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.. more indignation,' says the honest Gascon, 'than compassion,

when I saw him at Ferrara in so piteous an estate, a living • shadow of himself, forgetful of himself and of his works.' Are we to understand that the forgetfulness was so complete as to have made him then insensible to this last dishonour ?

Beyond the walls of Santa Anna, indeed, there was consolation for Tasso, could it have reached him through the din of chains, and shrieks, and maniac laughter, and through the distractions and perturbed visions which were settling upon his mind. He was becoming the madman that Alphonso had reported him to be. But while the poet himself languished in prison, his poem itself was read or recited in city and in country, in market-place and haven, in palace and in convent, on the populous highway, and in solitary glens, from the fountains of the Adige to the Straits of Messina, in the valleys of Savoy, and in the capitals of Spain and France. Men could not praise it enough. Fortunes were made by its sale. Two thousand copies of Ingegneri's edition were sold in a day or two.

"Everywhere,' says Mr. R. Milman, “all over the country, nothing was to be heard but Tasso's echoes. The shepherd read it as he watched by his flocks on the ridgy Apennine. The boatman, rocking in the Campanian Gulf, hung over the verse of his exiled compatriot. The gondolier, waiting at the Venetian bridges, whiled away the hours with learning the stately and liquid stanzas. The brigand, lurking behind the rock in the wild passes of the Abruzzi, laid by his matchlock for the strains of love and valour. The merchant, in the inn, ceased thinking over his ships, and the sbopkeeper forgot his business, in the gardens of Armida, or the enchanted forest. The prelate and the monk hurried with the book into their cells, to visit in its pages the sacred walls and holy buildings of Jerusalem. The brave cavalier and fair maiden admired the knightly feats, or wept over the tender sorrows of the champions and their ladies, in hall or in shady bower. The scholar to whom the work bad been in part submitted, rushed eagerly to see how his criticisms had told. Nobles and princes, and their stately dames, in addition to the interest of the poem, desired to see the verse of the famous object of princely love and princely hate. The French knights panted to see their progenitors' deeds of pious valour blazoned anew to the world in the burning words of song.' · Tasso was released from his seven years' imprisonment in the Hospital of Santa Anna on the 5th or 6th of July, 1586. He was released from a life little less burdensome than imprisonment on the 25th of April, 1595. The strong man was bowed; the grave man had become saturpine: he had regained liberty but not repose. At the age of forty-two, with impaired vigour and extinguished hope, he was as much a pilgrim and an exile as when, at the age of twenty, he had entered the service of Alphonso, and offered his willing homage to the virtues and genius of Lucretia and Leonora. A few gleams of prosperity attended the last two years of his life. His fame pervaded Italy: it was proposed to crown Rinaldo's poet with Petrarch's laureate wreath; the noblest Houses of Italy aspired to become his patrons : but he had already put too much trust in princes, and his best consolations were the friendship of Manso and the hospitality of the good Benedictines of Mont Olivet.

We must now close our imperfect sketches of the ethnic and the Christian poet. In the history of the former we have contemplated a career marked by few vicissitudes, and expressive, if not of the highest genius, yet of talents honourably exercised in extending the taste of a nation not naturally poetical, and ministering to the literary enjoyment of future ages. Philosophy was perhaps never more successfully applied in the regulation of character than it was by Horace; and external circumstances had favoured his happy nature. In an age of ostentation and excess he was simple, frugal, and contented. His early asperities had yielded to the gentle influences of friendship, experience, and self-knowledge. In the ancient world he stands forward prominently as the philosopher of good sense. The life of Tasso is a more tragic volume. Throughout his few and evil days he exemplified the remark of the ancient poet, that he who enters a tyrant's house, becomes a slave even if " he goes in a freeman. Yet the woes of Tasso, although in themselves it is difficult to consider them medicinal, fell upon a nature so chastened and elevated by endurance, that at the last we can contemplate the closing scene with feelings not purely painful. One by one the inherent imperfections of his disposition appear to have been corrected. His passion for praise, his proneness to take offence, his impatience, his jealousy, and his pride gradually left him. The great reconciler of wrongs, impartial and inexorable death, removed every cloud from his spiritual vision — Alphonso and Ferrara faded away upon the horizon of eternity: even the fame of his Gierusalemme had become of the earth' and indifferent to him ; and his failing senses admitted alone the echoes of the consoling hymn and the words of the parting benediction. In the church of the Monastery of St. Onofrio, at Rome, a small marble slab and a more stately monument inform the traveller that there, after his weary pilgrimage, rest the bones of Torquato Tasso.

ters Templified ingic volumsopher of client

No. CLXXXIX. will be published in January, 1851.

