A gentleman, residing near Pontipool, an especial favourite, and deservedly so, that everything had his horse brought to his house by a servant. While connected with his history has a charm peculiarly its own. the man went to the door, the horse ran away, and made Almost every one has his own stock of anecdotes and per- his escape to a neighbouring mountain. A dog belonging sonal experiences in reference to the sagacity and disin- to the house saw this, and of his own accord followed the terestedness of this friend of man,' and volumes have horse, got hold of the bridle, and brought him back to the already been written on the same fertile theme. But Mr | door.' Jesse brings so much earnestness and enthusiasm to bear If the animals had a humane society, the hero of the upon it, that, though occasionally inclined to doubt the following might have put in a fair claim for a medal:authenticity of some of his anecdotes, we cannot forbear • During a very severe frost and fall of snow in Scotland, making a few extracts, even at the risk of quoting what is the fowls did not make their appearance at the hour when already known.
they usually retired to roost, and no one knew what had Agreeably to authorised precedent, our author intro- become of them. The house-dog at last entered the kitchen, duces his subject by alluding to the controversy as to the having in his mouth a hen, apparently dead. Forcing his origin of the dog-whether, in fact, he is a dog, or a trans- way to the fire, the sagacious animal laid his charge down formed fox or wolf. This question, of course, he leaves just upon the warm hearth, and immediately set off. He soon where he found it, informing us somewhat magniloquently, came again with another, which he deposited in the same that the origin of our favourite companion “is lost in anti- place, and so continued till the whole of the poor birds quity. He rather inclines to assign an independent deri- were rescued. Wandering about the stack-yard, the fowls vation to the canine race; but those who favour the wolfish had become quite benumbed by the extreme cold, and had hypothesis may possibly find some confirmation of it in crowded together, when the dog, observing them, effected the following:
their deliverance; for they all revived by the warmth of • The wolf, perhaps, has some claim to be considered as the fire.' the parent animal, and that he is susceptible of as strong Not a few professing Christians might profitably imitate attachment as the dog, is proved by the following anecdote the church-going tendencies of our next specimen :related by Cuvier. He informs us, that a young wolf was 'It is a curious fact that dogs can count time. I had,
brought up as a dog, became familiar with every person when a boy, a favourite terrier, which always went with I whom he was in the habit of seeing, and, in particular, me to church. My mother, thinking that he attracted too 1 followed his master everywhere, evincing evident chagrin much of my attention, ordered the servant to fasten liim
at his absence, obeying his voice, and showing a degree of up every Sunday morning. He did so once or twice, but submission scarcely differing in any respect from that of never afterwards. Trim concealed himself every Sunday the domesticated dog. His master, being obliged to be ab- morning, and either met me as I entered the church, or I sent for a time, presented his pet to the Menagerie du Roi, found him under my seat in the pew.' where the animal, confined in a den, continued disconsolate, Dogs have often died of grief for the loss of their masters. and would scarcely eat his food. At length, however, his | The following exhibit the opposite phase of canine sentihealth returned, he became attached to his keepers, and ment: appeared to have forgotten all his former affection, when, Dogs have been known to die from excess of joy at seeafter an absence of eighteen months, his master returned. ing their masters after a long absence. An English officer At the first word he uttered, the wolf, who had not per- had a large dog, which he left with his family in Engceived him amongst the crowd, recognised him, and exhibit- land, while he accompanied an expedition to America, ed the most lively joy. On being set at liberty, the most during the war of the colonies. Throughout his absence, affectionate caresses were lavished on his old master, such the animal appeared very much dejected. When the officer as the most attached dog would have shown after an ab- returned home, the dog, who happened to be lying at the sence of a few days. A second separation was followed by door of an apartment into which his master was about to similar demonstrations of sorrow, which, however, again enter, immediately recognised him, leaped upon his neck, yielded to time. Three years passed, and the wolf was licked his face, and in a few minutes fell dead at his feet. living happily in company with a dog which had been A favourite spaniel of a lady recently died on seeing his placed with him, when his master again returned, and beloved mistress, after a long absence.' again the long lost but still remembered voice was in- The next was what the Americans would call “widestantly replied to by the most impatient cries, which were awake': redoubled as soon as the poor animal was set at liberty, 'A small cur, blind of one eye, lame, ugly, old, and somewben, rushing to his master, he threw his fore-feet on his what selfish, yet possessed of great shrewdness, was usually shoulders, licking his face with the most lively joy, and fed along with three large dogs. Watching his opportunity, menacing his kecpers, who offered to remove him, and to- he generally contrived to seize the best bit of offal or bone, wards whom, not a moment before, he had been showing with which he retreated into a recess, the opening to which every mark of fondness. A third separation, however, was so small that he knew the other dogs could not follow seemed to be too much for this faithful animal's temper. him into it, and where he enjoyed his repast without the He became gloomy, desponding, refused his food, and for fear of molestation.' a long time his life appeared in great danger. His health The dog of the succeeding anecdote might have taken at last returned; but he no longer suffered the caresses of lessons from Mrs Gamp, and qualified for the profession of any but his keepers, and towards strangers manifested the sick-nurse :original savageness of his species.
