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i Vary, and, without saying a word, seized her arm, nnd led or Dame Margerin was occupied in serving some customers
rather dragged ber to the outermost gate of the episcopal when they entered. “I am rejoiced to see you in good palace; there, pointing to the threshold, she said, If you health, my dear Dame Margerin,' said the bishop. I am dare to set foot on these stones again-if you try to re-enter come to request a good office from you. Here is a maiden the bouse, I will have you scourged out, as persons of your whom I love as my own daughter: she only dreams of class deserve. Go and seek the accomplice of your in- | trade, and I thought no one than you could be so fit a trigues, but never venture to pronounce my name or that of | mistress. Therefore, Dame Margerin, I leave her with my brother's, or you will be driven out of the town as you you; your conditions shall be mine; besides, I shall often are out of this house.' This said, she departed, leaving the come and see my pupil, and chat with you.' He then deunhappy vary distressed, overwhelmed, and almost dying. parted, leaving the shopkeeper overwhelmed with pride dbe sank on the steps of the staircase sobbing violently, and joy. By her affectionate manners, Dame Margerin oth ber face hidden in her hands. At this moment, soon gained the friendship of the poor child, heretofore so Jeban Pastelot was going out, meditating so deeply on his roughly treated by the redoubtable sister of the bishop. crular conversation with the bishop, that, without seeing The next day every one in the town knew that the bishop
a, his foot struck against the maiden. She raised her had apprenticed his pupil with Dame Margerin, and every tasd mechanically. • Miss Mary!' cried be. Her only one envied her, still more so when they saw the prelate Eswer was her tears. •I see it all,' said he: “that pay her a visit, a second time, in the middle of the day. Taked woman has abandoned you. She punishes you for Dame Catherine Margerin, daughter of a tolerably afflu24T TOSS mistake, and I am the innocent cause of your ent citizen of Soissons, had married in her twenty-first year Esfortune. Let me know,' he added, gently, what are a young linen-merchant of their neighbourhood, whom she Tur projects, what are you going to do; for it is my had loved from childhood. The smallest agitation had duty to aid you with my counsel and advice. Where shall never troubled their pure and holy love, and their union I cooduct you?
was calm and happy, till the fatal day when death deprived Alas, I know not myself! I know no one on earth. I her of her husband. Catherine almost sank under her in without an asylum and without protectors! I can but grief, and but for the devotion of her sister, Dame Pastelot,
despair would have brought her to the grave; but the 'It shall not be said,' returned the young man, moved affectionate tenderness of that excellent woman recalled ** so much desolation - It shall not be said that you her to existence, and by degrees she became resigned to the were left in such an extremity. But as this is neither the lamented separation, which left her so sadly and so comFace Dor the moment for such a conversation, do me the pletely isolated. It therefore may be easily judged that a bolour to come to my mother's house. There you will warm reception awaited Mary from this poor heart, disinAnd a more useful and more fitting protection than that herited of the only affection that had ever filled it. Cathena young man like myself. Dry your tears, then, for Irine loved her immediately, as though she were a daughter uzsure you that neither my mother nor myself will ever whom God had given her; and Mary experienced in this abandon yon.'
simple and sweet tenderness a kindness to which she had Tell thought! well said!' interrupted a thick but long been a stranger. md-natured voice, which was no other than the bishop's. The maiden's time now passed with a rapidity which she i prelate had softly approached Jehan and Mary, and had never before known, either at the convent or with the stened to their conversation. Well thought and well rude sister of the bishop. 'My child,' said Dame Cathe
1 I have heard all. You are a good young man, Master rine, one evening after the shop was closed, and Mary was Pastelot; and you, Mary, in spite of the foolish and unjust ready, as usual, to take her seat at their large workingTrejudices of my sister, shall return to the palace, and she table, we have something else now to do than make caps Iest own her faults.
and embroider cuffs. To-morrow my sister and her two Mary made a gesture of alarm, and instinctively drew children come and dine with me, and we must prepare to 1, sarer the draper.