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Æschylus, the Lyrical Dramas of, translated into English Verse,'

by J. S. Blackie, review of, 173. See Blackie. Alburquerque, Don Juan Alonso, notice of his career, 143 et seq.

See Pedro. Alphonso XI., King of Castile, notice of the reign of, 141-2. America, United States of, review of works relating to, 339—judgment and candour of Sir Charles Lyell's books upon the United States, ib.-his first geological visit, 339-40—his Second Visit, 341_his debarkation at Boston, ib. - Protestantism the basis of freedom in New England, ib. its religious sects, 342—its fanaticism, 343_- revivals,' 344-Millerites, ib.Mormons, 345-6

true religion essentially progressive, 346-7-policy of the congregational churches, 348-9— religious insincerity of Old England, 350-education question in Old and New England, 351-2general diffusion of education in New England, 353-extract from Mr. Matheson's letter on the morals, education, and religion of the United States, 353-4-and from Mr. Mackay's work on the same subjects, 354-religion free, education compulsory, 355-state religion, 356-zeal of the people in the cause of religion, 357schools for the Indians, 358—what the Americans may justly be proud of, 358-9-civilisation and security in New England, 360prospects of the federal government, 361-the slavery question, 362—Texas, Mexico, and California, 363-4—activity of the Church, 365-6— America not declining, but growing, 367— Webster on the press, 368-and on the duty of a representative, 369eulogium on the late writers on America, 370—difficulties which beset its government, 371.


B. Behetrias,' notice of the formation of, 140. Bernouilli, notice of his work on Probabilities, 9. Blackie, J. S., review of his . Lyrical Dramas of Æschylus, trans

lated into English Verse,' 173-character of translations of classical authors from the time of the Restoration, ib.-difficulty of poetical translations affording satisfaction to the present age, 174-6—especially of translating Æschylus, 177-8—chief features of Mr. Sewell's translation of the 'Agamemnon,' 179-extract from Mr. Blackie's version of the “Agamemnon,' 180-his rendering of the ode from the Choephoræ,' 181-3-and of the close of the Per

sians,' 183-4-a translator's choice of evils, 185-6—literary

hedgings,' 186-extract illustrative of Mr. Blackie's power in
managing the dialogue, 186-7—a complete English translation of
Æschylus attempted but once or twice before, 187-value of Mr.

Blackie's work, 188.
Black Prince, the, his alliance with Pedro the Cruel of Castile, 164

-his establishment of the power of Pedro, 165—his quarrel with
him, 166—his withdrawal from Castile, 167.
Blanc, M. Louis, his opinions respecting the English Rerolutions,

British Museum, government Reports' respecting, 371—the dispute
on the Catalogue, ib.—the octavo Catalogue, 372-publication of
first volume of the full Catalogue, 373_Mr. Panizzi, ibm extract
from the Report, 374-6-evidence regarding the Reading Room,
377-alphabetical or classed Catalogues, 378—degree of fulness
requisite, 379_summary of the evidence, 379-80-order of the
evidence, 381-the catalogue to be produced, 382—the Bodleian
catalogue, 383—mistakes in cataloguing, 383-4—Sir F. Madden,
385—Mr. Payne Collier's method, ib. Mr. Jones's report on the
faults of his plan, 386-7-Mr. Collier's defence, 387-8–difficulty of
cataloguing anonymous or initialled works-389-92—printed or
MS. catalogues ? 392-4-plan proposed by 'Athenæum,' 394-ex.
tent of Mr. Panizzi's plan, 395-6—the splendid bequest of the
Grenville library, 397—difficulty of producing a catalogue much
less than its opponents think of, 397.

Cesar, view of his character and political career, 79 et seq. See

Collier, Mr. Payne, his method for cataloguing the British Museum

collection of books, 385.
Cordova, siege of, 168-9.