His mistress always has her shoes warmed before she This wolf seems to have been rather an amiable animal, puts them on; but during the late hot weather her maid who had his good nature pretty severely tested; but we was putting them on without their having been previously cannot allow him a nearer relationship than that of first placed before the fire. When the dog saw this, he imme cousin to the dog. There have been anecdotes of well-dis- diately interfered, expressing the greatest indignation at posed tigers, and the story of Androcles and the lion, if the maid's negligence. He took the shoes from her, carnot a fable, exhibits both memory and gratitude on the ried them to the fire, and after they had been warmed as part of the king of beasts. There is no reason why the usual, he brought them back to his mistress, with much wolf should be an exception, even though his progenitors apparent satisfaction, evidently intending to say, if he could were as different from those of the dog as are their de- - It is all right now.'' scendants at the present day. But leaving the question of The following dog performed the duties of post-boy 'for genealogy to the curious in such matters, let us hear some a consideration':thing of the mental and moral qualities of the race. The “At Albany, in Worcestershire, at the seat of Admiral following anecdote has its parallel in many of those told Maling, a dog went every day to meet the mail, and brought of the shepherd's dog :
| the bag in his mouth to the house. The distance was about
half a quarter of a mile. The dog usually received a meal many respects to the same school as his illustrious cotettof meat as his reward. The servants having on one day porary Sir Walter Raleigh; and it cannot be denied of only neglected to give him his accustomed meal, the dog, either that their most glorious actions were tarnished by on the arrival of the next mail, buried the bag; nor was others, which the spirit of the age may palliate but can it found without considerable search.'
never altogether excuse. Whoever furnished' our author with the next anecdote Francis Drake was born in the year 1544, in a cottage must surely have been quizzing him; but, like Sir Walter about a mile from Tavistock, on the banks of the Tavy, in Scott, Mr Jesse can · believe anything of the dog. Such Devonshire. His father, an intelligent but obscure yeoan animal might have got a high salary in the Lyon | man, had twelve sons, of whom Francis was the eldest In Office:
the days of persecution under Queen Mary, having at. A gentleman of an ancient family, whose name it is un tracted attention as a zealous Protestant and a man of some necessary to mention, from his having been engaged in the acquirements, this worthy person removed from Devonshire troubles which agitated Ireland about forty years since, into Kent, where young Drake was brought up— God di. went into a coffecroom at Dublin, during that period, ac viding the honour,' says Fuller, between two connties companied by a noble wolf dog, supposed to be one of the that the one might have his birth and the other his educa. last of the breed. There was only one other gentleman in tion. Under Elizabeth, the father, having taken orders, the coffeeroom, who, on seeing the dog, went up to him, obtained the appointment of chaplain to the ficet stationed and began to notice him. The owner, in considerable in the Medway, and was some time after ordained ricar of alarm, begged him to desist, as the dog was fierce, and Upnor church, situated a little below Chatham. The would never allow a stranger to touch him. The gentle- | youth, thus reared from infancy in the vicinity of the rorai man resumed his seat, when the dog came to him, showed tleet, seems to have early imbibed a passion for a sailor's the greatest pleasure at being noticed, and allowed him- life; and his father, poor and encumbered with a numcrself to be fondled. His owner could not disguise his asto- ous family, was not disposed to thwart his inclinatior. nishment. You are the only person,' he said, ' whom that He put him,' says Camden, 'to the master of a bark, his dog would ever allow to touch him without showing re- neighbour, who carried on a coasting trade, and sometimes sentment. May I beg the favour of you to tell me your made voyages to Zealand and France.' name?'-mentioning his own at the same time. The In the service of this master, who . kept him hand to his stranger announced it-(he was the last of his race, one business in the vessel,' the young sailor rapidly acquired of the most ancient and noble in Ireland, and descended a thorough knowledge of his profession; and the old senfrom one of its kings). I do not wonder,' said the owner man became so fond of him that on his death he bequeathe! of the dog, at the homage this animal has paid you. He to him the bark and all its equipments. At the early are recognises in you the descendant of one of our most an- | of eighteen we find him employed as purser of a ship which cient race of gentlemen to whom this breed of dogs almost | traded with the ports of Biscay. About this time the slare exclusively belonged, and the peculiar instinct he possesses trade, the subsequent source of so many crimes and hor. has now been shown in a manner which cannot be mis- rors, was commenced by some London adventurers, wit! taken by me, who am so well acquainted with the ferocity the view of supplying the Spanish colonies in the West this dog has hitherto shown to all strangers.'
