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had been informed of the gunner's commission. At length, wind that blows? Say, why is it that Britain and her re on the 11th, Sir Hudson Lowe came to the grand marshal's | ligious ally, America, should divide the seas-should hold house, and told him, with an air of extreme embarrassment, the keys of the world? Oh, were we but awake to the dethat a statuary in Leghorn had made a bad bust of the son signs of God and to our own responsibility, we should hear of the Archduchess Maria-Louisa, and had sent it to St him say, “I have put you in possession of the seas; put Helena by the ship Baring, accompanied by a letter in the world in possession of my gospel;' and every ship we which he states that the bust has been already paid for, sent out would be a missionary church-like the ark of the is but that he hopes the Emperor's generosity will lead him to deluge, a floating testimony for God, and bearing in its send in addition 100 Louis-d'ors; a claim which in his, bosom the seeds of a new creation. Christians, ours is in- ii Sir H. Lowe's judgment, appeared exorbitant-so exorbi- deed a post of responsibility and of honour! On us have tant, he added, as to be a sufficient reason for not accepting accumulated all the advantages of the past; and on us lies the bust-as it was evidently a shameful speculation of the great stress of the present. The world is waiting, some inferior Tuscan sculptor. The grand marshal did | breathless, on our movements; the voice of all heaven is not suffer himself to be imposed upon by the cunning urging us on. Oh, for celestial wisdom to act in harmony governor, and assured him that the Emperor was all eager- with the high appointments of Providence to seize the ness and joy at the hope of seeing again the features of his crisis which has come for blessing the world :-Dr Harris. son, and he begged him earnestly to send it that evening to Longwood. He did not, however, receive it till the next day. So much cunning and malevolence of purpose cruelly

S O N N E T. wounded the Emperor. He dictated the following letter to

SOLITUDE. the grand marshal, to be sent to the gunner of the Baring:

Oh! for to wander on some hoary height, 6. MR RADWICK,

Where not an insect's hum is heard abroad; “Sir, I have received the marble bust of the young

Whence we may gaze upon yon golden light Napoleon, and given it to his father. Its reception has

That marks the path of heaven by angels trod: given him the most lively satisfaction. I regret that it is

And yonder starry orbs that shine so bright, not in your power to come and see us, and communicate

Like lamps of silver in the eternal dome to us details which would have the greatest interest for a

Or eyes of love that beam with joy divine, father, and especially for one placed in such circumstances

And weary-laden mourners welcome home! as he is. According to the letters forwarded to us, the

Surely the soul, in solitude like this, artist values his work at £100 sterling. The Emperor has

Is borne away upon celestial wings commanded me to put into your hands the sum of £300

Up to the fountain of eternal bliss, sterling; the overplus is intended to indemnify you for

Where love unchanging and for ever springsthe losses to which you have been exposed in the sale of

Forsaking all the pageantry of earth your merchandise, by not having been allowed to send For that more glorious land from whence it had its birth! your goods on shore, and for the prejudice which that event may have raised against you, but which will secure

THE ADAPTATION OF THE GOSPEL. you the esteem of every gallant man. Have the goodness

The preaching of the cross of Christ is a remedy for the to transmit to the persons who have paid him this obliging | miseries of the fall, which has been tested by the experience attention, the Emperor's best thanks. I have the honour of eighteen hundred years, and has never in a single instance to be, &c.,

COUNT BERTRAND. failed. Its efficacy has been proved by human beings of "P.S.-I beg you to acknowledge the receipt of the en- all ages, from the lisping infant to the sinner a hundred closed letter of credit.”

years old. All climates have witnessed its power. From

the ice-bound cliffs of Greenland to the banks of the volupFACILITIES FOR MISSIONARY EFFORT.

tuous Ganges, the simple story of Christ crucified has Never was there an age when the wide field of human

turned men from darkness to light, and from the power of misery was so accurately measured, and so fully explored,

