« 上一頁繼續 »
of science, to let them mutually assist each other, and this by means of Wooden Cuts, which are abundantly adequate to accomplish all that students can wish.
In a purely descriptive science, like botany, where a great number of terms is indispensably requisite, it becomes an object of primary importance to have these well chosen, and accurately defined. And the rapid extension of botanical knowledge, within the last seventy years, is perhaps not less owing to the superior precision of the language employed, and, in a great measure, invented by Linnæus, than to the excellence of his arrangement. If the study of botany had remained confined to such persons as were able to read bis original writings, it would not have been necessary to form a vernacular botanical language. But, since botany has been long a favourite pursuit, both in this and other nations, amongst persons, who have not had the advantages of a classical education, it has been found necessary to translate the different works of Linnæus. And, that the class of readers, just mentioned, may enjoy the full benefit, to be derived from these translations, it is requisite that appropriate vernacular terms be employed in them, which shall equal, or be as little inferior as possible to the original ones, in precision and conciseness.
of such, as are very little known, cannot render the science more easily attainable, since both the terms and their definitions must necessarily be learnt. And if words, sanctioned by general use, were applied in a new sense, little or no advantage would result from it, for they would require explanation as much as perfectly new terms; and they would be liable to produce confusion, by suggesting to the mind their ordinary signification. On the other hand, the benefit to be derived from rendering our native botanical language a more exact resemblance of the original, is obviously very great. Not only its conciseness and precision are thereby improved; but the translated and Latin terms, in most instances, will mutually serve to suggest each other: whence those who have been accustomed to read botauical writings in the Latin or English language only, will find very little difficulty in understanding the botanical terms in works, written in the other language. *
In Great Britain very considerable attention has been paid to this point by several ingenious writers, and the result is a material improvement of our botanical language, in consequence of its being made to approach more nearly to the Latin. This reform may, at first view, render the science more forbid ding and difficult to the mere English reader. The difficulty, however, will be ultimately found to exist in appearance rather than in reality. Many terms must necessarily be learnt in this department of the science of nature, and, since we have comparatively few sterling English words of exactly the same import as the Linnean terms, if we reject those used by this celebrated botanist, and such as may be formed from them by a change of termiuation, we must either invent new words, and give them an equivalent signification, or we must employ words not generally received; or we must apply words, which have beeu admitted into general use, in an entirely new sense, or, at least, in a more precise and defi
mite signification. Now it is evident, that the introduction of new terms, or the employment
In order to render the conception of each term clearer, as well as to correct any error we may have fallen into, the definitions of the most distinguished botanists will be also given, as notes, in order that the views of the most learned botanists may be seen, and the expressions in their several works understood +
System of Botany, but whether this will supersede the Sexual System of Linnæus remains for a discerning public to determine.
Is the body or substance of a plant.
1. Truncus. Organum multiplicans plantam. LINNEUS.
2. Anciently, and in common English, trunk is put for the stem, body, stock, or bole of a tree, for which Linnæus uses the word caudex. He applies truncus to the stem or main body of vegetables in general, and explains it to be, "that which produces the leaves and fructification," or "the organ multiplying the plant."-MARTYN.
1 3. Truncus, in general, the body, stem, or stock of a tree or plant, defined by Linnæus, to be that which produces the leaves and fruc
* Vide Hull's Preface to his Elements of Botany.
+ Vide Martyn's Language of Botany, whose definitions of the terms, and remarks, with those of Linnæus, in his Philosophia Botanica, Berkenhout, in his Botanical Lexicon, Dr. Smith, in his Introduction to Physiological and Systematical Botany, and Lamark, in his Principes élémentaire de Botanique, and Brisseau Mirbel, in his Traité d'Anatomie et Physiologie Végétales, will be given by us to completely satisfy the reader respecting each term.
tification. Former botanists applied the word, cipally suggested by the difference of size and Truncus, to trees only.-BERKENHOUT.
4. Le trone, ou le tige (truncus, caulis) est cette partie de la plaute qui tend toujours à monter verticalement, qui s'élève du collet de la racine, et qui porte les feuilles lorsque la plante en a.-LAMARK.
duration of the plauts in question. Be that as it may, the division was esteemed so natural and spoutaneous, that, from the time of Aristotle and Theophrastus to the present age, it has obtained a principal place in almost every system, those of Rivinus and Linnæus excepted, which mix herbs and trees promiscuously together.
