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fection. What little ofñces Crooked Nicholas could per- Nicholas Gow's house, generally came Richard Fraser, form for his brother were done with a readiness and a care the young man who stood by her side when first she apwhich showed that the poor fellow's anxiety to be of some peared to Nick. Strange to say, although his kindest use was deep and heartfelt; and when his bodily infirmity friend, Nick had conceived the most intense aversion tocompelled him to refrain from work in the fields, he wan- wards Richard, and sometimes when the latter appeared dered through the woods, and over hill and dale, fishing in the act of paying any little attention to Miss Howell, for trout and cel, immense numbers of both of which he or was smiled on by her, even something like a vindietre caught.
scowl seemed to settle on the brow of Nick. Richard Notwithstanding the unceasing exertions of Alick in appeared to be a very dark spot in Nick's horizon. On the management of his father's business, times and cir- Emily's footsteps he attended like some eastern slave: be cumstances changed not with him. Unremitting toil and dogged her constantly at a distance, as sbe rode through scanty returns were more familiar to him than ever. It the woods, his crooked form now gliding from ore clump happened that the spring following was cold, wet, and un- of trees to another, now winding down the side of some genial, and when autumn came round, old Nicholas's crop hill, and now coiled beneath the inatted brushwood, while was of little or no value. The old man endured much the beloved of his fancy passed before him. But on ere he bent his independent spirit to inform Mr Howell, Richard his eye glared like that of the same eastern slave at the following term, of his inability to pay down the when commanded to use his dagger against a hated enemy. whole amount of his usual rent. Mr Howell decided that What was it that had power to rouse the poor creatore's no favour should be granted him, and Nicholas returned hatred, and to lend it so much intensity? So much did to his humble home, broken down in body but not in spirit. Nick seem absorbed by his acquaintance with Emily, that
We must quit, lads, at next term,' said he to his sons, he appeared to forget the distress which, notwithstanding uncovering his silver hair, and brushing the corner of his the generous alleviations presented by Miss Howell, cogplaid across his eyes. “He's a hard man, our landlord, tinued to hang around the heads of his father and brother. though maybe just enough. But God pardon him for his He forsook, too, his sports and bis wanderings to bover lack of mercy, and especially for his severity on an auld around Emily's path, appearing gratified if he obtained man this day. It seems I'm a doomed man,' he added, the slightest sight of her. He never dared to approach sinking into his chair with a gloomy, foreboding counte- the mansion of Mount Howell, but he constantly hung nance.
around the skirts of the large park which surrounded the Alick said not a word, although indignation thrilled house, and watched for the slightest symptom of Visa through his frame; nor did Crooked Nicholas utter a Howell's appearance. Frequent moods of the deepest syllable, but he disappeared on the instant. He went to abstraction seized upon him, too, and though all unbappy, ; the hills to weep and to mourn ; and as he went wailing he seemed to have a source of happiness of which no 008, forward, perhaps the most miserable object under the knew but himself. Thus for a time went the little troubled wide roof of heaven, rage took possession of his soul, and world of Crooked Nick; but all of a sudden a decisive he dashed madly forward till the ground seemed hardly change came about. to be touched as it vanished beneath his flying feet. But On a cold, heavy night in spring, nearly two hours after nature was strained beyond the point of endurance, and Alick Gow, unhappy and toil-worn, had retired to rest, stumbling over a matted bush, Nicholas sank on the he had his broken, troubled slumber interrupted by hearground, bruised and bleeding. For a time he was uncon- ing the sound of a footstep in his apartment. He sat up! scious. When he woke again, a young girl hung over him in astonishment, and saw by the light of a lamp which with deep compassion on her sweet features. Beside her stood on the rough deal which served for a table, the was a tall dark young man, whose handsome countenance crooked form of his brother standing in the middle of the rivalled that of his fair companion in its truly compas- floor, and calmly feeling the edge of a large clasp-knife sionate expression. Nicholas gazed like ane bewitched, which he held in his hand. Alick was alarmed at his and tried to shrink into himself, but the hand of the fair brother's employment, and stepped instantly on the floor. lady was tenderly placed on his arm, and her sweet voice, Some heavy grief seemed to have been preying on the
gentle and low,' was dropping words of kindness on his mind of Alick, for his countenance was thin and pale, I ear. Nick forgot his crookedness, and half raising himself, his eye languid, and his once athletic form seemed spent he seized her band between his own two, and covered it and bowed down. Wrapping one of his garments about 1 with kisses; then recollecting himself, be raised his eyes him, he stepped up to Nicholas, and laid his hand on his fearfully to her face, but she was smiling-sweetly smil- arm. The latter did not manifest the slightest symptom ing. What a stream of indescribable emotions flowed in of being aware of his brother's presence, until Alick adthe bosom of Nick at that moment! His formerly stern dressed him in tones of gentlest inquiry. At that a grief was softened, and he burst into an incontrollable dreadful leaden sort of smile mantled on his features, and flood of tears. What may not the magic touch of sym- he said, ironically, “The fiend must be paid to-night, pathy and kindness effect on the troubled heart of hu- Alick; the fiend will be paid to-night; won't be manity ?