give them a good reception. Jehan is a charming lad,' i But, indeed,' continued the bishop, the life you lead added she; “and when you have seen him I am sure you'll + with my sister is insupportable, and the events of to-day like him.' The approaching visit caused also much agitaI will not have improved it. But on the other hand, if you tion in Dame Pastelot's mansion ; Jane and her mother
make refuge in Master Pastelot's house, my sister will ex-conversed about Dame Margerin's new apprentice, whom daim she has triumphed. In vain I shall tell the truth; they longed to see, and Jehan's heart beat violently. When alumny will still have its way, and inquire why you took the visitors arrived, Catherine was loud in the praises of refuge precisely with the same person whom you are ac- her apprentice, not forgetting to recount the four visits cused of loving. We must find something else.'
which the bishop had paid her in five days, and luckily did My lord,' suggested Jehan, there is a very easy way not see the smile which appeared on her nephew's lips at to arrange all this. You will conduct Miss Mary to my some of her reflections on these grand news. When it was sunt's bouse, my mother's sister, Catherine Margerin, who evening, Jehan found that the day had passed with frightful keeps a shop for fine linen in the Great Square, at the sign rapidity. Jane could not express how charming she
the Pearl; you can tell her that you desire the young thought Mary, and Dame Pastelot was enchanted with the ady to be brought up to the business, and that she is her attentions the young lady had paid her. pprentice. Your recommendation will remove all diffi- A whole year rolled on in this happy manner for Mary. railties, and my aunt Margerin would do anything on re- The bishop frequently visited her, to escape the violence of beving a visit from my lord the bishop.
his sister, who considered it an insult to herself that the What say you of this project, my dear Mary?' inquired prelate should show any affection to a person whom she | the bishop.
had driven out of her presence. And as for Jehan, he al"Ok, I accept it with gratitude.'
ways found some business that obliged him, at first once "Well-very well,' declared the prelate. "The council or twice in the week, then every day, and finally two or 2 dissolved. Dry your eyes, Mary, and lean on my arm. three times a-day, to visit his aunt, where he passed whole As you, friend, return to your shop, and not a word of hours. Dame Catherine smiled to herself, and Mary, when w this. It is a secret between us four-my sister, who Jehan delayed a little, and the usual hour was passed, felt Zater goes out; myself, who will be silent; and you two, anxious and sad. But her noble and beautiful countenance bon I forbid to mention it, not even to your aunt, Jeban, brightened when the young man appeared, who, by his Dar to your mother, and still less to your sister. Luckily, handsome and gallant mien, justified her interest. On one 19 € has passed before the palace during our conference, of these visits, Jehan said— Can it be, Mary, that you love and besides we are screened by this pillar. Adieu, Master me?' She let her hand fall timidly into the hand of the Pastelot. The draper bowed low to the bishop, and Mary happy betrothed, and her head reclined on her bosom, but and her protector walked towards the shop of the linen on a sudden she raised it. "Why should I hide what I am merchant.
proud to tell you?' murmured she; “Jehan, I love you.'
The next morning, the Bishop of Soisscas received the and after a long consideration as to whether he should visit of Master Jehan, dressed in his best suit. Apparently open it or leave it intact, he decided that the bishop having the prelate suspected the cause, or he read the motives of been dead twenty years, he might without any scruple his coming on the young man's face, for before he had satisfy his curiosity. He broke the seals, therefore, and arisen he said, Ah! ah! my lad, it appears you no longer found a tress of hair contained in a golden medallion; and take young girls for ancient dowagers. You look them with it two parchments. One was an act of baptism in in the face, and you desire to see them nearer : that may these words : be seen in your eyes.'
