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studded with diamonds, and mounted on horses almost of eight or ten miles! A piastre, however, would always sinking under the weight of gold housings. Our ideas were set matters right, and cause me to be left undisturbed." confused by the magnificence which we saw displayed. Lady Hester had expected great benefit from the climate And now, on a sudden, the crowd, which had been noisy of Constantinople, but met a severe disappointment. She and making their remarks on the scene before them, was is told that the sulphureous baths of Asia might be of serhushed. A solemn and really an awful silence prevailed, vice, and she resolves to go thither. Brusa is well described, whilst only low whispers were heard that the commander but there is nothing about it sufficiently interesting to make of the faithful was near. Every Turk immediately folded us detain the reader. They return again to Constantinople his long robe over his breast, crossed his hands before him, and hire a house. Poor Lady Hester is all along sadly dropped his head on his bosom, and, in a tone of voice just neglected, the worthy physician being too much engrossed audible, prayed Allah and Mahomet to preserve the per- | with himself. This is amusing petuity of the royal rače. Our object was curiosity, and “My long residence in Constantinople had given me time we looked eagerly for the sultan, but could hardly obtain to form an extensive acquaintance, and, from some success a glimpse of him. His person, too sacred to be gazed on, ful cures, I was much solicited to settle there. It would was almost hidden by the bfty plumes of feathers of the indeed have been a desirable situation as far as money was attendants who surrounded him, each of whom wore a vest concerned; but I was under engagements with Lady Hesof glittering stuff representing resplendent armour, and on ter which precluded such a thought. The Turks, and also his head a crested helmet. Fancy must assist the reader the Armenians, were exceedingly liberal in their fees; the in imagining the gorgeous housings, studded with rubies, Greeks were not so. During the summer I learned to throw emeralds, and other precious stones, on a ground of gold, the girýd, or blunt javelin; and, as I conceive it to be that covered the sultan's horse, which was a milk-white thrown by the Turks in the same manner as practised by stallion. He passed, and lo! an ugly blackamore, the the ancients during the time of the Trojan war, I shall enminister of his pleasures, entitled the Kislar aga, followed deavour to make the reader understand it. When a javelin him. His deformity rendered him hideous, yet was he is put into the hand of a person unused to handle such a rivalled in it by fifty other black eunuchs, and as many weapon, and he is desired to throw it, he invariably ele white ones, who filled up his train. These were succeeded vates his hand and arm; and, holding the javelin on a level by a dwarf. Three hundred chokhadars, or pages, closed with his head, or still higher, throws it overhanded. But the procession, all clad in white, and all extremely beau-this I conceive is not the mode employed by the ancients; tiful in person. There were several men appointed, ac- nor is the same degree of power acquired as in the undercording to custom, to throw money to the mob; and several handed manner, which is as follows. The javelin, being others whose duty it was to beat them unmercifully if they from three and a half to five feet long, and of equal weight thronged too riotously to pick it up; so that, between the at both ends, is taken in the palm of the hand, resting in sixpences and the blows, which seemed to be dealt out in a position out of the horizontal one by a trifling elevation about equal shares, there was much diversion for a by- of the point, and is pressed almost entirely by the finger stander. The procession arrived at the mosque. Prayers and thumb alone. The arm is straightened, the bend of were said. But within those sacred walls, on such an oc- the arm faces outwards, and the elbow is turned inwards, casion, no infidel dared cast even a glance, and we retired so that it points to the hip-bone. Then a position is asto our homes delighted with what we had seen, but morti- sumed, exactly such as a man would take who should fence fied by our exclusion from the termination of the cere-left-handed, and, in this way, the javelin is discharged as mony.'