What is your meaning, Nicholas asked Alick in The image which constantly afterwards haunted Nick's tones of the utmost alarm, while he gently attempted to imagination was that of the lovely being who smiled on remove the knife from Nick's possession. him, a poor, deformed creature, and suffering under deep Nay, nay, brother,' said Nick, emphatically; you affliction; and this beautiful object of his thoughts did must leave me my weapon, for its strength and temper not disdain repeatedly to visit his father's lonely home must be proved to-night. Sit down here by me,' he conamong the mountains; and when she was there, it seemed tinued, dragging Alick to a seat, wbile his countenance to Nick as if heaven were along with her, so much misery became in reality quite ferocious, and I'll tell you a piece did she banish, and so much delight did she scatter around. of news. My heart's a-burning, and I can't bear it longer, She was no other than Emily Howell, who invariably be- so I came, Alick, to tell you what I have been thinking friended the persecuted tenantry of her father, besides of. Listen to me now. There was a time when Nickbeing naturally disposed to the performance of acts of Crooked Nick-was a careless, happy being, going over disinterested charity. Emily was the adored of all on the country without aim, and thinking nought but merry Mount Howell estate. Her benevolence found ample ex- thoughts. Well, a fair lady crossed before his eyes, and ercise through means of Richard Fraser, who was her he thought he was more happy than before, though, after constant adviser and prudent agent; and knowing that all, for the few minutes in each day that he was happ, her charity was dispensed at great risk of being discovered he suffered tenfold misery when the spirit of his thoughts by her parent, her name was hailed with yet deeper en- was absent. There was a fortunate one beloved by Emily thusiasm, and her young agent received his due share of my tongue must pollute her sweet name and that one gratitude and goodwill. Along with Emily, when she poor Nick hated, for he stole from him nearly all his an. ventured to make an excursion into the hills, and so by gel's love. Nick wanted in his foolishness the whole to
himself. This one stepped in like a fiend. Now, Alick, Some few days subsequent, there was a visible sensawince not so—there's relief in telling you all I feel. This tion pervading all the inhabitants of Mount Howell estate. person I speak of was not crooked like Nick, and hatred . It was the day which Mr Howell had appointed for the sunk deeper into Nick's soul, because he was not. Nick expulsion of old Nicholas Gow from his humble home; sorely grudged him Emily's love, but what could he help and in consideration of the exasperating circumstances of it? Now this person has gone, brother, but his absence the case, Mr Howell had determined, with all the pride is no
of power, that he would attend the old man's ejection in Whither bas Richard Fraser gone? Has he left Mount his own proper person, and would cause thereafter his hut Howell ?' eagerly interrupted Alick.