Among the celebrated names in botany, which have retained the ancient distinction, are numbered Casalpinus, the father of systematic botany; Morison, Hermannus, Christopher Knaut, Boerhaave, Ray, Pontedera, and Tournefort. The latter, rather than omit a division, through custom become necessary, chose to hurt the elegance and uniformity of his plan; and, in fact, spun out into twentytwo classes, what, without such a division, might have been easily comprised in seven
There are several kinds of trunks, viz. I. A TREE (Arbor.) A vegetable or plant rising with one uniform permanent ligneous body, called the trunk (truncus), dividing above into branches, having buds.
On the opposite side are ranged, besides Rivinus and Linueus, already mentioned, Christian Knaut, Ludwig, and other names of less note.
The distinction into trees and shrubs, though of equal antiquity, is neither so obvious, nor are its limits so accurately ascertained. In fact, of the numerous characteristic differences which have been suggested by botanical writers, not one is perfectly satisfactory. To declare, with Tournefort, that trees are universally taller than shrubs, is, in effect, saying nothing, unless a certain fixed, immutable Bestandard were previously established. sides, every thing respecting dimension is so variable in its nature, and depends so much upon difference of climate, soil and management, that were a standard of this kind attempted to be established, the greatest confusion would ensue; and the same plant in different countries, and even in opposite soils in the same country, would receive different appellations, according as it exceeded, or came short of the given standard.
Thus the ricinus, or palma-christi; the dwarf rosebay, rhododendron; the strawberrytree, arbutus; and several others, which grow to the size of very large trees in warm climates, are, in this country, equalled and even exceeded in height by many of our smallest shrubs.
The difference of soil and culture in the same climate, produces a like diversity in dimension. Thus to take an example from herbaceous vegetables, the marigold, which, in a fat and moist earth rises two feet high, scarce exceeds the same number of inches in a dry and gravelly soil.
Nature, says Linnæus, has put no limits
between trees and shrubs. Where then are we to search for the foundation of this distinc tion' Not in the difference of size and height, for nothing can be more fallible. Either, he continues, there are no limits at all, or they are to be found in the buds; and the plants are styled trees, when their stems come up with buds; shrubs when they arise without buds; but this distinction is sufficiently confuted by its author, who immediately subjoins, that there are seldom any buds upon the very large trees in India; which must, therefore, notwithstanding their great height, according to this definition, be reckoned shrubs.
The learned Dr. Alston, in his Tyrocinium Bolanicum, seems to consider the distinction into trees and shrubs as a true natural distinction, and endeavours to trace its foundation in the internal structure of the plants themselves. All trees, says he, whether they bear buds or not, are covered with the two barks, the outer and inner, called by botanists, cortex and liber. Shrubs differ from herbaceous vegetables in the duration of their stems; from trees in the nature of their covering, which is not a bark, but a cuticle, or simple skin.
This thought is ingenious; but the fact on which it depends is not sufficiently ascertained.
II. A SHRUB (frutex), resembles a tree, by having a permanent ligneous body, but dividing below, near the earth, into twigs or branches, without buds."
1. FRUTEX, a shrub.-Caulis adscendens supra terram absque gemmis, sed intra fruticem et arborem, nalios limites posuit natura, sed opinio vulg.-LINNEUS.
2. In its general acceptation, it is a vegetable with several permanent woody stems, dividing from the bottom, more slender and of lower growth than in trees. Linnæus makes the distinction of a shrub from a tree to consist in its having no buds, but trees have no buds in hot climates. He acknowledges at the same time, that nature has placed no exact limits between them.-MARTYN.
3. Shruls, according to Linnæus, make a branch of the seventh family in the vegetable kingdom, and are distinguished from trees in that they come up without buds; but this distinction is not universal, though it be generally just with regard to those of Europe. Nature hath made no absolute distinction between shrubs and trees. Fruter, in its general acceptation, is a plant, whose trunk is perennial, gemmiparous, woody, dividing and subdividing into a great number of branches. In short, it is the epitome of a tree. BER
4. Not in SMITH.
5. Arbustes (frutices), lorsqu'elle jettent des branches dès leur base, et me portent poins des boutons. LAMARK.
But BRISSEAU-MIRREL defines caulis friticosus, frutescente, cette tige appartient aux tiges de la trosiéme espèce (arboreus) elle est toujours ligneuse; elle est moins épause que la precedente, et jette des branches à sa partisie inférieure; elle porte si des boutons; les arbresseaux.
III. A FALSE SHRUB, or Undershrub (suffruter), having a ligneous and shrub-like body, but the stem and branches die yearly, without buds, as the rubus idans, raspberry.
SUFFRUTEX, from SUB, under; and FRUTEX, a shrub.