if slung from the whole arm, without any effort at the We have hitherto had almost nothing of Lady Hester; wrist, and little at the elbow. On horseback, the impulse now, however, she hires a house in the village of Therapia, is greater, because the horse is brought to a sudden halt ten miles from Constantinople, and is attacked with a se and a wheel about to the left, just at the moment of throwvere indisposition. That her ladyship may not pass alto-ing the javelin. Giryd is an Arabic word, meaning a gether unnoticed, we here give a letter which she despatches branch of the palm-tree; such a branch being generally to a friend. It is certainly a poor affair:

used for a sham javelin, as being firm, heavy, and elastic, Terapia, upon the Bosphorus, December 21, 1810. and having a slight tapering from one extremity to the My dear , Since the fire at Pera good houses are other.' 80 scarce that I have taken up my abode at this place, . Having applied without success to the war minister to get where I have a fine view of the coast of Asia, and mouth of permission to locate herself for a season in the south of the Black Sea. Lord S- and B- are about to set off France, Lady Hester resolves, at all events, not to risk upon a tour; the latter returns here in a few weeks, but another winter in Constantinople and so preparations are my lord means to take his passage to Malta by the first op- made for quitting that city. She first thought of trying portunity, and to return to us in the early spring. I flatter Athens, but at last resolves to go to Egypt. They hire & myself that you will take my word for his having the best Greek vessel with a Greek crew, and are again upon the of hearts, and being a most friendly creature, till you can waters. Live poultry, sheep, wine, every thing that could judge yourself of his good qualities. B- desires to be make the voyage comfortable, had been provided; but alas, most kindly remembered to you. Canning (now Sir Strat- on the 27th of October, four days after sailing, the ship sprung ford Canning), has behaved to me in the civilest, kindest a leak, and the cry of all hands to the pump showed that manner possible, but has never once mentioned his cousin's some danger impended. The description of the shipwreck name.'

must be given entire. Lady Hester, for the first time, apThey spent the winter, therefore, near Constantinople; the pears to exhibit something like character. physician of Lady Hester enjoying, he tells us, capital shoot- It is seldom that the Levantine ships have pumps, or, ing. There was abundance of wild fowl on the Bosphorus when they have, they are so little used as generally to be during the cold weather; and I used sometimes to cross found unserviceable when wanted : and such was the case into Asia in a wherry to shoot. On two different occasions, with ours. The water increased rapidly, and every exerI brought home two pelicans. They swam towards the tion was necessary to check its progress. Mr B., Mr boat, and suffered the gun to be levelled at them without Pearce, myself, and all the servants, were unremittingly showing the least symptom of alarm. Those who are de- employed in raising and lowering the buckets, which were sirous of shooting on the canal, or indeed anywhere in the plied at the hatchways as well as at the wells; whilst the neighbourhood of Constantinople, must obtain a teskery, pilot directed the shin's course towards Rhodes. In the or permission to that effect. I was stopped more than once meantime, Lady Hester, who had been informed of the by the keepers, who resorted to various stratagems to get leak, became aware, from the confusion which prevailed, money. One keeper, when I showed him my license, told that great danger was apprehended. She dressed herself, me it was very true I had a teskery; but that an order had and quietly directed her maid to furnish a small box with come down that no guns were to be fired on the canal, be- a few articles of the first necessity, to be prepared against cause two of the sultan's ladies were lying-in-at a distance the worst. There was a cask of wine in the cabin, which