I, Louis Jérôme, bishop of the diocese of Soissons, the Since you know the motive of my visit, I hope you will 10th of February, in the year of our Lord 1568, baptised consent
the high and mighty Damoiselle Mary Stuart, legitimate To grant you Mary in marriage. There has about a daughter of her most Christian Majesty Mary, Queen of year passed since I conceived this project, and I await its Scotland and England, and of James, Earl of Bothwell, The execution. Yes, my lad, I give you that dear girl's hand; sponsors were the venerable Brother M‘Mahan, of the and I am glad to confide the care of her happiness to the minor order of Saint Benedict, the Bishop of Soissons, and worthiest young man I know of.' Jehan bowed deeply to the venerable Dame Mary Mowbray, superior of the Abbey the bishop. I will,' continued the bishop, celebrate your of Notre-Dame of Soissons. According to which I sign, marriage myself in my episcopal church with all my clergy.
JEROME, Bishop.' I will have a pomp that shall make your wedding talked of The following letter was with this act: for a hundred years.'
• Dear and venerable Dame Mary-At the moment I writo Thanks,' replied the betrothed, quite confused; and he to you, I am a prisoner in Lochleven Castle, and have just was about to retire, when the bishop recalled him. brought a daughter into the world. I have every thing to
'It appears to me, friend, that we have forgotten somo- tear for the destiny if not for the life of this poor child; thing-the most essential after the wife: the dowry.' and, on her account, I have had already much to suffer.
I have foreseen your desires, my lord. I give by the The 18th of July, this year, when my husband, the Earl of marriage-contract four thousand crowns to my wife.' | Bothwell, had fled to Norway, the lords, who were mem
Without counting that she brings you twelve thousand, bers of the secret council of Scotland, proposed to render which her unknown parents sent with hier to the late Abbess null my union with the said count, and to declare it forced of Notre-Dame of Soissons; and I hope you will not be dis and illegitimate; but though that were truth, for it was contented with my nuptial present. What! does not this with a poniard at my bosom that I gave my consent to unexpected fortune cause you greater joy than you show?' | this marriage, I obstinately refused to yield to the wishes
I am rich enough for both, my lord; and then I de- of the lords of the secret council, for my child's sake, on , sired ' and he stopped.
whom it would have ever fixed shame and illegitimacy. I • Well, finish; what did you desire?'
wrote to my family of Lorraine, who blame me exceedingly “That Mary might hold everything from me,' added he, for my maternal perseverance; and thus I have no other looking down.
faithful and sure friend to whom I can confide this dear You are a good and honourable lad,' replied the bishop, child, born in captivity, and in the midst of anxieties. Brin much moved; but Mary will not owe thee less gratitude, | her up secretly in your abbey, without revealing to any and twelve thousand crowns cannot spoil anything. Adieu ! one, not even to herself, the secret of her birth. If my adWhen is the marriage to be?'
versity continues, it were better for her that she live ob In fifteen days, my lord.'
scure and ignorant of her royal blood. I know too well Jehan then returned to inform Mary and his family of what it is to wear a crown. If better days come I will rethe good news he had learned from the bishop; and from call her to myself. Nevertheless, do not, at least till after that moment the four ladies set to work with ardour. At my death, let her take the veil and pronounce her pows. length the memorable day arrived. At noon, two litters, Adieu ! dear and beloved Mary, sweet companion of my with servitors in the episcopal livery, stopped before the youth at the court of France; adieu! I confide to you the linen-merchant's house, and the charming bride entered only precious treasure that remains to an unhappy queen. the first, accompanied by Dame Pastelot, Jane, and Dame captive to her brother. A devoted friend, whom I dare not Margerin; Jehan and three of his friends took their places name for fear of undoing him, has promised at the risk of in the second; and the cortège set off for the cathedral, his life to bring you my child. Adieu! MARIA Regina.' adorned that day as for a grand solemnity.