Satan unto God. Its effect has been the same with men as the present; and consequently there never was a time

of the most dissimilar conditions; from the abandoned when the obligation of the Christian church to bring out

inhabitant of Newgate, to the dweller in the palaces of all its divine resources and remedies, was so binding and

kings. It has been equally sovereign amidst the scattered so great. Never was there an age when science attempted

inhabitants of the forest, and the crowded population of so much and promised so largely, challenging the gospel, | the densest metropolis. Every where, and at all times, it in effect, to run with it a race of philanthropy; and con- ' has been the power of God unto salvation to every one sequently, never was there a time when it so much con

that believeth.' -- Rev. F. Wayland cerned the church to vindicate her character as the true angel of mercy to the world; and to show that not by

DAMASCUS.

| The streets of Damascus are clean and tolerably paved. might, nor by power, but by the Spirit of God, the wounds

The houses have externally a very mean appearance, preof the world must be healed. Never was there a time when the elements of universal society exhibited so much rest- senting only a dead wall of sun-burnt brick towards the lessness and change—when the ancient superstitions exhi

histreet, with one or two windows stuck at one corner of the bited so many signs of dotage and approaching death

building, sometimes at another, and generally covered with when the field of the world was so extensively broken up

a thick lattice-work of wooden bars. There are no glass and ready for cultivation-broken up, not by the ordinary

windows, and the cold air is excluded at night by a sliding ploughshare of human instrumentality, but by strange

shutter fastened by a wooden bolt of a curious construcconvulsions from beneath, and by bolts from an invisible

tion. In wet weather, the streets are dreadfully muddy hand above; and, consequently, never was there a time

from the heavy rains which wash down the earthen walls. which so loudly called on the Christian sower to go forth

These would in fact be quickly consumed did they not take and sow. And never was there a land blessed with such

care to thatch them with bushes and straw to throw off peculiar facilities as Britain for acting as a witness for

the wet.-Charles G. Addison. Christ to the world. Why is it that the gospel is at this time in trust with a people whose ships cover the seas, Printed and published by JAMES HOGG, 122 Nicolson Street, who are the merchants of the world? Has he who drew Edinburgh; to whom all communications are to be addressed.

Sold also by J. JOHNSTONE, Edinburgh; J. M'LEOD, Glasgow : W. the boundaries of Judea with his own finger, who selected

M COMB, Belfast; G. YOUNG, Dublin ; G. & R. KING, Aberdeen; the precise spot for the temple, who did everything for the R. WALKER, Dundee; G. PAILIP, Liverpool; FINLAY & CHARLJewish church with design, abandoned the Christian church Tox, Newcastle ; WRIGHTSON & WEBB, Birmingham; A. Her.

Wood, Manchester; G.CULLINGWORTH, Leeds; R.G ROOMBRIDGE to accident? And, if not, if he has placed the gospel here

& Sons, London ; and all Booksellers. with design—what can the nature of that design be, but .. The INSTRUCTOR' being printed from Stereotype Plates, the that it should be borne to the world on the wings of every Numbers may always be had from the commencement.

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hatred to the followers of the Koran. His son Govind, the THE PEOPLE OF THE SEIKH S.