1 to be unroofed and pulled down. People knew in general · Yesterday, he was driven from its doors like a dog,' that such was his intention, and anxiously awaited the replied Nick, dwelling momentarily, as if in exultation, 'erent; besides, the peculiar features of the matter were on this fact. It was not till then that Nick could find not unknown, and people grew doubly anxious. it in his heart to pity him. The father of Emily had a On the morning of that day, the proprietor of Mount revelation made to him by one who is surely a very fiend. Howell entered the apartment of his daughter, who had Brother, that was myself. Now, don't grasp so hard, and been for some time under serere restraint. Emily reI'll tell you more. I met him in the woods, and, mad- | ceived him with meek reserve. Her cheeks were blanched, dened with rage or hatred, I told him all-all-all-of though her countenance was yet full and lovely in its what Emily had done and what Richard had done for our paleness, and her person visibly trembled with inward father-of the love that was between them both, and of agitation. 'Well, miss,' said her father, with a civil Nick's adoration of Emily. The wretch listened amazedly sneer, your dreams of love and philanthropy must by and half in doubt, but in a minute he had disappeared. this time have evaporated. A little intercourse with the I followed, and beheld the noise and the stir made at world's colder side is a capital expeller of such ethereal Mount Howell on the arrival of its master. I saw him I guests.' hated spurned from the house; I saw him pull his hat Emily returned no answer to this preface. over his face, and—but other things I have to tell. Emily! Now, girl,' her father continued with severity, 'give was taken-her wretched father made her gentle spirit heed to what I say. You have felt a little of that weighty tremble within her-his hand was raised to strike her- punishment this hand can bestow, and, if still refractory, she was and is still shut up-and in confinement her heart I have no objections to give you a more copious tasting of must break !' exclaimed Nick, rolling backward and for- it. So this is what I want. The old villain, Gow, whom ward on his seat in agony. "Well, I went to the dreadful you encouraged in discontent and ill-will towards me, man,' he resumed fiercely, and demanded that he should your parent, is this day to be driven from his bield, as he set her free; but he kicked me from his door, and called richly deserves. I cannot afford to be ate up by superme-crooked beast! There was a something went through annuated antiquated fellows like him, who have not sense me at the moment, a fiery dart I think, and I feel it in to keep pace with--but never mind. I myself intend to my breast still. Though he had a thousand lives I must witness bis actual expulsion, and subsequently the demohave them all, and this this will do it, and to-night too,'lishing of his hut, which will be razed to the foundation. be concluded, passing his finger along the edge of the Since you have been so extremely interested in the old knife.
fellow's prosperity, it will be only proper and seemly that Alick did not seem to hear his brother's words, for he you should be interested in an equal degree in his adsat motionless, and as if in deep thought. His eye was versity. Therefore, you'll prepare to go along with me resting vacantly on the countenance of Nicholas, but it to behold the harrying of the nest. failed to reflect the expression of that fearful face, or to 'I cannot go, father,' murmured Emily, with tearful betray interest in the dreadful purpose with which it was eyes. illuminated.
Cannot go! Why not? You surely can go with an old Of what avail would it be, Nicholas, though Emily man as well as with a young rascally hypocrite. I tell were free?' he asked abstractedly. 'Her heart has been you what, miss,' added Howell, harshly, his grey eyes already given away; Richard Fraser has it with him in glancing fire, 'go you shall, and that directly too. In his exile. I had thought otherwise, but so it is.'
half an hour we start; so make haste.' He turned on . Let me go my way, brother,' whispered Nick, for his heel, and slammed the door after him. Alick was clutching his arm. "My arm must punish him There would have been little use in disputing the desthis night. And our father, does he not cry aloud for potic will of her father, had Emily been so disposed, but vengeance? I heard him, in his sleep, curse, pray, and to dispute it was an idea that had never entered her mind. weep. Oh, God! how did I endure it? And did I not So, with a choking bosom, she descended from her chamsee him this day on the mountain-brow, gazing abroad ber in about half an hour, and as her father mounted a with fearful agony on the scenes he must in a week or strong black steed she vaulted on the back of a chestnut two for ever forsake? I heard his weak voice raised in palfrey. Followed by two servants, and a body of dolamentation, for what will another be to his native land, mestics who came at a distance, father and daughter then where, among the blooming heather on the hills, and cantered swifty across Mount lowell Park. As they among the dells and glens, he has lived and loved' from entered the moorland, and when they were about a mile childhood? And who was—who is--the cause of this from Nicholas Gow's abode, a group, congregated directly misery P Him, him whom I go to punish. Let me go.' in front of them, on the top of a slight eminence, preAnd he moved towards the door of the room.