Indies and America. This odious but lucrative traffic, the inhumanity of which was not denounced till a much latir
date, was of a nature too well calculated to allure the 31BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.
venturous spirits of the period; and Drake, at the age of
twenty-two, desirous of extending his professional knowsir FRANCIS DRAKE.
ledge, and participating in its gains, embarked for Guinea,
in a squadron commanded by his reputed relative. Captain AMONG the many circumstances which contributed to make John Hawkins, in which he had command of the Juliti, a the reign of Elizabeth one of the most illustrious in English vessel of only fifty tons. The history of this unfortunate history, not the least prominent is the impetus then given voyage, the last of the kind which Hawkins ever made. to maritime adventure. At first, England had seen with offers a curious picture of the nautical morality of the age. comparative indifference those great results of Portuguese Having completed his human cargo, that navigator took enterprise which for a time made the Tagus the emporium the usual course to the Canaries and Spanish America, of the East; and though her statesmen may have viewed apparently quite indifferent whether the profits of his er with envy the conquests of Spain, when they poured into | pedition should be the result of his ostensible traffic or if her lap the treasures of the New World, the desire of rival- open piracy. In passing, he stormed the town of Rio de ling her in these acquisitions was very slowly developed. là Hacha, because the Spanish governor refused to inde But during the reign of the Virgin Queen, the English with him; and soon after, when off the coast of Florili. people summoned their energies to encounter the hazards being driven by severe gales to seek shelter in the porttu
ement destinea to become peculiarly their own, San Juan de Ulloa, he made two of the principal inhabi
on achieved victories as glorious in their charac- tants hostages to secure himself from retaliation. There ter and as momentous in their results as that even which
while debating whether he should not at once scize wp scattered the Invincible Ariadn. When nautical science twelve merchant ships lying in the port, and laden Wila was yet in its infancy, a host of gallant leaders, inspired cargoes worth £200,000, his position was rendered extreme by the love of adventure or the ambition of discovery and | ly critical by the arrival of a powerful Spanish fleet, having conquest, sprung forward to this new career, and carried on board goods to the value of nearly two millions sler into it much of that chivalrous spirit that still survived | ling. In the prospect of so tempting a prize, the Engli” from the middle ages. At the same time it must be con- ' commander would willingly have hazarded an action, notfessed that these lofty and romantic feelings were often withstanding great disparity of force; but, dreading the analloped with an unscrupulousness very little in accord ger of Queen Elizabeth, he made a truce with the Spaniards, ance with the moral standard of the present times, and and suffered himself to be lulled into security. The Dons that the characters of these early nautical adventurers too however, were even more than a match for their unwel. ! often exhibited a curious mixture of the knight-errant and come guests in duplicity and cruelty, and only adhered to the pirate. The desire of humbling and despoiling the the truce till they could break it with impunity. Accord Spaniard, then the most formidable national foc, was at | ingly, while the people of Hawkins were quietly rerainos least as prominent a motive with most of them as that of and revictualling their ships, they were treacherously diextending the glory of their sovereign and native land, and tacked by a powerful force from land and sea ; furtsbers 1 seems to have been considered an ample sanction for many | were massacred in cold blood; and the only vesses
essels that dark and cruel deeds. Such, in some degree, was the case escaped were Hawkins's own bark the Minion, and it with the great naval hero, whose bistory we propose Judith, commanded by Drake. After incredible bare briefly to trace in the present paper. He belonged in ships these two vessels succeeded in reaching England.