tenth and last of the gurus, ruled in the same spirit, but The Seikhs are not so much a nation or political confe- the power of the Great Mogul, under Aurengzebe, opposed deration as & religious sect. Their origin does not date the rise of a political dominion. With his writings, the Fery far back; their founder, Nanac Schah, or Baba Nanac, Granth or holy book, begun by Nanac and continued by having been born in the year 1469, at Talvandi, now named his successors, was completed. Rajapur, on the river Beas. His descendants are named Before his time the Seikhs had carried weapons, as is Nanac Putra, or the sons of Nanac, a title of honour, whilst permitted to most of the higher castes of the Hindoos, but his followers are called Seikhs, from a Sanscrit word, mean chiefly for self-defence. Guru Govind took up the doctrine ing a disciple or scholar. Nanac, even as a child, was re of Nanac,' that all castes are equal before God,' and showed markable for his piety; and when he grew up spent much that even the lowest and most unwarlike caste might bear of his time in pilgrimages, according to the custom of the arms as well as the Brahmins. By this doctrine he raised Hindoos. In the year 1527, along with some of his com-up a race of warriors from the lowest mass of the people, panions, he came to the Sultan Baber, whom he endeavoured formerly despised as cowards, and abused as having no to convert; and also to the town of Moultan, which he found means of defence. In this way all distinction of caste was fully stocked with saints, so that he exclaimed, “I am come abolished among the Seikhs, and complete equality in dress to a land full of pirs (saints), like the holy Ganga when it and other respects established. Each Seikh must, after seeks the sea.' After his wanderings were completed he his initiation (pakul), carry a weapon of steel on his body, returned to the Punjaub, and died at Kirtipur Dehra, on wear a blue garment, allow his hair and beard to grow, the Ravee, where his tomb is still a celebrated place of pil- smoke no tobacco, assume the war-cry, Wa guruje ka futgrimage. The design of this singular character seems to tih' (May the guru be vietorious), and change the ploughhave been less to found a new sect than to unite the two share for the sword. Govind also established in Umritsir great religious parties, whose virulent hostility caused so the guru mata, or national council, and gave to the union much misfortune to his native land. This he endeavoured the form of a federative republic. His heart burned with to effect by soft persuasion, and by proclaiming the doc- hatred of the Moslems, and he extended the influence of the trine of the one God, with which he thought to oppose the confederation over the high country in the neighbourhood. mad bigotry and deep-rooted superstition that then pre- In the history of his wars, he has said that under him the Failed. His influence was inherited not by his sons, but bow of the Seikhs was victorious over the sabre of the by certain of his disciples named Guru by the Seikhs. His Mahomedans, and the teaching of the Granth over the first successor was Lehana, who was followed by Amera cowardly doctrines of the Vedas and Shastres. He had no Das, whose office, during Nanac's lifetime, had been to bring successor whose authority was generally recognised, and water from the distant Beas and wash his master's feet. each of the chiefs or sirdars was henceforth equal. The third in order of these gurus had already added. The decline and dissolution of the empire of the Great some worldly power to the spiritual influence he had in- Mogul at Delhi, the weakness of the authorities in the berited.

Punjaub, and the frequent incursions of the Affghans, pro As is usually the case, the reform of Nanac, instead of duced a complete anarchy in the land, where nabobs, rawiting the old sects, only added a new one to the num- jahs, and princes, religious sects, associations, and chiefs, ber, and soon drew on his followers the hatred and perse were all struggling together in the endeavour to appropricution of the Mahomedans. This encouraged Har Govind, ate new dominions. The Seikhs no longer needed to keep 2 warlike guru, to endeavour to give a firmer basis to the their confederation secret, but broke out openly in dharwis, sect, in order to enable it to resist with more effect their or robber-bands, alluring the young and adventurous to Mahomedan tyrants. He went about with two swords in their standard by the hope of plunder. The chiefs now his girdle, one, he said, to avenge the death of his father, the maintained their plundering encampments without conother to destroy the lying miracles of Mohamed. Through cealment, and sought fame and reputation by opposing bis influence and institutions, the Seikhs, from a sect of their former rulers. The indolent governors at Lahore peaceful enthusiasts, were changed into a band of zealous were content to repe! the danger without striking at its warriors. He died in 1661, but his successor, Tegh Beha- root. In this manner Umritsir and its vicinity became the dur, continuing his policy, elevated the persecuted Seikhs asylum and refuge of the Seikhs, and soon the centre-point

to a brave and warlike nation, struggling for fame, honour, of their authority. Some transitory persecutions by Affghan | and property, with their former tyrants. The devotee now armies, who defeated them in two severe battles, executed

never laid aside the sword, but swore eternal war and many of the Seikhs, and compelled others to cut off their