1. Truncus suffructicosus, basi permanens, samis quotannis marcescens.-LINNEUS.
2. Sub, in composition, is used frequently by Linnæus for almost, nearly, approaching to, thereabouts, somewhat, and here means almost a shrub, or as we say an undershrub; which is thus defined :-permanent or woody at the base, but the yearly branches decaying; usually of a lower growth than the frutex, or
3. An Undershrub. According to Tournefort, a plant which is perennial, ligneous, not gemmiparous, and in stature less than a frutex. Almost a shrub, the root permanent but branches generally perishing. Sub, before, and usculus, after a word, usurp the place of fere, almostBERKEN HOUT.
4. Arbrisseaux (arbuscula) quand elle jettent des branches des leur base, et portent des bou tons.-LAMARK. But Brisseau-Mirbel defines caulis suffruticosus, suffrutescente, elle appartient à la trosieme espèce de tiges (arboreus) elle est ligneuse, mais grèle, foible, et ne pas de boutons; les arbustes, vu sou-arbrisseaux.
IV. An HERB (herba), a substance not woody but tender, and usually dying down. every year. Vide last Fig.
1. HERBA. Truncus herbaceus etiamnum annuus non lignosus-LINNEUS. Vegetabilis pars, orta a radice, terminata fructificatione, comprehenditque truncum, folia, fulcra, hybernaculum.-BOT. PHIL. Herba arcendens, aeria spirans moveus.-REGN. VEG.
2. By Linnæus the herb is put for that of a vegetable, which arises from the roots, is terminated by the fructification, and compre hends the stem, leaves, fulcres, and hybernacle. Herbaceous stems perish annually, are soft, not woody. Herbaceous plants are such as perish annually down to the roots. In common language an herb is used in opposition to a tree.MARTYN.
3. An herb, according to Linnæus, is that part of the vegetable which arises from the root, is terminated by the fructification, and comprehends the truncus, folia fulcra, et hybernaculum. An herbaceous stem indicates the time of duration of the stem, dying annually, not woody, opposed to fruticosus et suffruticosus. Herbaceous plants are those plants which annually perish down to the root, for in the perennial kinds, the gemme are produced on the root. Herbs, properly speaking, says Tournefort, are those plants whose stems perish annually-BERKEN HOUT.
4. Not in SMITH.
5. Les plants dont la tige est herbacée sont nommée des herbes. Tige herbacée, lorsqu'elle est tendre, qu'elle a peu de consistance, et qu'elle perit avant de doucir.
Brisseau-Mirbel says, herbacée, tige qui a la consistance molle et foible de l'herbe : elle ne produit point de bois, et ne vit ordinairement qu'une année.
V. A STEM (caulis), supports both leaves and fructification. Vide last Fig.
VI. SCAPE (scapus), is a stem rising out of the root, supporting only the flowers but not the leaves.
SCAPUS, from the Greek SKEPTO, to lean upon; hence the word SKEPTRON, a sceptre, and scipio, a walking stick, and scapus, the shaft of a column, which this is supposed to resemble. The flower-stalk, under other circumstances, is called peuduncle (pedunculus).
1. Truncus elevans fructificationem, nec folia.-LINNAEUS.
2. A stem bearing the fructification, without leaves. Some have translated this flower-stalk, which is more proper for the word pedunculus. MARTYN.
3. That species of trunk called a stalk, which elevates the fractification and not the leaves. Mr. Curtis has translated scapus, flower-stalk, and caulis, simply stem.-BERKEN HOUT.
4. A stalk springs from the root, and bears the flowers and fruit but not the leaves. Linnæus has observed (MSS. Phil. Bot. 40.) that a scapus is only a species of pedunculus. The term might therefore be spared, were it not
STIPES, from the Greek STUPOs, a stump, or stake; may it not be from stipo, to bind, things being packed up and bound with the feru-leaf which is called a frons.
1. Basis frondis, proprius palmis, ilicibus, fungis. Truncus in foliis, transiens, et a foliis non distinctus.-LINN.EUS.
2. The base of a frond; or a species of stem passing into leaves, or not distinct from the leaf. The stem of a fungus is likewise called stipes, which Dr. Withering translates pillar.MARTYN.
3. That species of truncus, which is the basis of a frons, and is peculiar to palms, filices, and fungi-BERKEN HOUT.
4. The stype is the stem of a frond, which in ferns is commonly scaly. The term is likewise applied to the stalk of a fungus.-SMITH.
5. Le stipe, ou colonne. Ce'st une tige cyliudrique, non divisée, couronnée de feuilles à son sommet, et formée par la base des pétioles, rapprochée en un seul faisseau.-BRISSEAUMIRBEL.
[To be continued.]