sented itself to their eyes. It consisted of Nicholas Gow Go not, Nicholas !' exclaimed Alick, with sudden and his two sons, and near them stood a small Highland earnestness, as if now for the first time he comprehended pony and a very rough tent cart, beneath which crouched his brother's bloody intention. I'm sick, brother, I'm an old sheep dog, infirm as its master. Whenever Emily ill. I fear me it is the sickness of death.' A convulsive and her father appeared, Alick and his deformed brother shuddering shook his frame, a livid paleness covered his were instantly lost to view. The old man retained his countenance, and a clammy moisture oozed from his brow. position, however, until they approached. He was standNicholas, recalled to himself, had barely time to clasp ing with his back towards them, and looking in the direchis brother in his arms when he swooned away. Nicholas tion of the rugged valley in which stood his abandoned shouted for assistance, and his father was presently on the home. Howell and his daughter rode up in front of him, spot, and Alick was put to bed. In a few minutes anima- but he moved not; he seemed unaware of their presence. tion had completely returned. Nicholas's fell purpose was His withered hands were clasped and his furrowed couneffectually defeated, for the time at least, for with cha- tenance bore marks of strong and deep anguish ; down racteristic affection he remained by Alick's couch, anxi- his shrunken cheeks the big salt tears were rolling fast. ously attending him, and sincerely apprehensive of serious His grey head was uncovered; the grizzled hair was results.
| floating around his thin temples and wrinkled forehead. Emily became aware that the old man was in the act of Emily thought she knew the voice, but she had not bidding a long and last adieu to scenes long loved, ere de- time to say so, for her father spurred his horse more, parting for that foreign shore where, to all appearance, and his future lot was cast. She drew her veil around her, “Let it, there's death bere,' he cried, excitedly, and turned aside her head, and silently wept. Just then the flourishing his riding-whip, . for the first villain of the old toothless sheep-dog bounded growling from beneath howling crowd that will dare approach me. Follow, girl, the cart, and crouched in front of Mr Howell's steed. The quick ! cruel man raised his whip and applied it mercilessly to At that moment he entered on the steep and narrow the aged animal, which instantly yelled with pain and bridge; a deformed being, who had been coiled on the fled behind its master. Old Nicholas looked up in asto- very middle of the arch, and had not been observed by nishment, and when he beheld Howell, and knew the act any of the approaching party, suddenly sprang to his feet. of cruelty he had committed, proud resentment flashed It was Crooked Nick. The fire of insanity was glaring through his tears. With a movement of native dignity, in his eyes, and the flush of an infuriated brain was can he exclaimed:
his hollow cheek. He had heard the preceding exclamaPass on, pompously as thou may'st. But vengeance tion of his enemy. On coursed Howell's steed, and on will not always sleep. Pass thee on, cruel man, and God galloped Emily's pony behind him, but Crooked Nick have mercy on you.'
flinched not. He then observed the presence of Emily, who had been | Death for thee! 'tis here!' he cried, unsheathing a for a time his guardian angel, and kneeling on the turf long glittering knife, and couching it with a firm band. he began to invoke blessings on her head ; but overcome Mr Howell's horse and that of Emily reared at the by emotion, she did not wait to listen to his prayer, but same moment, and then both plunged madly forvard. whipping her pony she dashed recklessly away across the Nick's weapon was buried deep in the breast of the formoor, despite the shouts of her father, who loudly called mer, as it came heavily forward. The animal gare a her back. Away she madly rode, disregarding the rough- fearful yell, pitched its master against the ledge of the ness of her way, nor drew bridle until her panting pony bridge, where he lay stunned and insensible, and with the had reached an eminence afar off, which looked down on weapon sticking in its breast bounded away with headthe brown vale in which stood Nicholas Gow's deserted long speed. Emily's pony reared also, and then plunged hut. From this height Emily, in a little while, perceived and kicked. Frightened almost to death, the trembling clusters of people grouped around the miserable house, girl could not retain her seat, and as the animal backed and her father, she could notice, riding boldly in amongst to one side of the bridge she was unfortunately precipithem. She would have turned away, but powerful ex- tated into the rushing current beneath. Nick the mania, citement kept her chained to the spot. Old Nicholas's for a maniac now he was, had been unhurt, and bad effects had been previously removed or sold; and in a watched with intense agony the struggles of Emily's little while she could see her father's servants climbing pony; as she descended into the