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long hair, served only, as the invaders continually retired his mother by poisoning her when in his seventeenth year, across the Indus, to increase the hostility of the Seikhs and soon after expelled the confidential vizier and ruled against the Moslems. The Seikhs regarded those who were himself. He was wholly uneducated, could neither read slain ng martyrs, and resolved to strengthen their yet un- nor write, and gave way to every passion. conquered fortress, Umritsir. After their second great de- In the years 1795-98, the Affghan army of Schah Zuman feat in 1747, they erected new fortifications of earth at this fell upon the Punjaub, and the Seikhs, too weak to resist, city, which were named Ram Runi, and, when subsequently retired to the mountains. Runjeet Sing followed this enlarged, Ram Gurh. So long as the Mahrattas had a great course the first two years, but on the third crossed th: share in these feuds of the Punjaub, a check was put to Sutlej, and levied contributions on the cities there. When the rising power of the Seikhs; but when the former were the Affghans crossed the Indus, he returned and took posdriven wholly back into the Deccan by the battle of Paniput, session of Lahore, then governed by three weak sirdary. in 1761, the Seikhs had full room for action. Next year, He then sent some cannon to Schah Zuman, which he had however, they were again defeated by the Affghans, near left behind on his retreat, and in return was appointed by Umriteir, and their holy temple desecrated and destroyed ; him governor of Lahore, which secured the obedience of but immediately on the enemy retiring to Cabul, they re- the Moslem population, whilst his decision and energy returned to the Punjaub with fanatic determination. They strained the murmurs or subdued the opposition of his attacked the Affghan governor in Sirhind, and destroyed brother sirdars. From this influential position, he conthat place to the foundation, because in it the wife and child tinued to extend his power over the chiefs whose mutual of Guru Govind had been put to death; and even yet it is hostility prevented them making any effectual resistance. thought a meritorious action in a Seikh to pull down three In 1805, the power of the British having reached the Sutlej, stones from the walls of Sirhind and throw them into the he entered into a treaty with them, and in 1809, this was Sutlej. In 1764 they attacked Lahore, which soon yielded renewed at Umritsir, of which he had taken possession. to their enthusiastic courage, and took possession of the Being fully convinced of the superiority of the British whole Punjaub, which they have ever since retained. The troops, he resigned all pretensions to the country east of sirdars then dispersed themselves over its territories, and the Sutlej, and, trusting to their honour, withdrew his gareven to the east of the Sutlej, with their troops, named risons from the fortresses there, to employ them in other misuls, their relations, supporters, and dependants. At quarters. The dissensions among the Affghans, caused by that time there were twelve of these misu!s, each with its various pretenders to the throne of Cabul, greatly favoured own name, and which had collected a force of 70,000 his plans; and when one of the claimants, Schah Shuja, fled horsemen.

to him for protection in 1810 with his treasures, he did not These are the twelve misuls, or confederated warlike re scruple to rob him of the last of his jewels. Among them publics of the Seikhs. Each had one or more chiefs or was the Kohinur, or mountain of light, a diamond of pure sirdars at its head, the most of them raised by fortunate water, half as large as an egg, and weighing three and a circumstances from being Jat peasants, mechanics, or half rupees. herdsmen, to be leaders of robber-bands, and then com- In this unprincipled manner, he continued to extend his manders of armies, with fixed property in land, which they authority, subdued Moultan in 1818, and in the following were always ready to maintain by arms, either against year added Kaschmir also to his dominions. He was now their enemies from without, or their own brethren in the acknowledged as the maha rajah, or supreme ruler of the faith from within. Most of them could raise only from two Punjaub, and set limself to confirm the power he had acto five thousand cavalry, one ten thousand, and two quired. His troops were trained by French officers, and twelve thousand. The twelfth, the Sukur Cbukea Misul, other military improvements introduced. He continued was one of the smallest, with only 2500 horsemen, led by his military operations almost to the end of his life, extendthe warlike Churut Sing, the grandfather of the well-known ing his empire principally to the west of the Indus, against Maha Rajah Runjeet Sing. The only source of union among the fanatical Mahomedans, who made numerous incursions these confederates was their religion, and the assembly of into his territory. His revenue was estimated at two and a their chiefs twice every year at Umritsir, for certain religious half millions sterling, and his army at upwards of eighty obscrvances and mutual consultation. In these meetings thousand men, with an extensive artillery. they planned their plundering excursions, which were un- Since his death, a few years ngo, his dominions have dertaken either alone or in concert. After the expedition, fallen into complete anarchy and confusion. The revoluthe land and plunder were divided according to the number tions in the court of Lahore have been more than usually of horsemen cach chief had brought with him, which gave numerous, even in the annals of eastern despotism, and occasion to frequent quarrels. In all other respects the distinguished by more than the common amount of bloodmisuls were wholly independent, and as it was a point of shed, cruelty, and treachery. The chiefs have encouraged honour not to give up any offender of their tribe, either the soldiers in license and rebellion, till, unable any longer for robbery or murder, to another, the custom of private to restrain them, they have been compelled, for self-preservildefence and revenge was universal. In the villages, each tion, to lead their infuriated followers against the British proprietor surrounded his possessions with a wall and empire. The results of this attack are too recent or too ditch, and built a tower for protection ; in the towns, each little known to find a place here, and we shall only add houso was n fortified castle. To such a length was this some account of the aspect and character of this singular carried, that many of the fortresses were divided by walls people, whose history we have now shortly sketched. and ditches to defend those who lived in one part from Travellers describe the Seikhs as a strong and healthy their neighbours in another. Much of the landed property race, rather slenderly made, but with athletic sinewy limbs. was at the same time held by a kind of feudal tenure from Their temper and habits are formed for a military life, and the sirdars, whom the proprietor was bound to follow in their disposition is wild and fanatical. Few of them can read time of war.