On reading these papers, the bishop felt himself greatly The bishop, in his pontifical habits, received them in the surprised and troubled. • I have made fine work,' said he !! porch, and conducted them to the foot of the grand altar, · I've married to a cloth-merchant the daughter of the whero he concluded the ceremony by an address to the Queen of Scotland, and the sister of King James, who has newly wedded pair, and afterwards took his place at the just ascended the throne of England by the death of Queen banquet, which did the greatest honour to Dame Margerin. Elizabeth. God grant no misfortune inay arise out of all
Ten years brought only one particular event among the this! While he still examined the parchment deeds that persons who till now have taken a greater or less part in certified Mary's birth, a page came to inform him that the the present history. It was the death of the Countess abbess of the convent of Notre Dame of Soissons besought Lydorie Penevent, who departed this life at Paris, and let him to come immediately to her on business of the utmost the good bishop return to a liberty which he scarcely knew importance; and the bishop hastened to comply with this what to do with, and a repose which rendered him at first message, for a peculiar presentiment told him that it conalmost unhappy. But he soon became delighted with this cerned the secret he had just discovered. Arrived thither, peaceful change, thanks to the respectful friendship showed | he found the superior in extreme agitation, in the presence to him by Jehan Pastelot, his young wife, and all the mem cf a young nobleman, to whom she was offering the most bers of that family, including Jane, who was happily mar- humble testimonies of respect. ried to a goldsmith of the town; and Dame Margerin, who • My lord,' said she, as soon as the bishop appeared, having disposed of her shop, had come to live with her his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales has come to innephew and her former apprentice.
quire at our convent for a young lady who must hare been It happened, in the year 1603, towards the month of brought hither thirty-five years ago. Have you any knowJune, that the great altar of the episcopal church had to ledge of this fact, for I cannot remember it?' be repaired, and the bishop chose himself to remove from You should nevertheless remember the young lady,' inthe tabernacle the holy vases and consecrated hosts. To terrupted the bishop, "since, in spite of my remonstrances, his great surprise, he found amongst them a golden box, you removed her from the convent, under pretext that no sealed with the seal of the bishop his predecessor, and care thing, not even the dying testimony of the former abbess. fully placed in a corner, which the door of the tabernaclo established her legitimate birth, and that she could neither hid when it was opened, in such a manner that it was im- take the veil in this abbey, nor remain longer in it as possible to discover it. He carried this box to his house, a boarder.'
The abbess was ready at this to sink with alarm, for the moment to share his fortune and his name with her when young prince, naturally of a severe physiognomy, regarded a wanderer without an asylum.' ber with the utmost disapprobation.
I · And if, madam, this affair regarded yourself, would not . And what,' he inquired, • is become of that unfortu- your sentiments change?' Date person?
“I know it concerns myself, sir. Your words have exI received her in my house,' the bishop hastened to add, plained the mysterious ones of the worthy abbess who . and if your royal highness will permit it, I can inform brought me up. They tell me why she treated me with you of every thing that has happened to her; and even such respect; and why she embraced me with such deconduct you to her. But, as this affair is to be a secret, spair, the day when, in the cloister, prayers were offered so if my episcopal palace is not too unworthy a lodging for the repose of the soul of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland.' for the heir of England's crown
Sir, if you are charged to reveal to me the secret of my I accept your hospitality, my lord bishop; but let us birth, I know it; if you are come on the part of King James, be cock for I desire to know the details of this adventure, my brother, to lead me to the foot of his throne, I am gratemüich are to me of the greatest importance.'
ful for his pious remembrance; but I cannot accept his ofBefore going out, he turned to the ahbess— You have fers. I will live and die the wife of the honest man who many faults, madam, to reproach yourself with in all this,' has rendered me happy so many years. There is no longer
dhe; if you add that of revealing the secret of my in Soissons Mary Stuart; there only remains the wife of ne, and the motives of my visit, the King of France will | Jehan Pastelot. pwish you severely.'