torrent he gare a hideon the roof of the house and busily uncovering it. Sud-ous cry, and in a moment clearing the ledge of the areb, denly they ceased, as if the thatch they were engaged in his form darted through the air into the dashing stream. pulling down had not been worth the labour they were At the same moment, from opposite sides of the river, expending on it. In a few minutes a curling spire of there dived into the water two determined young mensmoke rolled itself from the roof of the hut into the air, they were Richard Fraser and Alick Gow. increasing as it rolled into a dense black column. A spout Stern was the struggle of these two as they strained of flame ever and anon shot from the heavy folds of the every nerve in the attempt to gain the floating form of smoke, until a constant flickering stream was darted forth | Emily, which was now being carried rapidly down by the and
ght red glare succeeded. A murmur, as of in- | dark tide. The people had crowded on the bridge and dignation, seemed to float from the valley to the ears of along the banks of the stream, some applauding with Emily, and at the same time she noticed a movement in shouts, others heaving ropes and aids of all kinds into the crowd which surrounded the blazing hut. Her father the water, and others standing motionless and holdini appeared, followed by a few of his servants, riding smartly their breath from very anxiety. Some again watebed away, and followed in a scattered manner by the people. the motions of Crooked Nick, who had been swept with Emily instinctively put ber pony in motion, and descended great rapidity a few feet down past the form of Emils, the hill so as to meet her father. His face was very and was now bravely stemming the current in order to grim, and his manner and air fierce and agitated. He grasp her. A hand was, however, laid on her dress beexclaimed:
fore he could reach her, it was that of Ricbard Fraser. Insulted by a vagabond crowd! I-! So now you come, Nick gave a mighty clutch forward and seized Richard's girl, after disregarding my injunctions and being deaf to arm, which he held with fearful tenacity; he ground his my calls! Of course you must be the friend of old Gow teeth firmly together, and drawing Richard with irresistbecause he is my enemy. Quite natural that. Ride along- ible power towards him, succeeded in clasping him in his side of me here, miss, till I speak to you. Do you know long bony arms. Richard was amazed and alarmed, and what it is to be insulted by a rabble, whom in a manner relaxed his hold on Emily, who was at that monent you feed and clothe? And what it is to be insulted for seized from the other side by Alick Gow. Down Fent doing with your own as seems meet to you? Confound Nick and Richard in a deadly embrace. The struggle the blackguards, wont I revenge myself on them? Do was of short duration, but it was a fearful one. Richard you hear their hooting and reviling? This is how your tried to escape from his insane enemy, and when he saw father's treated on his own estate. Very pleasant, is it he could not, he attempted to plunge him beneath the not ! And for the better share of it I have you to thank, stream. There was a terrible wrestling and splasbing hussy!'
for a moment; people rushed in wild excitement along On he rode, accompanied by his daughter and servants, the bank; then Nick was seen to heave his wild counte and followed by an indignant crowd, who testified their nance upwards, and was heard to exclaim exultingly : feelings by loud shouts and exclamations. There was Now, brother, you have her for yourself. I knew you nothing for it but hard riding; and calling on Emily and loved her.' his domestics to follow, Howell gave his horse whip and These were the last words of Crooked Nick. The best spur, and away he went at full gallop. They were rush | moment the dark-rolling waters had covered the bodies ing down a rather steep bill—the road thickly wooded on of himself and Richard Fraser. Next day they were each side-which terminated in a narrow low-ledged found in a deep linn far down the river, encircled in each bridge, spanning a rapid and deep river, whose full tide other's arms in the strong embrace of death. just then was hoarsely rolling along from bank to bank. The scene we have described so cursorily above passed As they neared the bridge a voice from the wood shouted: so rapidly that people wondered whether they had not as • Beware! there's death before you.'
| been dreaming : some, in excuse of their waut of presence of mind, and others out of real wonder at the ra
He loved the fierce and swarthy men, pidity of the occurrence of the tragic events. Now Alick
Though oft their dark, proud eyes
Flash'd, fire-like, in the murky glen, Gow succeeded in bringing Emily's inanimate form to
At bloody revelries. the bank, and immediately the crowd collected around
Lone had he come: no sword or targe them. Animation was quickly restored, and she was
Ilung glittering at his side; conveyed home in the same litter with her unconscious
He spake not of the rampant charge, father. A few days passed, during which Howell never
Of warfare loud and wide.