or write, and most of the chiefs intrust their accounts and Such was the unsettled and ill-connected condition of the correspondence to Hindoos or Mahomedans, who live among Seikh government when Runjcet Sing rose to the supre- them and learn sufficient Persian for this purpose. Many macy. He was born on the 20 November, 1782, his fa- of them understand the written dialect of the Punjaub, but ther, Maha Sing, being sirdar of one of the misuls noticed entertain an unconquerable aversion to the Persian or above. Maha Sing was so distinguished for his bravery Arabic; hatred to everything Mahomedan having been and cunning, that many of the Seikhs joined his standard, implanted in them from their youth. Most of their transin order to share the plunder of his marauding expeditions. actions are verbal, their memory is good, and their customs Already three of the other misuls were partially dependent preserved by tradition. Captain Murray, who had frequent on him when he died, only twenty-seven years old, leaving intercourse with them, gives a very unfavourable picture his authority to Runjeet Sing, then only twelve years of of their character. Falsehood, deceit, and perjury prevail nge, and blind of one eye from the small-pox. The young in all their transactions; for money, fear, or favour, they sirdar first freed himself from the troublesome authority of will swear any false oath; and are engaged in constant

disputes and quarrels with each other about the division of show a spirit of piety and devotion very inconsistent with their land or property. In such cases the accused often these cruel and barbarous customs. One part contains appeal to the judgment of God, when the victor must dip Nanac's hymn of praise to the Deity, from which the folhis hand in boiling oil, or carry a red-hot ploughshare lowing are a few verses :fifty or a hundred steps in his bare hand. Charms and Thy gates, how wonderful are they! thy palace, how inuprecations have a great influence on the fancy and actions wonderful, in which thou rulest and reignest over all! both of the chiefs and people, and many diseases and mis- Numberless and infinite are the voices that proclaim fortunes are ascribed to the influence of the · evil eye.' As thy praise; how niany are the Peris who honour thee with in our ancient trials for witchcraft, it is thought sufficient song and shout! proof of guilt to find in the house of the accused an image | Iswara, Brahma, Devi praise thee; they praise thy of wax, coloured threads, small bones, or such things. majesty in thy gates. They are also great observers of fortunate or unfortunate The righteous man praises thee in his inmost thoughts, days, and draw omens of success or failure from the ap- the pious proclaims thy honour aloud. pearance of particular animals. This general prevalence Thou art, thou art the Lord of truth, faithful and just. of the same superstitions in the most distant parts of the Thou art, thou wast, thou passest not away, thou the earth, is a very singular fact in the history of human supporter of all that exists. nature.