where the relation of their sufferings produced an inde- taining the decided though secret sanction of Elizabeth for ble impression on the popular mind.
another marauding expedition, in which he contemplated Our hero bad embarked his whole fortone in this dis- the realisation of his long-cherished purpose. The miniaestro expedition, and he had lost ail. Hence was laid ture fleet, with which he proposed to make war on the posthe foundation of that deep-rooted hostility to the Spaniards sessions of the most powerful monarch in Enrope, consistwhich he ever afterwards evinced a feeling not a little ed only of five vessels, the largest one hundred, and the confirmed by the exhortations of a chaplain to the fleet, smallest fifteen tons, and containing a crew of 164 men, who assured him that, as he had suffered from the treachery | gentlemen' and sailors. Among the gentlemen were some # the king of Spain's subjects, he might lawfully make youths of noble families, who, not to mention the plunder Perials from that monarch whenever and wherever be anticipated, went out 'to learn the art of navigation. The mould. Puller says-“The case was clear m sea divinity, I adventurers set sail on the 13th December, and first touched and few are such infidels as not to believe doctrines which at Mogadore, on the coast of Barbary, where one of the bake for their profit.' Be this as it may, Drake no sooner sailors was captured by the Moors. Sailing thence, they developed plads for attacking the Spanish American colo- reached the Portuguese island of San Jago, having taken ties, than he found numerous adventurers ready to aid and plundered several vessels which fell in their way. im with money and personal assistance. He made two Here they seized upon a ship belonging to that nation, preparatory voyages, first with two ships and then only | laden with wine, cloth, and general merchandise, and havwith one, in which he carefully reconnoitred the scene of ing numerous passengers on board. These captives Drake is future exploits, improved his acquaintance with the dismissed at the first convenient place, giving to each his gate and islands of South America, and, it is coolly added, wearing apparel, and presenting them with a butt of wine dis. sed some store of money by playing the seaman and and some provisions, and with a pinnace he had set up be pirate.
at Mogadore. He, however, detained the pilot, Nuno dla Tous experienced and reinforced, and having obtained Silva, an expert mariner, who was well acquainted with regular though secret commission from the queen, he the coast of Brazil, and afterwards published a minute acbude his first bold and daring attempt at reprisal. In count of the voyage; while the captured vessel itself was by 1572, with two small vessels--the Pacha of seventy | manned and placed under the command of Thomas Drake, sne, and the Swan of twenty-five tons--the united crews of a brother of the commodore. dich amounted to seventy-three men and boys, he sailed! Having crossed the line without meeting anything more 7 the Spanish Main, where he was joined by a vessel remarkable than the tropical phenomena of the air and om the Isle of Wight, having on board thirty-eight men. I waters, the adventurers cast anchor within the entrance of ith this insignificant force, he surprised the town of the Rio de la Plata, on the 14th of April, whence they soon parbre de Dios, then the entrepôt between Old Spain and I after steered to the southward, along that wild coast since be wealth of Mexico and Peru. The place was captured known as Patagonia. Though the avowed objects of our
Post without resistance; and though the adventurers / hero were little better than open robbery, he seems at no Ere somewimt disappointed of their expected booty, this time to have indulged in that treachery and gratuitous
imply made up to them by the capture, soon after, of cruelty which have so often disgraced European voyagers mg of my mules laden with gold and silver. Having in barbarous lande. On the contrary, he endeavoured to
ne friendship and exchanged presents with an In- cultivate a friendly correspondence with the rude natives, in chief, the navigator now partially crossed the isthmus | and in his progress opened at various places an agreeable,
en and for the first time obtained a view of the if not very profitable traffic. The narrative gives little rest Paeific, an occan hitherto closed to English enter- sanction to repor
sanction to reports about the gigantic stature of these tise With a kind
, kind of piety then perfectly intelligible, ke people; but they are described as strong made, middleized for a while intently on its boundless waters, and
sized, and extremely active, with a gay and cheerful diset rock to 'grant him life and leave to sail once position. For such trities as the English bestowed, they
Dar,"pon its bosom. Such was the earliest gave in return bows and arrows, and other rude implebreathed after those noble discoveries which ments, and soon became familiar. This good understand
e such lustre on the maritime fame of Eng- | ing was not, however, invariably preserved; for on anmaulging these emotions, however, the ad other part of the coast a misunderstading led to an en
Sost sight of the more obvious purpose of counter with the natives, in which several individuals on
