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preface, which to this day forms a useful introduction to the work. Book after book was translated by other hands; and the Rev. John Clowes, Rector of St John's, Manchester, having embraced the doctrines of the New Jerusalem, set about the work of translation in earnest, and gave to the world an excellent and accurate English version of the “Arcana Cælestia ” in thirteen volumes. In 1810, the “Society for Printing and Publishing the Writings of the Hon. Emanuel Swedenborg” was formed, and from that time to this has perseveringly pursued its useful labours, sustained by the contributions of friends. In 1854 a gentleman munificently presented the Society with £3000 to purchase an independent house of publication, and the result was its establishment in a handsome edifice in Bloomsbury street, Oxford street, London. During the past year, the “Swedenborg Society” has reduced the price of its publications one-third ; and now, qnality of workmanship considered, there are no cheaper books in England. It is but fitting that works filled with such heavenly thoughts, and capable of so great use and service, should have no bar whatever to a free and wide diffusion.

In the United States of America, many editions of Swedenborg's works have been published, and their circulation has been considerably greater than in England. In New York has recently been established an "American Swedenborg Printing and Publishing Society,” which in the few years of its existence, in the public spirit of its management, and the excellence and beauty of its editions, promises to rival and excel its English predecessor. But in such labours of love it is a happiness to be surpassed.

In France, translations of various works of Swedenborg have been executed from time to time. M. Le Boys Des Guays, of St Amand, Cher, has been, however, the chief labourer in this field. Sustained by some kind friends, but most of all by his own ardent perseverance, the Lord's gift, he has executed a uniform translation of the whole of Swedenborg's published theological works. In France, the sale of these works is as yet small, but the dawning of a better day is looked for with confiding faith.

In Germany, Dr Tafel, Librarian to the University of Tubingen, has been the principal worker in the translation and diffusion of Swedeuborg's writings. More than this, he has reprinted many of his works in the original Latin, and has been the means of the publication of Swedenborg's Adversaria and Diarium from his MSS., thus securing those invaluable records of spiritual experience from all danger of loss. In Germany, as in France, the readers of Swedenborg, as compared with those in England and America, are yet few. In Sweden but little interest, as yet, is taken, in his writings. His countrymen seem proud of him principally on account of his fame abroad. From all that is observed we are inclined to conclude that

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Swedenborg can have a fair hearing only in nations where thought and speech are alike free. In the “ True Christian Religion,” speaking of the “noble English nation,” he says, “The English are in the centre of all Christians, because possessed of interior intellectual light, derived from the liberty of speaking and writing; while nations who do not possess such liberty, have this light presented in a confused manner, for it wants an outlet.” He also compares free nations, in relation to the church and theology, 'to which raise themselves to any height; whilst nations not free are like tame swans in a river.

Free nations are also like stags, which range with full license through the plains, groves, and forests; whereas nations not free are like deer enclosed in parks, kept for some prince's pleasure.

It will have been observed, in the course of our narrative, that Swedenborg made no attempt to gather the receivers of the doctrines he was sent to promulgate, into a separate body or sect. When he was attacked by Dr Ekebom, he defended himself from the Word, the Formula Concordiæ, and the Confessions of the Lutheran Church. When Doctors Beyer and Rosen were charged with heresy, he counselled a like defence. His friends, the Rev. Thomas Hartley, Rector of Winwick, in Northamptonshire, and William Cookworthy, a distinguished minister in the Society of Friends, both remained in their old connections until the time of their death, although perfectly contirmed in the doctrines of the New Church. Later, the Rev. John Clowes spent a long life in the Church of England, ministering to a large and affectionate congregation, while alike by tongue and peu he spread abroad the pure faith of the New Jerusalem,-he, with some others, believing that the new doctrines would quietly displace the old, and that'no external separation was called for. Others, however, thought differently, and on 1 June, 1788, in Great East Cheap, London, was inaugurated an external organization, calling itself the New Church. One after another, Societies in England and Scotland have been formed, for the public worship of the Lord Jesus Christ, until in the present year there exist some sixty or seventy such Associations : they are most numerous in Lancashire. These Societies are represented in an annual Conference, which attends to the general business of the church, and ordains ministers. It has moreover prepared a Liturgy and book of Hymns, and from various grants of money which have been made to it, supports schools in many districts. The Conference also possesses, as its organ, a monthly magazine, called the “Intellectual Repository or New Jerusalem Magazine.” The Societies of which this Conference is composed, possess complete liberty, and manage their own affairs without interference,

In America matters are much the same as in England. There, is a General Convention, corresponding to the English Conference. It also has its organ in a monthly journal, the “ New Jerusalem Maga

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zine,” published in Boston. In addition, it has lately started a weekly newspaper, “ The New Jerusalem Messenger,” published in New York. Professor Bush, of New York, likewise edits a monthly magazine with distinguished ability, entitled the “New Church Repository.” In Philadelphia, and La Porte, Indiana, there are weekly newspapers published, devoted to the advocacy of the doctrines of the New Church. In America, the New Church has made considerably greater visible progress than in England, and particularly so in the state of Massachusetts.

But it is ever to be remembered that the New Church is a Dispensation and not a Sect, and is to be measured by the goodness and truth in the world, and not by the lip-confession of a creed. The Lord God Almighty, the Creator of heaven and earth, took unto Himself an arm of flesh, in assuming our humanity, and through it has come near to men that He might redeem them from all their foes. Like all Divine works, this has been gradual. The first Christian Church was founded, but as the centuries glided away it ever lost somewhat of its first purity and innocence, forgot the simplest teachings of its Founder, and fell into evil states, “ such as were not since the beginning of the world, no, nor ever shall be.” But the Lord “shortened those days; else, no flesh had been saved,” and He chose Swedenborg as His servant to bear testimony to the world how such things were, and how, in executing the Last Judgment, He cast down the hells, and swept from the souls of men the myriads of evil spirits which hung like a pall of death around them. Writing in 1771, Swedenborg says, “ The reduction of the heavens and the hells to order is not yet accomplished, but has continued in its process since the day of the Last Judgment until now, and still continues.”T. C. R., n. 123. We are beginning to realize the effects of these great changes. In the times in which we live, the nations feel the breath of a new spring upon their spirits, but faintly conceive the Divine Source from which the inspiration comes. All speak of the new spirit which animates men, and history is in vain appealed to for its cause ; history contains no parallel to the things which now are, and the things which are to come.

The world has entered upon a The Lord has said, “Behold I make all things uew,” and in the days which are to come, the Divine will shall be done on earth as in heaven ; for the promise of the New Jerusalem is, " Behold the tabernacle of God is with men, and He will dwell with them, and they shall be His people, and God Himself shall be with them, and be their God; and the nations of them that are saved shall walk in the light of it; and there shall be no night there. I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star. The Spirit and the Bride say, Come; and let him that heareth

new course.

156

SWEDENBORG :-HIS LIFE AND WRITINGS.

say, Come; and let him that is athirst come; and whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely. Even so, come, Lord Jesus. Amen."

“ There are five classes of those who read my writings. The first reject them entirely, because they are in another persuasion, or because they are in no faith. The second receive them as scientifics, or as objects of mere curiosity. The third receive them intellectually, and are in some measure pleased with them, but whenever they require an application to regulate their lives, they remain where they were before. The fourth receive them in a persuasive manner, and are thereby led, in a certain degree, to amend their lives and perform uses. The fifth receive them with delight, and confirm them in their lives." --Swedenborg.

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THE END.

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