Prince Charles hid his face in his hands, then rising, he During the journey, the bishop, whose litter the young knelt before Mary. “I am your mother's grandson,' said prince bad entered, informed him of every thing he knew he, “I am your nephew, Prince Charles of Wales. Suffer
llary, with the exception of the discovery of the parch- me to kiss your hand, noblest and worthiest of creatures ! ments, for the royal guest appeared desirous to keep secret I will return to London; I will faithfully inform my father the birth of her he had come to seck at the convent of of all I have heard; I will supplicate him to call your husYatre-Dame.
band to his court. He who has merited such deep affecThe brow of his companion clouded, however, consider- tion can be no ordinary man: my father will cnnoble him, sbls, when he learned the marriage of Mary Stuart, still and — Dope so when he heard that her husband was a draper. / “No,' said she, no, my lord ! Jehan Pastelot is but a He paced the room for some time, then facing the prelate, simple citizen; nobility, titles, and grandeur, would ill be be said, You know then nothing inore concerning this per come him. My lord, let me once einbrace, but once, my mo's origin?' at the same time fixing so keen a glance brother's son, and I shall have nothing to ask of God but awon him, that the old man hastened to bring the pareh- to unite me one day to my mother in heaven-in heaven, Dents and presented them to him. At their sight, James where there are neither queens nor citizens, but blessed "Le First's son stamped violently, and uttered some angry saints, equal in the divine mercy. Tell the king my brother, words. quite sufficient to alarm his hearer.
that his sister, a poor and humble merchant, will every day * And does she know of these papers ?'
address prayers for him to the Almighty. Kings have * About two hours only have passed since I discovered greater need of them than other men-have they not, my them. She is ignorant of their existence.'
lord ?' The prince read them twice over, and appeared delibe True,' replied the young prince gravely, 'a crown is a rating upon what he should do. At length he resolved to heavy and often a fatal burden; and perhaps it is more
ad for Mary, and decide upon nothing before speaking to prudent to keep at a distance from it. Adieu, madam; I ter; be therefore bade the bishop inform her he wished to shall inform my father of what I have seen and heard : his weak to her. On her arrival, the prince was astonished wisdom will appreciate the generous resolution you have at her noble mien, and serene and pure beauty. He threw taken. Adieu, dear aunt.'
ile his hat, wluch till now he had kept on, and seeming He kissed her affectionately on both cheeks, and was to take a sudden resolution, bowed to her and said, “ Ma- about to depart, when suddenly he returned and said, 'Bedam, I wish to ask your counsel and advice.'
fore we separate, have you nothing to ask of me?' • Mine, sir?' replied Mary, smiling.
• To remember me sometimes.' Listen; there is in a town of France, of little conse | • I can never forget your noble and loyal heart; but quence which, a woman of illustrious origin; or rather, your fortune we may say, perhaps of royal origin, who has become the Is much more than we need.' wife of a citizen, but this marriage she contracted, ignorant Will your royal highness tell me what I am to do with that she belonged to a great family. Do you listen to me these parchments ?' inquired the bishop, presenting thern attentively?'
to the prince. "I listen, sir, with all my soul,' replied she, with emo- ! Give them to my aunt.' tion
*A letter from my mother! Oh, let me have that ? She * To-day the secret of her birth will be revealed to this read it with tears; then said, “there is one duty I must woman. What think you should she do?'
fulfil. I shall carefully preserve this tress of hair, a pre• L her mother alive?' inquired Mary, with agony. cious and holy relic of my mother. But this letter, and Her mother is dead.
this baptismal act, I thus dispose of.' She threw them into Mary's eyes filled with tears.
the fire. “And now, adieu to your highness the Prince of * And her father?' added she in an indistinct voice. Wales.'
Her father merited neither her respect nor her tender- / The prince departed, and the bishop remained alone with 1943; but he is dead also.
Mary, who pressed to her lips her mother's hair. And what is proposed to this woman?'