namely, plunder. After several other ex- both sides lost their lives. Fornary adventures and some hairbreadth escapes, he
On the 19th of June the voyagers cast anchor in Port and, with his fragile barks absolutely Julian, near the Straits of Magellan, where they were much
ell with treagure and plundered mer- comforted by finding a gibhet standing--a proof that new Plymouth on the 9th August, 1573. Christian people had been there before them. Here an
y, and the townspeople were at event occurred which has been considered the most ques. CD, but the news of Drake's return no sooner reached
tionable act of this distinguished navigator. This was the emained few or no people with the trial and execution of Mr Thomas Doughty, an officer of the sing eagerly out to welcome the Devon squadron, on a charge of conspiracy and mutiny. Though,
properly speaking, no stretch of authority on the part of Issue of these adventures obtained for the commander, supposing the charge to be well foundarl, ne, filme, and noble patronage. The great obscurity has always involved this transaction ; but
ed enabled him to fit out three stout the high character of Drake for humanity and fair-dealing
La distinction which he prized the prepare himself to receive the communion,' of which ac-
On the 20th of August, Drake reached Cape Virgenes, de monarchies of Spain and England and sailed through the dreaded Strait of Magellan, being
Peace, though the subjects of both the fourth navigator who had performed that passage. n constant acts of aggression and By this time his fleet had been reduced to only three ves
other, which, though not openly sels, those considered unserviceable having been broken sovereigas, were at least tacitly con- up. The character of this difficult navigation is now so sy, Drake found little difficulty in ob well known, that it may suffice to say that he cleared the
md. While i
et sail for England, with his fra
bera than there remained few or no
The successful issue of these advent
In the year 1577, the monare were still nominally at peace,
wns were engaged in cons violence against each other, buntenanced by the sovereigo
rived at. As
western entrance on the 6th of September without acci- without seeing land, having reached the 48th degree of dent, and at length attained the long-desired happiness of north latitude. Here the cold became so intense, not! sailing an English ship on the South Sea. Here his com- withstanding the season of the year, that meat froze the rades expected to begin the main business of their enter-moment it was taken from the fire, and the ropes and prise, and here also commenced their chief difficulties. tackling became stiff and almost unmanageable. Putting The ship commanded by Thomas Drake was separated back ten degrees, the adventurers anchored soon after in from the others by a violent tempest, and never more a good harbour, on the shore of an inhabited country in heard of; while of her two consorts, the one in charge of 38 deg. 30 min. north, probably the port now known as Mr Winter took advantage soon after of an accidental San Francisco, on the coast of California. Here they had separation, and sailed back for England. Drake was now some singular interviews with the natives, who showed left alone with only one ship, and driven by tempestuous themselves very friendly; and during one barbarous certweather as far south as Cape Horn, the very opposite of mony, their king or chief was supposed to make a formal his intended route. Undismayed by these adverse circum- resignation of his dominions in favour of the English capstances, he resumed his voyage northward on the first tain, who very politely accepted the gift on behalf of his favourable opportunity, and on the 5th December reached sovereign. The rigours of a northern climate had now So Valparaiso, where he captured a valuable prize, laden with far cooled the courage of his crew, that Drake abandoned gold, jewels, wine, and other merchandise, and of course all hope of finding a north-cast passage, and at once pillaged the town, which only contained nine families. adopted the bold resolution of crossing the Pacific, and Booty was now obtained in abundance. At one place a sailing to England by India and the Cape of Good Hope. Spaniard was found asleep with thirteen bars of silver Our limits will not permit us to trace minutely the lying beside him ; we took the silver and left the man,' course of the navigator in his homeward voyage. He quaintly says the account in Hakluyt. Soon after they crossed the Pacific without accident, and on the 30 Novemcaptured eight llamas carrying two hundred pounds weight ber reached the island of Ternate, where he was hospitably of silver; and in the port of Arica two or three small ves received by the king or sultan, who is denominated by sels were seized, in one of which were found fifty-seven Fuller · a true gentleman pagan. Having thoroughly rewedges of silver as large as a brickbat. Tidings that the paired his ship at a place called Crab Island, on the coast English were on the coast had now been dispatched to the of Celebes, he reached Java, after a difficult navigation, on governor at Lima ; but the difficulty of travelling in these the 12th March. Here the voyagers enjoyed twelve days trackless regions was such that Drake outstripped the of uninterrupted festivity, the