Thou doest what seems good unto thee; no other being The care of justice, if we can give it this name, is in the comes nigh to thee. hands of the sirdars or chiefs, who must be paid for every- In Moultan, Burnes visited one of their temples, where thing. The losing party in any process has to pay a fine the priest opened the holy book and touched it with his as a punishment; the winning party must give a present forehead, all the Seikhs present bowing to the ground. as a token of gratitude. Such payments constitute the He then read the first paragraph and explnined it: Ye chief income of the under officials, and, as may be ex- have all sinned; purify yourselves, lest evil come upon you;' pected, they often look more to them than to the true a great truth, expressed with much simplicity, and not unmerits of the case. For crimes, the punishment was rarely | like same passages of the gospel. Such teaching might be capital; mostly fines, imprisonment, or mutilation by cut- expected to produce a good effect on the minds of the ting off the ears or nose. Punishment did not dishonour hearers, but the hearts on which it falls are harder than a person, and criminals were not uncommonly taken from stone. prison to fill some post of authority. When anything was stolen, the zemindar of the district had to make it good, it

ADMIRAL SIR PHILIP DURHAM. heing taken for granted that he was the concealer of the thief.

ADMIRAL SIR PHILIP DURUAM will be ever remembered The uncertain laws for the transmission of property gave as one of the most conspicuous actors in the last great war occasion to many lawsuits and impositions. Everything in which our country was involved. All the qualities was in a manner left to the caprice of the sirdars, who necessary for success in the profession he had adopted, secin could lovy taxes on the people at their pleasure. Com- to have met in his person. Kind, generous, and openmerce suffered from the same cause, the chiefs laying any hearted, he was the very beau ideal of the British sailor; impost they chose on goods passing through their terri and while these qualities secured him the esteem of his tories. The descendants of Nanac were alone in some mea- inferiors, his natural sharpness of intellect, undaunted sure free from these extortions, out of reverence for their courage, and persevering application to the details of a ancestor, and merchants were in the habit of putting their sea-faring life, were such as to win the confidence of those caravans under the charge of one of these favoured indi- | placed in authority over him, and at length to raise him to viduals, who conveyed them to their destination.

the first rank in his profession. We deplore the necessity Even in their family relations, the Seikhs are not dis which called such spirits from the quiet pursuit of useful tinguished by greater virtue or regularity. Marriages take and productive occupations to waste their energies in the place very early, and are often managed by the parents service of the god of war; but, on the other hand, we have for the most selfish and mercenary considerations. Some reason for gratulation in the circumstance, that when promise their daughters to two, three, or more suitors, re- | the emergency occurs, our country can at all times send ceiring money and presents from each, and if they belong forth its heroes with abilities equal to the occasion. The to a different chief no recourse can be had. Hence arise memoir of Sir Philip Durham, by his nephew, which we innumerable feuds, and the women who have been thus quote below, is an ably drawn up and business-like book, bartered away without their own consent, are, as might be and from it we propose making a few extracts. expected, not remarkable for fidelity or chastity. Indeed Philip Charles Durham was the descendant of an ancient all feelings of honour or modesty are wholly wanting on Scottish family. He was born in the year 1763, and had both sides.

only attained his fourteenth year when he was entered Charity, given from motives of compassion to the suffer- midshipman on board the Trident war-slip of 64 guns. ing, is never heard of among them. It is altogether a One of the first pieces of service which he was called on to matter of religion to support the fakirs belonging to the perform, gave occasion for the display of that kindness and various sects. Each of these sects has its temple, with considerateness, which, during his long and arduous career. fields and villages attached, to which the various offerings never seemed to fail him. The master of his ship had in corn or money are given. At some places of pilgrim- | pressed some men from an East India merchant vessel, and age there are charity-boxes, from the receipts of which it became Mr Durham's duty to bring them off to his ship. strangers are supported for a certain number of days One of the pressed men had brought a small venture gratis. Each temple has its servants to collect these gifts. / with him from China, which in the confusion he forgot to Many of the public charitable institutions of the Malome- bring off. He requested Mr Durham's permission to fetch. dans, supported by the Mogul government on a large scale, it, which was granted, and the boat put back for that purhave fallen into complete decay under the Seikhs. They pose. Two years afterwards, the young midshipman was lave, at the same time, retained several of the most bar- with his ship in the West Indies, and it having accidentally barous customs of the Hindoos, as the suttees, or burning taken fire, Mr Durham was necessitnted to ask a passage of widows with their husband's body. This does not often home in some of the vessels lying at the station :--The happen, but is forbidden by no law, and when once the wrst he applied to was the l-is, of fifty guns, but was resolution is expresserl the unfortunate victim is not allowed refused; he then tried the Snake sloop of war, commanded to draw back. The mob surround her person and dwelling, by Captain (afterwards Admiral) Douglas, who also deand by shouts, tumult, and persuasion, leave her no time for reflection till her resolution is put in execution and