had been brought to drink on the voyage. This her lady- Things, however, continue in a bad state for a requisite ship, with her own hands, drew and distributed among the length of time-almost all their property, including linen sailors, to cheer them under the labour, which became and body clothes, had been lost in the wreck; and after Fery severe. The wind had now risen to a complete gale, going to Lindo, exhausted by hunger and fatigue, Lady and, about twelve o'clock, the ship heeled gunwale down, Hester falls ill of a fever, on recovering from which, she and was so waterlogged that she never recovered an up-sends a long letter to a friend. The following is a speciright position afterwards. As our situation became more men. She is describing the wreck: alarming, two or three of the Greek servants began to lose We have lost a poor dog, which was quite a treasure; courage, and, throwing themselves flat on the deck, vented it was so frighted and so sick, we could not get it into the the most womanish lamentations, nor could they be induced boat. I lament this every day, and little else, except the by either threats or promises to work any more. One most beautiful collection of conserves for you and two other shook as if he had an ague fit; and another invoked the people, violets, roses, orange-flowers, and almost every sort Virgin Mary, with continued exclamations of · Panagia of fruit.' [Fudge !) mou ! panagia mou !' Things wore this unpromising ap- On her ladyship's recovery she went to reside at Rhodes, pearance when, about three o'clock, the south-west point of and took up her abode in the house of a person named Phithe island of Rhodes was discovered on our weather bow. lippaki, who was, it appears, an archon, and nearly allied to The pilot immediately put the ship's head as direct to it as a prince. Rhodes, however, could not supply all that her the wind would permit. Every person took fresh courage, destitute situation rendered indispensable, and the physiand our exertions became greater than ever. But the ship cian is sent off to Smyrna to procure money and clothes. was no longer obedient to the helm, and we lost, in lee-way, | Lady Hester, whose brain had, let us in charity guess, been what we gained in progress. We were perhaps not more affected by the recent storm and her subscquent hardships, than two miles from the island, and it was resolved to let adopts now the resolution of dressing like a man and a go an anchor. The anchor, however, proved of no use, Turk! Her physician does his best to defend her conduct on and the ship still drove. The leak had now gained so much different grounds, but with nothing like success. If it was upon us that there was every probability the ship could not no fault in Lady Stanhope's case to renounce the dress of long keep afloat, and it was resolved that the long-boat her sex and assume the robes of a Turk, it can be no fault should be hoisted out as our only resource. This was made in any other lady who visits these parts to do so too; it was known to Lady Hester, and, the order having been given not, and it could not come to good, but it got Lady Hester that no one should burden the boat with luggage, it was into repute--it gratified her vanity, and she from that with much difficulty lowered into the sea. Whilst this was hour attracted notice and recovered health. Our author doing, I went down into the cabin, and took from my trunk sets off for Smyrna, and after living there for a month or two, a bag of dollars, which, with my sabre and a pistol, was he returns with plenty of money and gay new dresses to all that I saved. I hastened upon deck, and, jumping into Rhodes. He found Lady Hester and her maide the boat, where already twenty-four persons had got before in a fine cottage by the delightful sea-shore, and after being, me, we let go the rope, and placed all our hopes on reach- reasonably, it would seem, scolded for remaining so long ing a rock, which was about half a milo to leeward of us. away, is ordered to unbuckle his pack and exhibit : It was No sooner were we free from the lee of the ship than the accordingly opened, and the party assumed their dresses.' danger to which we were exposed became still more formi. The island of Rhodes, the physician tells us, surpasses in dable than before. Almost every wave beat over us. picturesqueness and fertility all others of the Archipelago Providence, however, watched over our safety; and we at The town bears still the marks of having been anciently last got to the leeward side of the rock, where a little very handsome. It has baths, mosques, and derives much creek, just large enough to shelter the boat, received us, wealth from holding maritime intercourse with Egypt. and we landed. But when we came to reflect on our po- A squabble between Lady Hester and her servants is next sition, it seemed still very deplorable. There was only recorded, and here in the Salsette frigate she sets sail for one place, a sort of cavity in the rock, which afforded shel- | Alexandria. We cannot call this portion of the physician's ter from the spray. There was no fresh water, and, in volume the most interesting part. He does not seem to the hurry of quitting the ship, that, as well as provisions, have a mind susceptible of those sublime einotions which had been forgotten. Fatigue, however, was at present the are consequent on recollections of the past, associating most urgent sensation; and we all composed ourselves, in themselves with scenes of present grandeur or dreary our wet clothes, to sleep; the cave in the rock being as- decay. Judging from his polished style, he must be a signed to Lady Hester and her maid. About midnight the scholar, and yet he unquestionably eschews pedantry or kind abated å little, and the master proposed attempting classical allusion with most religious scrupulosity. The to reach the land; averring it was as well to perish at once scenes through which he has already led us wero singuas to be starved to death. He suggested that, if the crew larly rife with memories of the past, and yet he will no only was taken with him, there would be a much better more quote Horace or make reference to Virgil than chance of effecting his purpose; and that, once arrived, he Beau Brummel would, in assemblies of ton, praise spincould provide boats for our deliverance : whereas, if all age or make mention of greens. He has one excuse for went, the boat would in all probability sink. These argu- being deficient in this respect in Egypt-though Darwin, ments were deemed valid, and, accompanied by our pray- Volney, and Dr Clarke, might with equal justice have aders, they launched off. It was agreed that, when they | duced the same he was consumedly' plagued with mosTeached the shore, they should make a fire as a signal of quitoes and fleas_stung like a tench,' in short. The their safety; and, in the course of two hours, we saw the party remained a few days at Rosetta, and greatly adWished-for blaze. Daylight oame, and we remained with- mired that famous town. Nothing can exceed the beauty out food or drink, anxiously looking out for the return of of the gardens in the suburbs. They left Rosetta on the the crew. Our reflections were by no means comfortable : 9th of March, and proceeded up the Nile. The villages of for, knowing the character of the Greeks, we could not be the peagants are described as being an assemblage of hovels,

