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interruptions in the navigation, 453–the question considered is a
commercial point of view, 451-5-ancient commerciai rutas
450-6 -Rugsian trade, 457_history of the Turkey Compost. 458

the plain of Aleppo, 459_character of the Arabs, 460—she sure
of a caravan, 461----ancient constructive arts. 461-6-ruins of Per-

nepolis, value of Colonel Chesney's labours, 457.
Exeter, Bishop of, versus Gorham, review of the case of, 363 kg-

See Gorham.

France, republican, works relating to, 501–different nations diferently

gifted, 505-the ideal philosophy of the French people, 506
national requirements for self-government, 507-8—theoretically
defective state of the English Constitution, 508-10-demand of
national freedom for national virtues, 510-11-rights of others not
respected, 612-14-regard for truth essential, 51+16-importance
of an habitual respect for established law, 516-18–French and
Irish excitability, 519-20-inadequate sense of political respons-
bility, 520-1--nonchalant attitude of French treason, 522-3-price
we pay for self-government, 524-6—change in parliamentary func-
tlour, 627-drawbacks in popular governments, 528—time lost in
Holl-defence, 629-30_schools and municipalities of America, 531–
rights and duties of states, 532-3.

(aming, the origin of the calculus of probabilities, 8.
. (Torham versus the Bishop of Exeter, Report of the Judgment of
" the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in the Case of, 263

interest and instruction derivable from the matter, ib.—past his-
tory of the Church, 264–supremacy of the crown, ib.-S. Gregory
Nazianzen and Edmund Burke on councils and convocations, 265–
la Calvinism admissible within the Church of England ? 266_com-
prehensiveness of the Church of England, 267_extract from
Huller's Church History' on the Thirty-nine Articles, 267-8-
results of the mixed origin of our formularies, 268—national cha-
motor of the Church of England, 269-70-comprehension of evan-
golionls and high churchmen, 271-2-general advantages of com-
prehension, 273-true end of a national church establishment,
974-8 -opposite and contradictory opinions included in the Church
W England, 276-toleration and freedom of the early church, 277

uncertainty of the Gorham controrersy, 277-9-the question of
odnotlloncy of infant baptism, 280-92.
* saber celebration of the hundredth anniversary of his birth, 188-9
cature of the festival, 189_Göthe's reputation, 190_his in-
y on his age, 191-2-Voltaire, Rousseau, and Göthe, the

t ers of the social philosophy of the last century, 192-
w

of the character and principles of Voltaire, 193-6—his
relimirers, 197_Rousseau, 197-201-birth and early youth

201-early influence of Voltaire on him, ib.-his cold-
melihat messing the powerful seductions of the social philosophy of

his literary and personal friendship with Schiller,

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ib.—immense difference between their poetical productions and
powers, aims and instincts, 202-3-Schiller's view of Nature, 204

-Göthe's power more 'subjective than Schiller's, 204-5—Göthe's
acuteness of observation of both human nature and of the external
world, 205-his skill and fidelity in representing pictures of Na-
ture, 206_history of the composition of the “Sorrows of Werter,'
206-7-extract from Göthe’s Lili,' 207 notecharm of his female
creations, 208—his great excellence in one peculiarly dramatic
point, ib. his literary characteristics, 209–Menzel's character of
Göthe's works, 210—his early life and social position, 210-12-
the later years of his life, 212–his views of the moral relation
between the sexes, 213-his political indifference, 214-15 -his
unpatriotic spirit, 215-Dünzer's defence, 216–Göthe's social phi-
losophy, 216-18–influence of his works, 219_imperfect reaction,

ib.-prospective view of a purer state of man's philosophy, 219-20.
Guesclin, Du, his interview with the free companies at Châlons, 161

-his encampment near Avignon, 162—his demands of supplies
from the Pope, ib.-taken prisoner at the battle of Najera, 165—

his betrayal of Don Pedro of Castile, 170. See Pedro the Cruel.
Guizot, M., review of his 'Causes of the Success of the English

Revolution of 1640–1688,' 220-peculiar object of its publication,
ib.-analogies of incident between the revolutions of England and
France, 221-2–M. Guizot's presumption that constitutional
monarchy' was the scope of both revolutions, 222-3—what is a
successful revolution ? 223-4-impossibility of judging of the
success of the last French Revolution, 224-5—M. Guizot's reply to
the question why has the English Revolution succeeded ?' 225-6
-inquiry into the failure of the French Revolution of 1789–1830
227-moderation and practicability of the views of the English
revolutionists, 227-8-state of French parties from 1789-1830,
229—the Republicanism of 1648 dissimilar in every respect to the
Republicanism of 1793, 230-state of English parties from 1648–
1688, 231-apathy of the English, 232-conduct of the English
legitimists, 233—the French Legitimists, Imperialists, and Repub-
licans, 234-no ground of inference as to what France really
wanted in 1848, 235—inadequacy of the Orleans government to
the wants of the people, 236—the contrary the case with England,
236-7-French electoral franchise, 237-examination of the causes
of the ill-success of the French Revolution, 238-9—M. Louis
Blanc on the English Constitution, 239-40–present feelings of the
French nation regarding their last revolution, 240-1.