Jehan Pastelot,' said he, will be much surprised, and To dissolve this alliance, which cannot be legitimate, deeply grateful, when he learns your wonderful adventure sbee, when it was formed, she knew not what she was and generous devotion.' king
• Jehan Pastelot will never know it,' replied she. And what will this woman receive in exchange for the The bishop took Mary's hand, and in respectfully kissing raptare of her marriage?'
it, while a tear of admiration dropped upon it, said, “You A place near a throne.'
are the noblest and most amiable of women.' "Sir,' said she, rising, in a firm voice, I say, that should We must now let many years pass, and arrive at the such a woman hesitate to remain with her husband, and | month of February, 1649. Mary and Jehan Pastelot, seated even thought of leaving her happy obscurity, she would by a large chimney, talked gaily of days that were gone, berit but contempt;' and, as Charles looked at her with and were respectfully listened to by a lady of about forty Astonishment, she continued, yes, contempt! for she would years old, and a maiden of rare beauty, who looked not bring shame and despair on him who had not hesitated a l more than nineteen : they were the daughter and grand
daughter of the Pastelot pair, and the pretty Frances was The proscribed monarch was about to retire, when Jehan
• But why, at least, did you not let me know the immense
| she, let us descend to the kitchen. It is time to set about • Yes, my noble and beloved aunt. Yes, Elizabeth, in the wedding tart. In spite of my eighty years, I would striking the queen your mother, taught the English people have a hand in it.' how to respect royal heads. They have profited by the lesson, and treated the grandson as she treated the grandmother.
SUMMARY OF THE CHARACTER OF Pastelot and his children listened with stupefaction to
LORD BACON. this revelation of Mary's high origin. But the poor woman PATTE on the head by Queen Elizabeth-mocking the was too overwhelmed with grief to remark their trouble. worshippers of Aristotle at Cambridge-catching the first
• They have tried him—they have condemned him—they glimpses of his great discoveries, and yet uncertain whether have beheaded him. In the midst of his sufferings he re- the light was from heaven-associating with the learned membered you, whose wisdom preferred your husband and and gay at the court of France-devoting himself to Bracton an obscure existence, to the agitation and fatal grandeurs and the Year Books in Gray’s-inn-throwing aside the of royalty. The letter you hold he wrote to you, the day musty folios of the law to write a moral essay, to make an before his death: a devoted servant received it at the peril experiment in natural philosophy, or to detect the fallacies of his life, and brought it to me with no less difficulty and which had hitherto obstructed the progress of useful truth danger. Read it again, my dear aunt! Read it, daughter -contented for a time with taking • all knowledge for his of Mary Stuart; let me hear once more the words of the province'-roused from these speculations by the stings of martyr king.'
vulgar ambition-playing all the arts of fattery to gain Dame Mary read in a trembling voice : Dear and be- official advancement by royal and courtly favour-entering loved sister of my father, about to appear before God, my the House of Commons, and displaying powers of oratory sovereign judge, I wish to give you a last proof of my ten- of which he had been unconscious-being seduced by the derness and my remembrance. I know that you are still love of popular applause, for a brief space becoming a living, and that nothing has disturbed the peaceful life you patriot-making amends by defending all the worst excesses chose, for while respecting your secret, my solicitude of prerogative-publishing to the world lucubrations on watched over you, and a faithful friend of mine always morals which show the nicest perception of what is honourbrought every year to me news of you. My son will remit able and beautiful, as well as prudent, in the conduct of you this letter and the hair it contains. Place it by that life-yet, the son of a Lord Keeper, the nephew of the Prime of your mother, assassinated like myself; and console, I Minister, a Queen's Counsel, with the first practice at the beseech you, the poor orphan my son. Repeat to him that bar, arrested for debt, and languishing in a sponging-house I bid him pardon those who occasion my death, as I pardon -tired with vain solicitations to his own kindred for prothem. Adieu, dear and beloved aunt, we shall meet in motion, joining the party of their opponent, and, after exheaven.-CAROLUS Rex.
periencing the most generous kindness from the young and • Now, dear relation, that I have fulfilled the duty my Chivalrous head of it, assisting to bring him to the scaffold, father had charged me with, give me your blessing and re and to blacken his memory-seeking, by a mercenary ceive my adieux.'
marriage, to repair his broken fortunes on the accession • Will you go now-already.'