Te that, once safe themselves, they would not abandon or of mud bricks baked in the sun. When sailing in this us to our fate. We watched all day, and it was not until manner, and within ten miles of Cairo, the Pyramids are about a quarter of an hour before sunset, that a black announced, but though the physician went on deck to see

OK Was seen on the bea, which we at length distinguished them, they excited no astonishment, for the size of their 10. be a boat. It contained the crew, but without the cap | base is so large as to render their height much less strikin who had declined the danger of coming off again. ing than it otherwise would be.' Oh, my dear doctor, get brought us bread, cheese, water, and arrack; and down again and finish your sherbet! They soon after this mirty hours' fasting, we satisfied our hunger | arrive at Cairo, where one of their first employments was

to see the best riders of the old Mamelukes, whose reputaey get safely landed, and Lady Hester seeks with her tion for horsemanship in Turkey is unrivalled. The open

w the temporary accommodation of a windmill. I ing of a nummy was the next exhibition that seemed to

They brought

thus, after thirty hours' fasan and thirst.

delight, and not knowing how to spend the evening, they the man, and here it is,' and the bird was carried awat. send for the dancing women. In the prospect of being paid, A few minutes after, the servant came again. You hate these amiable personages left their beds, obedient to the done my mistress a great service,' said she; she sets a bich summons, and presented themselves before the English value upon the bird, which had escaped from her. She is party half asleep. In order to rouse them, it was neces- much obliged to you, and requests you to accept this triffe, sary to give them drink, and then they became gay, though, with her thanks. The poor man received it thankfully, on the whole, their movements excited disgust! The Egyp- and it proved to be neither more nor less than the sum be tian women, he says, are most graceful walkers,' they owed; and when the officer came, he said, Here is the seem so many tawny Venuses, and yet they do not wear amount of the debt; now leave me in peace, for God bsa stays. To save appearances they give a day to the Pyra- sent it me.'-Dr Krummacher. mids—but a modern tourist would bestow more notice on the old castle of Rosyth in Fife, than this young and learn

THE SONG OF THE SUN. ed physician does on those celebrated works of old times.

At morning I rise It is with a kind of vindictive satisfaction we discover

From the eastem skies, that, on their return, the whole dandy cavalcade narrowly

And mount my golden car, escaped a sound ducking in the Nile; they got, however,

And, hurrying, night,

All pale with affright, a good fright. After five days' sail from Egypt they reach

To her deserts flies asar. Syria, and land in Jaffa.