He had come to calm the lustful heart, spoke, and he breathed his last.
To stem the passions strong, Two years passed away. Alick Gow was steward of
To teach a loftier, nobler part, Mount Howell estate, and with his old father lived in a
Than the fight, the feast, the song. comfortable cottage. Alick was comparatively happy,
His tone was mild, his eye was calm, though he was seldom seen to smile, and a settled pale
As day by day he taught,
Beneath the dusky, shading palm, ness had given a tinge of sorrow to his bold but handsome
The hope of holy thought. features. One morning he received a letter from his
Stern were those warriors--stern and proudyoung mistress, who was at the time in Switzerland. He
But their pride relax'd to hear read it with a melancholy smile.
The truths that from his warm heart glow'd, Is Miss Howell well ' inquired his father, who had
Fervent, but unsevere. been watching his countenance.
At length, on one mild, tranquil eve, “She is,' replied Alick, sighing. She says she is at
In the glitt'ring moon of tlowers,
His spirit took its last, long leave least resigned, if not completely happy. She enjoys the
Of these beloved bowers. most inexpressible pleasure in the rural retirement of her
But, oh! he left the hope behind situation, where she can think her melancholy thoughts,
That feels not blood or clay, and at the same time can minister to the wants of the
That asks no murmur from the wind,
No life-beam from the day. poor peasantry. The latter is her chief and most de
And many an olive brow shall come, lightful employment. God bless her!
And, bending o'er him, hear "Amen!' responded the old man with fervour.
His spirit utt'ring in the gloom Blessings such as these are the rewards of charity and
The voice of song and prayer. benevolence.
AMONG the productions on the subject of temperance
which appeared in America in 1831, the most curious was Ile rests not where the solemn yew
Barbour's Statistics of Intemperance in Churches,' a Bends o'er the marble tomb,
little work possessed of no ordinary interest. The Rev. And death seems deadlier in the hue
Gustavus Davis published a view of the Bible doctrine of Of still and sacred gloom.
temperance, which was at that day regarded as a novelty. He rests not where the holy pile Repeats, through chancel dim,
Dr Drake of Philadelphia, too, wrote an address on the inAnd hollow vaults, and pillar'd aisle,
temperance of cities; while Professor Yandell, in a speech The slow-resounding hymn.
delivered before the Davidson County Society, as well as He sleeps not where his fathers sleep
Drs Perry, Harrison, Sargent, and James, and many other
eminent medical men, came up to the rescue.
In the year 1832, the American war minister declared
in an official communication that spirits should no longer Midst pearl and coral lie,
constitute a portion of the army rations. The secretary He bore this earth's most earthless toils,
of the navy also discouraged their use at sea, directing And laid him down to die.
coffee, tea, sugar, and money to be offered instead. In The mildest tropic airs fan round
May, the total number of temperance societies existing in
America was ten thousand, with five hundred thousand
members. The time, however, began to approach when And there the sun, through scented glooms
a new order of things was to be introduced. The old temSlants his departing beam,
perance societies had had their day; many circumstances, And the heron laves its azure plumes
illustrative of the total insufficiency of the old pledge, ocIn the bright adjacent stream.
curred during its existence, and a general opinion began And there the deep's low, rolling tone
to prevail, that except in total abstinence there was for Is heard when the stars are bright; When the breeze is low, and men are gone
drunkenness no remedy. Animated by these sentiments, To the cradling dreams of night.
the friends of the cause determined to make a simultaneNo dirge was breathed along the vale,
ous movement throughout the States, at which delegates As his palless bier pass'd on;
from all parts of the Union might attend and compare No flowers were strewn, and the spicy gale Had nought of sigh or moan.