• Memoir of the Naval Life anal Services of Arlmiral Sir Philip their victim hurried into the flames.

C.H. C. Durham, G C.B. By his nephew, Captain A, MURRAY. Some parts of their holy book have been translated, and London: Murruy. 1916.

clined taking him on board for want of room, having a ship to be heeled more. The captain then ordered the ship number of invalids from the fleet. Mr Durham was again to be righted, and I called the drummer and made hiin getting into his boat, much disappointed, when the gunner, beat to quarters, that the starboard guns might be run out. who was fishing the anchor, looked at him and said, "Were The guns were begun to be run out on the weather side, you midshipman of the Trident in the Downs in 1777 ?' when the ship took a sally, or tremulous motion. Looking Mr Durham replied that he was. “Do you remember up aloft, I saw that the masts continued to fall over, and being sent to bring off the men that were pressed from the just then I observed the captain trying to open the door of Royal Henry East Indiaman, and putting back when one of the admiral's cabin, but in consequence of the vessel being them told you he had forgotten his little venture he had so much heeled, he was unable to do so. She was evidently brought from China ?' Yes.' Well, I am that man; I going over, and I heard Lieutenant Richardson from the 1, am now gunner of this ship, and have a large cabin, and poop exclaim, • It's all over, but I must try and save this if the captain will let you come on board, you shall live in coat. It was the first time he had put on his lieutenant's it and be no encumbrance to him.' Mr Durham gladly uniform, and he immediately jumped overboard, with the accepted the offer, got the captain's leave, and sailed for coat under his arm. Following his example, I pulled off England.'