of a new sovereign offering up the most servile adulation I am going to reconquer my father's kingdom. to a pedant whom he utterly despised-infinitely gratified
You are going to throw yourself into the midst of his by being permitted to kneel, with 230 others, to receive the assassins ! But they will kill you also.'
honour of knighthood-truckling to a worthless favourite • O Lord' exclaimed Mary, kneeling down, while every with the most slavish subserviency, that he might be apone instinctively imitated her; O Lord! I know nothing pointed a law officer of the Crown-then giving the most of the things here below, and I can but humble myself be admirable advice for the compilation and emendation of the fore thy impenetrable designs; but, if it please thee to lis- laws of England, and helping to inflict torture on a poor ten to the voice of thy lowest servant, protect this poor parson, whom he wished to hang as a traitor for writing orphan!' She arose, placed her hands on Charles's head and an unpublished and unpreached sermon-attracting the said: 'Go now, sire, and may your majesty fulfil your notice of all Europe by his philosophical works, which duty.'
| established a new era in the mode of investigating the
phenomena both of matter and mind-basely intriguing in although it changes a little both in its direction and extent. the meanwhile for farther promotion, and writing secret Along the coast of Africa it is almost north-east; midway letters to his Sovereign to disparage his rivals-riding between Africa and America, it is sometimes entirely east. proudly between the Lord High Treasurer and Lord Privy In winter, when the sun is south, the northern extremity Seal, preceded by his mace-bearer and purse-bearer, and of the north-east wind extends to about 27 deg. north, and followed by a long line of nobles and judges, to be installed its southern to 5 deg. north; and thus ranges over 22 deg. in the office of Lord High Chancellor-by and by, settling In summer, when the sun is north of the equator, its northwith his servants the account of the bribes they had received ern boundary reaches as far as 32 deg. north, and its southfor him-a little embarrassed by being obliged, out of ern to 12 deg. north, which makes it embrace a space of decency, the case being so clear, to decide against the party 20 deg. From these facts, it appears that the north-east whose money he had pocketed, but stifling the misgivings trade-wind extends over 2 deg. more in winter than in of conscience by the splendour and flattery which he now summer. The south-cast is that which prevails south of commanded-struck to the earth by the discovery of his cor- the equator. In winter, when the sun is south, its northruption-taking to his bed and refusing sustenance-con- ern boundary reaches to 1 deg. north, and its southern to fessing the truth of the charges brought against him, and 30 deg. south, which gives it an extent of 31 deg. In sumabjectly imploring mercy-nobly rallying from his disgrace, mer, when the sun is north, its northern edge extends to 3 and engaging in new literary undertakings, which have deg. north, and its southern to 28 deg. south; whence it is added to the splendour of his name-still exhibiting a touch evident that at this season also it sweeps over 31 deg. of his ancient vanity, and, in the midst of pecuniary em- The south-east thus subjects to its sway the same extent barrassments, refusing to be “stripped of his feathers.' — in both seasons; and 11 deg. in summer, and 9 deg. in Campbell's Lives of Chancellors.
winter, more than the north-east. The space between the
southern limit of the north-east, and the northern limit of PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
the south-east, is the region of the calms. In winter, it
extends from 1 to 5 deg., or four degrees; and in summer, WINDS-USES OF THE ATMOSPHERE.