five chiefs of the island, who messenger, and on the 13th September, 1579, surprised lived in perfect amity, vying with each other in hospitality seventeen vessels lying at Callao, the port of the very city and courtesy to their visiters. From Java our navigator where the viceroy resided. Here, however, he learned that stretched right across the Indian Ocean to the Cape of he had missed the great prize of his voyage; the royal Good Hope, which was doubled without difficulty, and gallion, called the Cacafuego, having sailed for Panama, thence shaped his course for England. He arrived at thirteen days before, laden with gold and silver. With Plymouth on Monday the 26th September, 1579, after an out losing a moment, he immediately set out in pursuit, absence of nearly two years and ten months, during which closely chased by the now aroused and enraged Spaniards, he had circumnavigated the globe, and carried on a course whom, however, he speedily distanced. Notwithstanding of successful privateering unparalleled in the annals of nahis eagerness, he took time to capture and rifle four vessels vigation. After some little delay Drake was most graciously he met in with on the way, resolved apparently that no received at court, and Elizabeth now asserted more firmly contingent advantage should interfere with present gain. than ever her right of navigating the ocean in all its parts, At length, on the 1st March, the royal gallion was descried and denied the exclusive right claimed by the Spaniards from the mainmast, her crew altogether unconscious of over the seas and lands of the New World. The whole of the daring enemy who was rapidly approaching. She England rang with the praise of Drake's achievements; was boarded and taken without much difficulty, and was and though the queen allowed certain merchants (who found to contain twenty-six tons of silver, thirteen chests complained, not without abundant reason, of having been of rials of plate, and eighty pounds of gold, besides dia- robbed) an indemnity out of the treasure which he had monds and inferior gems, the whole estimated at 360,000 brought home, enough remained to make the voyage propesos.
fitable to all parties. By Elizabeth's order, Drake's ship The great object of Drake's companions had now been was drawn up in a little creek nçar Deptford, there to be obtained : if they could carry their booty safe to England preserved as a memento of the most memorable voyage yet their fortunes were made. But through all these scenes achieved by her subjects; she partook of a banquet on of pillage, their bold leader himself seems to have nursed board the vessel, and there knighted the captain. The the ambition of discovery; and the idea of a north-east pas-author of the memoir in the · Edinburgh Cabinet Library' sage to Europe, for long afterwards the ignis fatuus of well remarks : « The expedition of Sir Francis Drake thus mariners, had taken strong hold of his mind. Besides, he received the approbation of his sovereign; and as the war could hardly hope, in the face of the awakened vigilance so long impending was now unavoidable, his depredations and anger of the Spaniards, with the whole coast aroused were forgotten even by his detractors, and his fame be against him, to make a safe return by the Strait of Magel- came as universal as it was high. Envy itself had eren lan. Possessing the unbounded confidence of his crew, he been forced to acknowledge, not merely his maritime skill easily persuaded them to adopt his views; and having and genius for command, but the humanity and benerotaken in water and repaired their vessel at the island of lence which marked his intercourse with the barbarous Canno, the adventurers, on the 24th March, continued tribes whom he visited, and the generosity with which he their course to the north. While at the latter place, the uniformly treated his Spanish captives, though belonging pinnace had brought in a prize laden with rural produce, to a nation at that period of all others the most hateful to but which also contained letters from the king of Spain to Englishmen, and in some respects the most injurious to the governor of the Philippines, and certain charts of the himself.' route to that settlement, which subsequently proved of use With a brilliant reputation, and high in favour with his to the captors. Another valuable prize was taken on the sovereign, Drake could now aspire to the first maritime 6th April, one of the articles being a falcon of finely employments. In 1585 the war with Spain virtually com wrought gold, having in its breast a large emerald. menced, and our hero found himself once more at the head Finally, the small settlement of Guatalco was taken and of an armament destined to carry hostilities into the Sparansacked, and there also the prisoners were set at liberty, nish Main. On this occasion his fleet consisted of twentytogether with the pilot, Nuno da Silva, who had been five vessels, two of which belonged to the crown, and there brought from the Cape Verd Islands. The north-east pas were on board 2300 seamen and soldiers. Among the sage to England was now the sole object; and by the 3d commanders were the celebrated Martin Frobisher, Captain of June, Drake had sailed 1400 leagues on different courses | Knollis, and other distinguished men. After cruising for