Each starlet on high They had now been absent from England two years and

Sbuts its twinkling eye, three months, and had become accustomed to the manners

For it dare not look on me,

When I fling the blaze, and habits of the Turks. Lady Hester has now totally re

Of my dazzllng rays nounced the dress and manners of her sex. When she

O'er heaven, earth, and sea. rode out in a splendid Mameluke dress, she was usually

Oh, I never lag, mistaken for some young bey with his mustachios not yet

But o'er mountain and crag grown; and this assumption of the male dress was a sub

With my glittering wheels I go. ject of severe criticism among the English who came to the

The streamlets rejoice

With a many-toned voice, Levant. Strangers, however, would frequently pass her

And the sea-waves dance below. without any notice at all; a strong proof that she felt no

Down, down to the deeps awkwardness in wearing a dress which would otherwise

Where the sea-snake creeps,

And the bright fish sparkle by, have attracted general attention. The fairness of her com

To the fathomless bowers plexion was sometimes mistaken for the effect of paint.'

of the coral flowers, Jaffa is next described, but not with much interest.

I look with a fearless eye. From Jaffa they proceed to Jerusalem, and we are at last

I seize the streams put into good humour and reconciled to the worthy doctor,

With my burning beams, by the touching way in which he alludes to the feelings

And stretch an arch o'er heaven;

I cross the storm which a first sight of that venerable city produced.

On that aery form, We approached Jerusalem, all more or less awed by

When the tempest clouds are riven the recollection of the scenes which had been acted on this

I burst through the shroud memorable spot, a feeling which the appearance of it is

Of the thunder cloud, well calculated to inspire. For several miles around it,

And smile at the tempest's wrath;

I waken to mirth the mountains are bare, rugged, and rocky, presenting a

The drooping earth, uniformly deserted appearance. The city is seen standing

And beauty I spread in my path. as if cut off from the rest of the world, and its high walls,

Crystalline towers, on the outside of which no object meets the eye but here

And diamond bowers,

I build in the northern sea; and there an insulated church, add to the gloominess of

My streamers bright the prospect. We entered by the gate of Bethlehem.'

I unfurl to the night, Still his accounts of the holy sepulchre and the hill of

Where the icebound regions be Calvary are coldly and briefly given. He was much more

I linger awhile at home dining with British officers at Malta, or at Con

By some lonely isle stantinople shooting teal. They left Jerusalem on the 30th

That gems the brow of ocean;

Yet never I rest, of May; and in our next we shall take the liberty of march

But away to the west ing on with the cavalcade.

I hurry with ceaseless motion.

When wearied and worn,

To my couch I return, * Who else was it but the God of Elijah, who, a short time

And sink on the western billow;

The twilight skies, ago, in our neighbourhood, so kindly delivered a poor man

With their myriad dies, out of his distress; not, indeed, by a raven, but by a poor

Are curtained round my pillow. singing bird? You are acquainted with the circumstance.

When the morning stars sung The man was sitting, early in the morning, at his house

O'er the world yet young,

I join'd in their heav'n-echoed bymn; door; his eyes were red with weeping, and his heart cried

And on shall I glide to heaven, for he was expecting an officer to come and dis

In my glory and pride, train him for a small debt; and whilst sitting thus, with

Till the stars in their spheres grow dim. his heavy heart, a little bird flew through the street, flut

Chaotic night fed toring up and down, as if in distress, until, at length, quick

When my banner I spread

O'er a world in the flush of its prime, as an arrow, it flew over the good man's head into his cot

And its folds shall wave free tage, and perched itself within an empty cupboard. The

O'er the earth and the sea, good man, who had little imagined who had sent him the

Till Eternity conquereth Time. bird, closed the door, caught the bird, and placed it in a cage, where it immediately began to sing very sweetly, Printed and published by JAMES HOGG, 122 Nicolson Street, and it seemed to the man as if it were the tune of a fa- Edinburgh; to whom all communications are to be addressed vourite hymn, Fear thou not when darkness reigns;' and Sold also by J. JOHNSTONE, Edinburgh; J. M'LEOD, Glasgoe;.