from 3 to 12 deg., or nine degrees. The voyage in the line WIND is caused by the motion of air; and an inquiry into of the north-east trade-wind, from the coast of Africa to the cause of winds is resolved into an investigation of those the West Indies, is described as singularly pleasant. The circumstances which occasion a motion in the air. Heat vessel is wafted along by a grateful breeze, at the rate of is the most important agent in this matter. When air be- five or six knots an hour. The mariners are relaxed from comes heated it expands, decreases in density, and conse- their wonted toil, and undismayed by any dread of danger. quently ascerds; the colder and denser air rushes in to During the day the air is clear and refreshing; above is possess the place which was occupied by that which has the deep blue canopy of heaven, and beneath spreads out, ascended; and thus two currents of air are produced. in boundless expanse, the glassy surface of an unrufiled This simple fact may be satisfactorily illustrated to com- ocean. In the evening, the silver moon shines forth with mon observation, by the case of an ordinary room in which cloudless splendour; or the countless host of stars spangle fire is burning. If a candle be placed at the top of the the firmament, and twinkle with vivid brilliancy. door, it will be observed that the fame is slightly blown 1 The trade-winds, as we intimated in a recent number, in a direction towards the door; if the candle be then placed were discovered by Columbus, on his voyage of discovery at the bottom of the door, the direction of the current ap- towards the western world. His men were at first delighted pears contrary, and the flame becomes turned towards the with the gentle and favourable wind and the smooth sea, fire. In the one case, the heated air, from its tendency to which allowed them to suspend their labours and enjoy the rise, is taking an upward course, and rushing through the pleasures of repose and admiration. After a few days, they opening at the top of the door; in the other, the cold air is became quite alarmed, under an apprehension that it would flowing in to supply the deficiency occasioned by the as- continue to blow always in the same direction, and that cent and egress of the heated air.
they would never again reach home. Accordingly, they The air is also subject to great and frequent agitation insisted on Columbus to return, before all hope of revisitfrom the electrical changes which take place in the atmos- ing their native shores should have fled, and even absolutely phere. It is generally believed, that electricity is chiefly refused to obey his orders unless their wishes were cominstrumental in producing the variable and violent winds plied with. Columbus, at this trying moment, manifested which are experienced. To understand the operation of the magnanimity which ever shone conspicuously in his this agent in bringing to pass the effects which we are con- character. He requested that they would consent to prosidering, it is necessary to keep in mind, that scientific men ceed in their course a few days longer, and promised, that, speak of two kinds of electricity, or rather two different if at the expiry of that time they should not have attained ways in which the same element seems to operate-the one the object of their wishes and pursuit, he would agree to positive, and the other negative. If a body positively elec- return. Before the lapse of the specified time, they had trified, come within the sphere of one negatively electrified, discovered a new world, and immortalised themselves by a they attract each other; but, if their electric states be si- discovery greater than that of the trade-winds. What a milar, that is, either both positive or both negative, they beautiful instance does this afford of the success which atrepel each other. Thus, we find an attractive and repul- tends the pursuit of knowledge, and how encouraging is it sive influence which produces, as in the case of heat, a two- to the enterprising student of science! He may not always fold motion. Electricity is excited by various means_such reach the height to which his ambition soars, but assuras friction, change of temperature, and contact-and acts edly his noble efforts will not be unrewarded; he may, as a disturbing cause in producing the blasts and breezes like Columbus, unexpectedly discover the track of the trades, which sweep over the earth. Having thus far endeavoured though he may not like him also discover America. to explain the general causes of winds, we may now pro- The winds, which we are sometimes apt to view as the ceed to consider their distinctive features and causes; for disturbers of the tranquillity of nature, and as the ministhis purpose, they may be appropriately divided into vari- ters of vengeance, are employed in wafting from distant able and constant. The variable winds are sufficiently accountries the productions of varied climes, and form an imcounted for by the remarks already made; and when we portant means of dispersing over the world its comforts and reflect on the inconceivable rapidity of lightning, we need conveniencies. They also serve the necessary purpose of not be surprised at the suddenness of those hurricanes conveying clouds through the atmosphere, and imparting which sometimes threaten instant and entire destruction. moisture and fertility to countries which otherwise would
The trade-winds is the name given to those breezes which be parched by uninterrupted drought. Even the dread torblow in the Atlantic between the shores of Africa and Ame- nado, whose resistless sweep carries desolation in its course, rica, extending 30 deg. on each side of the equator. That is not without its use in clearing the atmosphere of pestiin the northern part of the Atlantic is generally called the lential effluvia, which, when the air becomes stagnant, connorthreast, because it commonly blows from that quarter, 1 taminates the vital fluid, and spreads disease and death.