results. Accordingly, on the 26th day of February, 1833, No words were said, as dust to dust
a general temperance meeting took place throughout the They lower'd him from the day;
Union; on the same day, and as part of the general They rear'd above no sculptured bust,
movement, a Congressional Temperance Society was And they coffin'd not his clay.
formed, including among its members some of the most But conchs, and frantic howls, and yells
distinguished men of the day. This was followed up by Ring through the twilight air; And they cast their plumes and dazzling shells
a meeting in Philadelphia of the National Convention, on Upon the matted bier.
the 24th of May. Nineteen states and one territory were Far had he come; with storm and care
represented, the whole number of delegates present His anxious soul had striven,
amounting to 440. The meeting had the boldness to But can the spirit feel despair
pronounce an opinion, by a large majority, that the traffic Whose hopes know God and heaven?
in ardent spirits was morally wrong. From this meeting O'er his fatherland another sky Hung in the hours of sleep;
sprang the American Temperance Union, which was comThe strong winds of that shore rush'd high,
posed of the officers of societies all over the Union. The With a louder, storinier sweep.
members of this convention carried away a conviction that But he loved his tranquil southern home
a general movement in favour of total abstinence had acHe loved its musky breeze;
tually become necessary, and they were resolved to comHe loved its hills of feathery bloom, And its thick, luxuriant trees.
mence it as soon as possible. But they had already been
anticipated. In the city of New York, Luther Jackson, Giles's distillery. Some of the hogsheads were inscribed Esq., secretary to the New York Society, published, a short with texts of Scripture-for instance. Who hath wombo time previous to their next meeting, at his own espense, hath redness of eyes? Inquire at Deacon Giles's distillery.' and on his own responsibility, the famous total abstinence A certain Deacon Stone caused Mr Cheever to be indicted pledge, which was afterwards adopted by the American for libel. The trial came on in June, 1835, in the Court temperance societies. The introduction of this pledge met of Common Pleas; Mr Cheerer was convicted, fined 1000 with considerable opposition, but the doctrine gradually dollars, and sentenced to an imprisonment of one month. took root, and spread with rapidity. During that year The appearance of the allegory created great excitement; and up to May, 1834, more than eight thousand names the trial had excited universal attention; the public voice, were obtained to it, including the signatures of fifteen at first against Mr Cheever, became ultimately as decidphysicians in the city of New York alone. Animated by edly in his favour; and eight years thereafter, in that rers the increasing fervour with which this pledge was received, distillery, converted by a new cold-water proprietor into Mr Jackson encouraged the youth of New York to attempt a saw-mill, a temperance tea-party was given to the a distinct organisation on total abstinence, as the funda- largest assemblage that had ever been seen in the town of mental principle.
Salem. Accordingly, a society was formed in June, denominated The next circumstance which gave an impulse in Ame. the "Juvenile Temperance Society,' on the principle of rica to the cause of temperance was the trial of E. C. total abstinence from all intoxicating liquors. This was Delaran, Esq. The substitution of malt liquors for ardcot the earliest society ever formed on that principle. In spirits struck that gentleman as particularly ludicrous; I the year 1834, one of the most appalling arguments yet and convinced that the evil could only be eradicated by produced in favour of the cause of temperance was fur- | total abstinence, he publisbed in an American paper 2, nished by Mr Chipman. This gentleman having visited statement to the effect that the brewers in Albany ere, all the almshouses and jails in the state of New York, in the practice of using water obtained from the most poldiscovered that more than tbree-fourths of the pauperism | luted sources. Eight brewers brought suits against him, was occasioned by intemperance, and that five out of six but he proved his charges and was acquitted. In February, of those committed on criminal charges were of intempe- | 1836, the New York State Temperance Society adopted the rate habits. From other sources it was ascertained, that pledge of total abstinence from all intoxicating drinks as a out of 253 paupers in the county of Oneida, 246 were beverage. In August, a second National Convention met made so by drinking; and out of 1134 in Baltimore county, at the Saratoga Springs. At this convention nineteen, 1059 of these cases arose from the same cause. There states were represented, and there was a considerable dewere 3000 inmates in the almshouse at Salem, Massachu- | legation also from Canada. This convention, too, sussetts, 2900 of whom, according to the