CURRY, jun. & Co., Ireland ; R. G ROOMBRIDGE & Sons, London as he listened to it, he found it soothe and comfort his

W. M'COMB, Belfast: G. & R. KING, Aberdeen: R. WALABS mind. Suddenly some one knocked at the door. 'Ah, it Dundee; G. PAILIP, Liverpool; FINLAY & CHARLTOx, Newcast. is the officer,' thought the man, and was sore afraid. But, WRIGHTSON & WEBB, Birmingham; A. HeYWOOD and J. AIXX

WORTH, Manchester; G. CULLING WORTH, Leeds; and all Book no; it was the servant of a respectable lady, who said that

sellers. the neighbours had seen a bird fly into his house, and she

*.* The INSTRUCTOR' being printeri from Stereotype Piatas, wished to know if he had caught it? ‘Oh yes,' answered Numbers may always be had from the commencement

And its me in the I spre

[graphic][merged small][merged small][merged small]

wheels have been described as long in use among spinsterg. PROGRESS OF MECHANISM IN

One of these is commonly called in this country · the big SPINNING.

wheel,' from the size of its rim, or the 'wool wheel,' from Among the many wonderful changes in modern society its being chiefly employed in the spinning of wool; the brought about by the stupendous discovery of James Watt, other is the Jersey wheel, used for the spinning of flax, not the least wonderful is that effected in the manufacture and of which the Saxony wheel was an improvement, inof fibrous substances into fabrics of various kinds, and asmuch as it enabled the spinner to mount two spindles which has issued in the development of the modern factory on the same wheel, so as to form a thread with each hand. system. Processes which formerly were difficult, tedious, The demand for cotton, linen, and woollen goods, having imperfect, and exceedingly scanty in their results, are now very much increased about the middle of last century, the performed with the utmost ease, rapidity, and certainty; manufacture of these articles greatly extended, giving the production of fabrics of all kinds has been increased abundant occupation to the female members of every poor to an amazing extent; and immense populations have family. According to Dr Taylor, this was the commencebeen accumulated in the manufacturing towns, numbering ment of the system of infant labour; for spinning being by hundreds of thousands, and constantly increased by found so profitable, every child in the cottage was forced accessions from the agricultural districts, who derive their to help in the process. And when the father was a weaver, sole subsistence from tending and guiding the spindles and and the mother a spinner, the tasks imposed on the chilpower-looms driven by the never-tiring steam-engine. dren were often cruelly severe. The articles so produced,

As with all other arts, that of spinning fibrous sub- it need scarcely be said, were very much inferior in quastances was originally of the rudest description. So far lity to those now in use among even the poorest classes. as we can now ascertain, the distaff and the spindle were An improvement was made in this comparatively rude the first simple instruments employed by the spinner. The process about the year 1764, when James Hargreaves, distaff was a stick or reed about a yard in length, with a then living in the neighbourhood of Blackburn, invented fork or expansion near the top, round which the flax or his spinning jenny. The principle of this machine is preFool was wound, previously prepared by carding or comb- cisely that of the common spinning wheel; its merit coning. The distaff was usually held under the left arm, and sisting in its greatly increased productiveness. Harthe fibres were drawn out from the projecting ball, being greaves was, it seems, quite satisfied to spin yarn sufficient at the same time spirally twisted by the forefinger and for his own loom, without telling his neighbours by what thumb of the right hand. The thread so produced was means it was produced. This secret was, however, let spun by the turning round of the spindle, and was then out through the vanity of a female member of the family, Found upon it, until the quantity was as great as it could who boasted to a sick friend of having spun a pound of carry. A fresh spindle was then mounted, and those al-cotton since her last visit, shortly before. This was soon ready loaded with thread were stored in a basket until a noised abroad, and when Hargreaves' neighbours at length sufficient quantity was collected for the weaver. The Hin discovered that he had invented a machine by which one doos to this day form their distaff of the leading shoot of woman could easily spin, within the same time, as much some young tree, carefully peeled; and for the spindle as had formerly been spun by twenty persons, they broke they select part of a beautiful shrub, which has hence ob- into his house, destroyed the machine, burnt nearly all his tained the popular name of the Spindle Tree. With these furniture, and threatened him with violence. Probably simple implements, and by aid of that exquisite touch this was one of the first exhibitions of the popular hostility which the Hindoos possess, they are enabled to spin those to machinery, which has since so often broken out in Engdelicate cotton yarns from which the celebrated Indian land, sometimes with devastating fury. muslins are made. The ancients appear to have had no Soon after this, the method of drawing the fibres by rolother method of spinning than by the distaff and spindle, lers, instead of by hand, came into operation. The first and as these primitive tools are still made use of by the mill for this purpose was erected at Nottingham, and the modern Egyptians, it is probable that the cloth with which machinery was turned by horses; but this method being mummies are bandaged was spun by the same method found too expensive, another mill was shortly afterwards 3000 years ago.