Education, popular opinions on the subject, 94-5-extract from

Bloomfield, illustrative of the altered relation of the labourer and
employer, 95—hopelessness of the labourer attaining a better con-
dition, 96-separation of classes, 97—social effects of ignorance,
98-9-sanitary reform, 100— moral evils of the labouring classes,
ib.-high wages and low education, 101-2—the two educational
societies, 103-government grants in aid of them, ib.-analysis of
the measures of government for the advancement of education,
104-6-particulars relative to training schools, 107-qualifications
of candidates for admission into them, 108–conditions annexed to
grants, 109-government inspection, 110-Mr. Denison's speech
at Willis's, 111-objections to the government plan 112-manage-
ment clauses, 113-15-details, 115-134—different views respecting

education, 135-6.
Emigration, value of, 492_surplus population, what? 493-proper

view of emigration, 498–our present want of system, 499—what
the training for emigration ought to be, 499-miscellaneous train.
ing, 500-2.

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England, New, Sir Charles Lyell's account of, 341 et seq. See

English language, review of works relating to the, 293–our former

articles on this subject, ib.-improvements in the illustration of its
grammar and history since that period, ib.Dr. Latham's · English

Language,' 294-origin of the Anglo-Saxon, ib.-rarity of the
retention of Celtic names in England, 295-period of purity of the
Anglo-Saxon, 296_effect of the incursions of the Danes, ib.--the
changes in the language at the time of the Norman Conquest, 297

what was the effect of the Conquest, ib.-grammatical changes
in the Platt-Deutsch, 300-1-changes in our language principally
grammatical, 302-3-Anglo-Norman political songs, 304_Laya-
mon's translation of Wace's “Romance of Brut,' 305—ruggedness
of the language anterior to the time of Chaucer, 306_orthogra.
phical difficulties, 307 and noteHume on the mixture of the
French and English languages, 308-dates of specimens of early
English, 308-9-Robert of Gloucester, 309—Sir John Mandeville,
310—Wicliffe, ib.-Trevisa's translation of Hygden's 'Polychroni-

con,' ib, French the court and fashionable language, 311-ortho-
graphy of Sir John Mandeville's · Travels,' 312-Chaucer's Eng.
lish, 313-15-language of the latter half of the 14th century, 316
-cumbersomeness of our early style, 317-18-Caxton's remarks
on its improvement during his time, 319-benefits conferred by
him, 320_results consequent upon a formation of taste for classic
authors, ib.-purity and elegance of Sir Thomas More's works,
321—the English of the beginning and middle of the 16th cen-
tury, 322-Sir John Cheke, ib.-Wilson's Rhetoric,' 323_Dr.
Johnson on the speech of the time of Elizabeth, 324—Latinisms
- and periodic style, 325-6-Jeremy Taylor, 327-extracts from
Hooker and Milton illustrative of the periodic style, ib., note-
refinement at the Restoration, 328-affected Gallicisms introduced
by the court of Charles II., 329—value of some of the words, ib.
extravagant colloquialisms, 330_' cavalier slang' of Roger
L'Estrange and his contemporaries, 330-1-Dryden, 331-Addi-
son, ib.-affectation of French phraseology during the early part
of the last century, ib. Samuel Johnson, 332-3-extravagant
imitations of Dr. Johnson's style, 334—the Germanised style,
334-5-evil of the multiplication of scientific terms, 336-7-inun-
dation of learned terms in the vulgar handicrafts, 337–principal
excellences of a language, 338.
English Revolution of 1640-1688, the Causes of the Success of,' by

M. Guizot, review of, 220 et seq. See Guizot.
Euphrates expedition, notice of works relating to, 436—communica-

tion with India by steam, ib.--comparison of the various routes,
437-the route by the Euphrates, ib.-Colonel Chesney, ib.-de-
tails of his plans of operation, 438 et seq.-navigability of the
Euphrates determined, 441-topography of the countries on either
side, 442-3-plains of Antioch and Aleppo, 443-4-Balis, 444
Hierapolis, 445-6- Mesopotamia and Syrian desert, 447—Deir,
448-Werdi, 449--Anah, ib.-bitumen pits of Hitt, ib.-basket-
boats, 450— Babylonia, 451—Hillah, 452—Birs-Nimroud, ib.

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