my coat and leapt overboard. I soon got hold of a hamOn arriving in London, Mr Durham learned that the | mock that had floated off the deck. . At this moment I was Edgar was fitting out at Woolwich, under the orders of twice carried down by a marine, whom I shook off by tenrhis old captain (Elliot). Proceeding thither, his services | ing the waistcoat loose by which he clung. I then by were gladly accepted, and in January, 1780, he sailed in throwing my arms about got hold of a spar, and was carthe squadron commanded by Sir George Rodney. In a few ried into the wake of the ship, where I got hold of the sig. weeks it was his fortune to be engaged in the celebrated nal halyards (a curious circumstance, as I was signal action off Cape St Vincent, and immediately afterwards officer). I continued to hang by them until one of the seato see the first gun fired at the great siege of Gibraltar, in | men swam up and said, Give me hold of these halyards, which he was employed during its continuance. In the next and I will tow you up. This he did, and I sat on the year, Midshipman Durham was promoted to be acting mast-head for near an hour; the boats being busied in lieutenant and aide-de-camp to the brave old Admiral picking up people who were in more imminent danger. I Kempenfelt in the Victory. He afterwards served in the now observed the captain hanging to the weather mizensame capacity in the Royal George, at the sinking of top-sail yard-arm, supported by a seaman, and I desired which Mr Durham made one of the many singular escapes the first boat that came towards me to pick him up first, of his eventful life. This magnificent vessel was under which was done.' orders to sail for the relief of Gibraltar. During her Mr Durham was picked up by another boat, and, together last cruise she had made rather more water than usual, with Mr Williams, the carpenter, was carried on board and after a strict survey the carpenters discovered a leak, Lord Howe's flag-ship, the Victory, and was immediately and stopped it. It was likewise observed that the pipe put to bed. Mr Williams died a few hours afterwards, which admitted the water into the hold for cleansing the but Mr Durham soon recovered. It is a curious fact that ship, was out of repair. This pipe is usually placed about the body of the marine who clung to Mr Durham was three feet below the surface of the water; to remove the washed on shore about a fortnight afterwards, with the old pipe, therefore, and to insert a new one, it became waistcoat firmly twisted round his arm; a pencil-case necessary to heel the Royal George on one side, so as to bearing Mr Durham's initials was found in the pocket, and raise the mouth of the pipe out of the water. This opera restored to its owner. Another interesting relic of the tion brought the larboard port-hole sills even with the wreck was recovered during Colonel Pasley's operations, water. A lighter came on the lower side of the ship in 1841, and which Sir Philip Durham identified as having and put her cargo of rum on board, the weight of which, | been his property : it was a stamp he employed for markwith that of the men engaged in hoisting in the casks, ing his books, linen, &c. The types were in a perfect caused the Royal George to heel considerably more, and state of preservation, though they had been in the great brought the lower deck port-holes under the water, which deep for nearly sixty years.' now dashed in in such quantities to her hold, that she be After several arrangements for the accommodation of gan gradually to settle down. The carpenter twice warned Lieutenant Durham, he was ultimately transferred to the the first lieutenant (Sanders) of the danger the ship was Union as acting lieutenant, and sailed in 1782 to the in, but he would not listen to him, and delayed giving the relief of Gibraltar. Here his vessel had a severe engage order to right the ship till it was too late; and a slight ment with the Santissima Trinidad, of 112 guns, in which breeze springing up, beeled her completely on her broad Lieutenant Durham was honourably distinguished. side, when guns, shot, and everything moveable fell to lee • In 1784, Mr Durham was appointed to the Unicorn ward, and rendered it an impossibility to right her. She frigate, then lying at Plymouth, and bound for the coast of sank almost immediately. The watch on deck, consisting Africa, but before she sailed he fell into bad health and of two hundred and thirty men, were saved by running up was obliged to go to the hospital. After his recovery, he the rigging, and were taken off by the boats which came thought it time to go and see his father and mother, from to their assistance, and which likewise succeeded in pick-whom he had been absent seven years, and knowing them ing up about seventy who had escaped by swimming; to be at Bath, he proceeded there without apprising them amongst the latter were the Captain (Waghorn) and two of his intention. In the morning he walked into the pumpacting lieutenants (Durham and Richardson). By this room, and soon recognised his father. He went up to him calamity about 900 persons met with a watery grave, and said, “I suppose you are from the north, sir?' He among whom was the brave old admiral, Kempenfelt, who answered that he was. They then got into a general sort at the time was sitting writing in his cabin. He was in of conversation. At last his father said, “I must wish you the seventieth year of his age.' Mr Durham's own relation good morning, sir, I am going home to breakfast.' Mr of this lamentable event is too interesting to be omitted : Durham said, “Won't you take me with you?' His father

I was walking the quarterdeck with the captain (Wag-| looked hard at him, and exclaimed, "Good God, you are my horn), and had frequent communications with the men who son Philip! when you left home you were a white-headed were boring the hole in the side of the ship. The carpen laddie-how you are changed. Come, your mother will ter then came up, and said that the ship was taking in a be delighted to see you.' He accompanied his father and great deal of water at her lee-ports, and that he thought mother to Scotland, where he soon entered into all the it was time to right her. The first lieutenant and the car- country amusements their place afforded, but he soon tired penter immediately quitted the deck. Two or three mi- and resolved to go abroad. nutes afterwards I heard the men who were over the side After a visit to France of some eighteen months, Mr boring the hole for the stop-cock, call out “avast, avast Durham grew tired of inaction, and returned to England heeling, she is high enough. The ship is rising out of the for fresh employment. He was not long idle, as, imme water.' Up to that moment they had been calling for the diately on his arrival, he found his old commander, Elliot,

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