testimony of the tained the doctrine now becoming general, that total absti! superintendent, had been brought there by liquor. Out nence was the only remedy. The example set by this body! of 572 males in one almshouse, not 20 were sober men, did not fail of its due influence. A great many societies and out of 601 women, not 50. Out of 1969 in various in all the states of America adopted the principle, and almshouses, 1790 were brought there through intempe- hundreds of letters were received by the different societies rance; and out of 4969 in others, the number who could | from clergymen in all parts of the country, signifting trace their misfortunes to the same cause amounted to 4690. their adhesion to the new pledge. The cause had hither. In the beginning of 1835, the state society of New York di- to made least progress in the south-western states, but rected the executive committee to sustain the cause of total this year a lodgment was made in Mississippi by tbe abstinence in the Temperance Recorder. The views put establishmant at Natches of a newspaper styled the forth at this meeting by the various speakers commanded Coldwater Man;' and it is believed that the south-rest the attention of all the land; and the American Tempe- is at this moment little, if at all, behind the rest of the rance Society,' following their example, recommended the Union in zeal for the cause. adoption of the total abstinence pledge, which was accord- Up to 1810 the action of temperance societies in Ame- ! ingly done by a Norfolk society, and by the temperance | rica had been somewhat in detachments, but that rear, society of the eastern district of Virginia. It was about beheld the public mind moving in a mass, and cities, this time that the Rev. George B. Cheever published his states, the whole Union, marching in solid column to tte attack upon distilleries, in a njanner sufficiently singular accomplishment of a common object. Various causes comand fearless to attract extraordinary attention. It was bined to produce this unanimity, but no one so much as the written in an allegorical style, and purported to be a true following. Ou Friday evening, April 2, 1840, six persoas, history of Deacon Giles's distillery. The author described all of them men of character, but very intemperate, met in the deacon as inheriting his distillery and penurious dis- a tavern in the city of Baltimore by accident. A tempeposition from his father, to whom the former had been rance sermon which was to be preached that evening betransmitted through a long line of rumsellers. One Satur- coming the subject of conversation, it was agreed that four day his men refused to work on the Sabbath, and the dea- of their number should be deputed to hear it, and report to con was in a sad quandary. At that moment a number of the rest. The committee returned, and reported that after wild, strange-looking fellows came up, and volunteered all temperance was a very good thing. The landlord to do his work for nothing, provided they were allowed to coming in began to declaim against temperance orators, Tabour by night. The deacon closed the bargain, well This brought on a discussion, which ended in the six formpleased with the terms; and his workmen, who were all ing themselves into a society, to be called the Washingtea demons, carried on their operations at an astounding pace. Temperance Society. A pledge, totally to abstain from All the materials were worked up in two nights-Satur- intoxicating liquors, was written and signed, and W. K. day and Sabbath. By a devilish contrivance of their Mitchell, a man of strong mind, and who came in course own, they attached to each barrel a label, invisible at first, of time to exercise an unbounded influence over his brethand which only became perceptible after they were sold to ren, was chosen president of the association. These indithe retailers, and mounted upon their destined stands. viduals began immediately to make exertions to induce The deacon returned on the Monday, and was quite de- their bottle-companions to unite with them. At all bours lighted with the amount of work accomplished. The and in all places, in the streets, in cars, in stage-coaches, whole array of rum-casks was sold off to retailers. As and in steamboats—wherever it was possible to find all each barrel was put in its appointed place in the diffe- drunkard—they were to be seen urging, entreating, im. rent grogeries, the labels blazed out in staring capitals. ploring; and by the summer of 1812, it was computed that! One was inscribed, • Epilepsy sold here, inquire at Dea- the reformation had converted 100,000 common drunk. con Giles's distillery ;' another, Cholera in Collapse;'ards, and 300,000 tipplers, who were in a fair way of bei a third, “Insanity and Murder;' a fourth, Dropsy and coming so. The spectacle of so many inebriates in all Rheumatism ;' while many bore a part of Robert IIall's districts of the Union rising above their fallen condition, famous definition. The direction was always Deacon excited everywhere the liveliest sympathy. Men of slí