H
Hallam, Mr., on the changes of the English language under the Nor.

man kings, 297.
Horace, review of the works of, edited by the Rev. H. Milman, 533

-popularity and general love for Horace, 534-Latin and Italian
literature, 535_characteristics of Horace, 537-8—his boyhood at
Venusia, 539-at Rome, 540-1-his education at Athens, 542_his
entry into the army, 543- commencement of his literary career,
545-6-Roman drama, 547-8-patronage of Mæcenas, 548-50-his

“Sabine farm,'550-1-chronology of his writings, 552-3-his
lyrics, 554—his satires, 555-6—his town and country life, 557
close of his life, 558.

Laplace, on the theory of probabilities, 8.
Latham, R. G., M.D., review of his ‘English Language' and of his

• Elementary Grammar for the Use of Schools,' 293. See English

Language.
Lyell, Sir Charles, review of his . Second Visit to the United States

of America, 339 et seq. See America.

M
Menzel, his characters of Göthe's works, 210. See Göthe.
Mérimée, Prosper, review of his . Histoire de Don Pédre ler, Roi de

Castille, 136. See Pedro the Cruel.
Merivale, The Rev. Charles, review of his . History of the Romans

under the Empire,' 57—period of history comprised in the work,
ib.-the author's ' Arundines Cami,' 58—all historians of the em-
pire unsatisfactory, 58-9—want of knowledge of the causes of the
decline of the Roman Commonwealth, and its transition to mo-
narchy, 60—design and extent of Mr. Merivale's work, 61-interest
and importance of the subject, 62—Roman isolation and expansion,
63—their effects, 64_results of the Social War, 65-gradual
assumption of a military tone in Rome, 66—insecurity of all extant
records of Roman history, 67-9—contrariety of the views of Sulla
and Cæsar, 69, 70–Cilician pirates, 70—Sertorius, ib.-Spartacus,
71-lethargy and enervation of the Roman mind, 72-3—Cn. Pom-
peius, 73-5—Cicero, 75-6—his political imperfections, 77-Mr.
Merivale's estimate of the character of Cicero, ib.—his description
of the Tusculan villa, 78—his view of Cæsar's character, 79%
his system, 80-characteristics of the age, 80, 81-three distinct
periods in Cæsar's career, 82-the Marian party, ib.—the Julian
laws, 83—Mr. Merivale's sketch of the friends and ministers of the
dictator, 83–intentions of the Roman oligarchy, 84-condition of
the urban population, 85—importance of war to the Romans, 86—
conquest of Gaul, 87—fiscal tyranny of the proconsuls and publi-
cani, 88—provincial administration, 89—review of the circum-
stances of the murder of Cæsar, 89-90_views of various writers
on its justice or guilt, 90-91-Mr. Merivale's character of M.

Brutus, 92-3-eulogy of the work, 93-4.
Mill, Mr., reference to his ' System of Logic,' 2.
Mure, William of Caldwell, review of his Critical History of the

* Language and Literature of Ancient Greece,' 398—import-
ance and influence of ancient Greek literature, ib.previous works
on the subject, 399—difficulties which beset the student of the
classical languages of antiquity, 400—advantages and qualifications
of Colonel Mure, 401-general tendency of his views, 402—scope
of his book, ib.-division of his subject, 403—historical value of
the mythical and poetical legends, 404-5—Colonel Mure on the
Homeric poems, 406- critics of the Wolfian school, 407-8-import-

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ance of internal evidence in Homer, 409-10-unity of plan, 411–
discussion of other characteristics, 434-were the Iliad and Odyssey
written or not? 435.

Panizzi, Mr., his connexion with the British Museum, 373. See

British Museum.
* Pedro the Cruel, History of,' by M. Mérimée, review of, 136-diffi-