built at Cromford, in Derbyshire, which was worked by a The use of the spindle and distaff was superseded in water wheel, and hence the spinning machinery was called England by the spinning wheel about the reign of Henry the water frame,' and the yarn produced by it 'water VIII. It was probably introduced from Hindostan, where twist,' a name still continued to be applied to similar deit had been in use for ages. Two kinds of household scriptions of yarn. The progress of invention from this

point continued to be very rapid; and the Factory System standing a diminution in the hours of labour. On comwas soon fairly commenced. Its beginning originated in paring the two periods of 1831 and 1840, it appears from this way: Up to the time of which we speak cotton-flax | the books of Messrs Marshall of Leeds, above referred to, had been prepared at the houses of the workmen, with that in the former year the average wages of 139 men were such simple machinery as the hand or stock cards, the 19s. 10d. per week; of 385 women and girls, 5s. 3d. per week; spinning-wheel, and the loom. When the spinning-jenny and of 250 children, 3s. 2 d. per week; the mills running came into use, and the number of spindles was greatly in 72 hours per week. Whereas, in 1840, when the hours of creased, & workshop was added to the cottage. But when running had been reduced to 66 hours per week, that is, carding and other machines had been invented, and when by about one-eighth, the average wages of 135 men had improvements in them had also introduced a greater nun- risen to 21s. 8d., and of 478 women and girls to 58. 114d. ber of processes and a more marked division of labour, In the case of the children, the average had fallen to more space was required than a cottage or a workshop could 2s. 5 d. per week, in consequence of the Factories Regulafurnish. The weight of the new machinery also needed tion Act limiting their labour to half-a-day, fresh relays of strongly built mills; and to put and keep them in motion children being employed during the other half; so that they required more force than the human arm could sup- here, also, the actual wages for the period of labour alply. Hence mills arose on the banks of streams, and their lowed is also increased by more than one-third. Many of waters were placed under contribution to supply the power the young women employed, both in the flax and cotton to drive them. But water power was found so variable mills, are paid from 8s. to 12s. per week; which is more and uncertain-influenced as it was by the state of the than the average of sempstresses can earn, and more even weather--there being sometimes too much and sometimes than many highly educated young women acting as gorertoo little water, that that regularity of speed which is so nesses receivé. essential to the spinning of fine numbers could not be ob- It is well observed by Mr Hickson, in the last report of tained. This obstruction, however, to the progress and the Handloom Commissioners, that one of the greatest perfection of our textile manufactures, was completely re advantages resulting from the progress of manufacturing moved by the invention of the steam-engine; after which | industry, and from severe manual labour being superseded there rapidly sprung up, on the hills, plains, and valleys, hy machinery, is its tendency to raise the condition of wothroughout the manufacturing districts, mills for the spin- men. Education only is wanted to place the women of ning of cotton, flax, wool, silk, and other fibrous substances. Lancashire higher in the social scale than in any other The progress made in every department of machinery has part of the world. The great draw back to female happibeen so great, that we soon outstripped the whole world; ness among the middle and working classes, is their comand have attained to such rapidity and cheapness of produc plete dependence and almost helplessness in securing the tion, that we are able to bring the cotton and silk of India means of subsistence. The want of other employment than

the needle cheapens their labour, in ordinary cases, until turing it into goods, send it back to India again, and there it is almost valueless. In Lancashire, profitable employundersell the native Hindoo even in his own market. It ment for females is abundant. Domestic servants are so is the same with wool and other articles.

scarce that they can only be obtained from the neighbourSome idea of the extent of the modern factory system ing counties. A young woman, prudent and careful, and may be formed from a few facts stated by Mr Leonard living with her parents, from the age of 16 to 25, may, in llorner, in a report just made to Parliament, respecting that time, by factory employment, save £100 as a wedding the district (Lancashire and Cheshire) over which he is portion. I believe it to be the interest of the community, Inspector. He states, that the 1519 firms in his books oc that every young woman should have this in her power. cupy 2068 factories; having 1552 steam-engines with the She is not then driven into an early marriage by the nepower of 44,338 horses, and 515 water wheels with the cessity of seeking a home; and the consciousness of inde power of 5,413 horses. They employ 221,437 persons of pendence in being able to earn her own living, is favourall ages; of which number 14,441 are children between 8 able to the development of her best moral energies.' and 13 years of age, 65,546 between 13 and 18 years of This, we believe, is a fair representation of what might age, and 77,208 above 18 years of age. Of the whole, be the consequence of factory occupation, and what would 77,208, ar about one-third, are females. This estimate, be have been the actual condition of the great body of female it remembered, excludes the manufacturing districts of operatives now had moral and intellectual culture kept Yorkshire, Derbyshire, Nottingham, Ireland and Scotland. pace with the development of the factory system. It has

From a paper lately read before the Lecds Mechanics' been the result of factory employment at Lowell and else and Literary Institution, by Mr Torsman, it appears that where in the United States; and why should it not be so the firm of Marshall & Son, Leeds, with which that gentle in England ? Certainly there is nothing in the occupation man is connected, employs upwards of 3000 persons, and of spinning either flax, cotton, or silk, which is detrimenabove 500 horse power. In one single room of their tal to moral and social improvement, more than in any manufactory, 40,000 spindles are constantly at work, | other occupation; on the other hand, there is every reason making from 2000 to 3000 revolutions every minute for 64 to believe, that with proper attention to the cultivation of hours per week, and turning off in that time probably a the minds and morals of those employed in it, they would great deal more than the whole spinster population of Great erelong become one of the most respectable and valued Britain could do in a year with the one-thread spinning- portions of our industrial community. wheel, about a century ago!

While the immense abundance and cheapness of all spun and woven productions has brought them within the reach

THE VENERABLE BEDE! of almost all classes of the population, it is also gratifying Bene, or BEDA, whom posterity has universally agreed to to be able to state, that the earnings of the labourers have, designate by the deserved title of ' venerable,' is the most on the whole, nearly kept pace with the rapidity and distinguished name in Anglo-Saxon literature. His chief cheapness of the productions. Formerly, spinsters made work, the • Ecclesiastical History of England,' is likewise the most miserable wages-little more than sempstresses the principal original authority for the early civil history do now. The number employed, also, was comparatively of his country. The following memoir of this learned and small to what are engaged now-a-days in manufacturing | good man lately appeared in the Newcastle Guardian, processes. The population of all rural districts still keep and, though brief, brings together in a very able manner flocking to the manufacturing towns to obtain employment all the important particulars which have come down to us in the mills. And notwithstanding, we say, the immense | regarding his personal history :increase in the productiveness of the machinery, and the

Hac sunt in fossa, immense increase also in the numbers of those employed,

Bedüe Venerabilis Os58. the wages of the operatives have kept up wonderfully well; In the gallery of the Cathedral Church at Durham stands and in the flax trade, they have even increased, notwith-l a low antique table monument, bearing the above inscrip

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