culty of narrating clearly the history of civil wars, ib.ancient
divisions of the Peninsula, 137—clearness of M. Mérimée's nar-
rative of the reign of Pedro the Cruel, ib.-his talents as an
imaginative and historical writer, 138—Spain in the 14th century,
139-establishment of a military bourgeoisie, ib. Behetrias,'
140_powers of the great vassals of the Castilian crown, ib.-
ceremony of denaturalisation, 140-1-Alphonso XI., father of Don
Pedro, 141-battle of Rio Salado, 142-death of Alphonso, ib.
accession of his son Pedro, ib.—his illegitimate brothers and sister,
and their mother Doña Leonor, 143—Don Juan Alonso Albur-
querque, ib, his appointment as first minister, 144-murder of
Doña Leonor, ib.--pretenders to the succession, 145—murder of
Don Garci Laso della Vega, 146-meeting of the Cortes at Valla-
dolid, 147-interview with Alphonso IV. of Portugal, ib.revolt
of Alonso Coronel, 148_his execution, 149_Doña Maria de
Padilla, ib.--Pedro's marriage, 150—Alburquerque's downfall,
150-1-grounds of Pedro's Character, 151-M. Charrière's views
concerning him, 152—Pedro's administration of justice, 152-3—
his marriages, 154-revolt of his brothers headed by Alburquerque,
ib.-surrender of Toro by his mother, 155-his imprisonment and
subsequent restoration, 156-series of assassinations, 157-anecdote
of Pedro's last wars with Aragon, 158-death of Queen Blanche,
159—death of Maria Padilla, 160—the free companies, 161-Du
Guesclin, ib. entry of the free companies into Spain, 162–
Pedro's flight into and expulsion from Portugal, 163—his refuge
and alliance with the Black Prince, 164-battle of Najera, 165-
Pedro's re-establishment on the throne, ib. his quarrel with the
Black Prince, 166-withdrawal of the latter from Spain, 167—
Pedro's cruelties, ib.--second revolt of his brother Don Enrique,
168-siege of Toledo, 169-surprise of Pedro in the castle of
Montiel, 170-duel of the two brothers, 171_death of Don Pedro,
ib.-review of M. Mérimée's remarks on the causes which produced

Don Pedro's crimes, 172-his descendant Richard III.
Pompeius, Cn., sketch of his character and career, 73-5. See Meri

vale.
Probabilities, M. A. Quetelet's work on, l-internal feelings of man
with regard to them, ib.--Mr. Mill on reasoning, 2-mathematical
and practical certainty, 3-use of the term probability,' ib.-scale
of probability, ib.--efficient and formal causes, 4-probability dis-
tinguished from chance, 5— theory of probabilities regarding con-
notions, 6– probability the numerical measure of expectation, 7–
Laplace, 8-number of possible' hands' at whist, ib.-origin of the
VOL. XCII. NO. CLXXXVIII.

QQ

calculus of probabilities, ib.—its history, 8-12-late works on the
subject, 12-character of M. Quetelet as an author, 13-14-general
form and division of his work, 15—theory of probabilities in the
abstract, ib.-risk of savings' banks, 16—means and limits, 17-18

- principle of least squares,' 19-20—law of the distribution of
errors, 21-2-means distinguished from averages, 23-extreme
deviations, 25-giants and dwarfs, 26-8-elimination of chance,
29-30-causes disclosed by preponderant theories, 31-2-relation
of male to female births, 33-4-detection of periodic causes, 35–
à priori argument respecting double stars, 37 -distribution of tem-
perature, 38—flowering of plants, 39—statistics, 40 et seq.-popu.
lation returns, 43-4-other social statistics, 45-advantages of a
statistical society over official intervention, 47-8-value of the exact-
ness of statistics, 48-9—criminal statistics, 50-2-medical statistics,
52-4_errors of the translator, 55–M. Quetelet's letters on the rise
and importance of statistics, 56.

Quetelet, M. A., review of his · Lettres à S. A. R. le Duc règnant de

Saxe Cobourg et Gotha sur la Théorie des Probabilités,' &c., 1
et seq. See Probabilities.

Romances, classical, notices of recent, 468_use of historical fictions,

469_modern prose fiction, 470-71-unpopularity of classical
novels, 472-difficulties of historical romance, 473-4-defective
analogies and analyses, 475~'Amymone,' 476-scene at the house
of Pericles, 478-9—remarks on such works in ' Amymone,' 480-1
– Pericles,' 481-3—'Antonina,' 483-6—the Fawn of Sertorius,
486-8—the Fountain of Arethusa,' 489-90-general remarks on

classical and historical novels, 490-91.
Rousseau, his personal character, 198-influence of his writings, 198

- Gospel of Rousseau,' ib.-rejected only by Anglicanism, 199–
decline of his power, 199_his influence compared with that of

Voltaire, ib.
Rome, under the Empire, review of the Rev. Charles Merivale's work

on, 57 et seq. See Merivale.

Schiller, his literary and personal friendship with Göthe, 202–

difference between their poetical productions, 203-4-simplicity
and love of the beautiful apparent in bis works, 203—his studies
of Nature only second-hand, 204—his power less subjective than
Göthe.
Schools, Industrial, works concerning, 491-their value, 494-ragged

schools, 495-old method of pauper education, 496–Limehouse
Training School, 497—Norwood Training School, 503-Edinburgh
United Industrial Schools, 503—evils of the body social, 504.
Sewell, Mr., notice of his translation of the Agamemnon' of Æschy.

lus, 179.

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