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overturn their unity in essence and existence; and therefore the unity in nature and essence which they assert to exist in the three persons of the Godhead not being found in the sun, light, and heat, the analogy attempted to be drawn must be abandoned. Again, it is advanced, that as a single substance possesses various qualities, and consequently is viewed differently ; so the Father, the
Son, and the Holy Ghost, are in fact one God; yet f(the Deity in his capacity of Creator of the world, is called the Father, and in his capacity of Mediator is termed the Son, in which he is generally supposed inferior to the Father; and in his office of sanctification is named the Holy Ghost, in which he is deemed inferior to both. I know not whether to consider such an argument as reasoning, or as a mockery of reason 4 since it justifies us in believing, that one and the same being in one of his capacities is superior to himself, and again, in reference to another quality, is inferior to himself; that he is in one case his own beloved Son, and then in another capacity is at the disposal of himself according to the entreaty of his Son.) This mode of arguing, after all, serves to deny the Trinity, which represents the Godhead as consisting of three distinct persons, and not as one person possessing different attributes, which it is the object of Trinitarians to prove. They allege the united state of the soul and the body as analogous to the union of the Father and Son; but no one who believes in the separate existence of the soul, can for a moment suppose it to be of the same essence as the body ;
so that unless they admit the immateriality of the Father alone, and assert the materiality of the Son in his pre-existent state, this illustration also must be set aside.
Some allege, that as the Son of Man designates human nature, so the Son of God expresses the nature of God. Were we to admit the term “God” as a common noun, and not a proper name, and Godhead as a genus like mankind, &c., and that Jesus was actually begotten of the Deity, this mode of reasoning would stand good ; but Godhead must in this case be brought to a level with other genera, capable of performing animal functions, &c.
Some represent God as a compound substance, consisting of three parts, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, a representation in support of which they can offer no scriptural authority. I would, however, wish to know, whether these parts (Father, Son and Spirit) are of the same nature and existence, or each possessed of a different nature
In the former case, there would be a total impossibility of composition ; for composition absolutely requires articles or parts of different identity and essence; nothing being capable of composition with itself. Besides, the idea of such a compound substance is inconsistent with that distinct personality of Father, Son, and Spirit, which they maintain. In the latter case, (that is, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit being of different natures,) a composition of these three parts is not impossible ; but it destroys the opinion which they entertain respecting the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit, being of the same nature and essence, and of course implies, that the Godhead is liable to divisibility.
The argument so adduced by them would include in reality a denial of the epithet God to each part of the Godhead; for no portion of an existence, either ideal or perceptible in a true sense, can be called the existence itself; as it is one of the first axioms of abstract truth, that a part is less than the whole; but we find in the Scriptures the Father constantly called God in the strict and full signification of the term. John, ch. xvii. ver. 3 : “ This is life eternal, that they may know thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent.” 1 Cor. ch. xv. ver. 24 : “ Then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father." 1 Cor. ch. viji. ver. 6: “ To us there is but one God, the Father.” Ephesians, ch. iv. vers. 5, 6: “ One Lord, one faith, one baptism ; one God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in you all.”
Another argument which has great weight with that sect is, that unless Jesus is God and man, he cannot be considered as qualified to perform the office of mediator between God and man; because it is only by this compound character that he intercedes for guilty creatures with their offended God. This mode of reasoning is most evidently opposed to common sense, as well as to the Scriptures; though their zeal in support of the Trinity has not permitted them to see it. I say, opposed to common sense ; because we observe, that when any one feels angry with, and inclined to punish one of a herd of cattle which may have trespassed on his grounds, or when a rider wishes to chastise his horse on account of its viciousness, it is his friend or neighbour generally who intercedes in its behalf, and is successful in procuring mercy to the offending animal, in his simple nature, without assuming in addition that of the creature in whose behalf he intercedes.-I say, opposed to scripture ; because we find in the sacred writings, that Abraham, Moses, and other Prophets, stood mediators, and interceded successfully in behalf of an offending people with their offended God; but none of them possessed the double nature of God and man. Numb. ch. xi. vers. 1, 2: “ When the people complained, it displeased the Lord; and the Lord heard it, and his anger was kindled, and the fire of the Lord burnt among them, and consumed them that were in the uttermost parts of the camp. And the people cried unto Moses; and when Moses prayed unto the Lord, the fire was quenched.” Ch. xiv. vers. 19, 20, Moses prayed to the Lord, “ Pardon, I beseech thee, the iniquity of this people, according unto the greatness of thy mercy, and as thou hast forgiven this people, from Egypt, even until now. And the Lord said, I have pardoned them according to thy word.” Ch. xxi. ver. 7: “ Therefore the people came to Moses, and said, We have sinned, for we have spoken against the Lord, and against thee: pray unto the Lord that he take away the serpents from us. And Moses prayed for the people.
Exod. ch. xxxii. ver. 30 : “ And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses said unto the people, Ye have sinned a great sin, and now I will go up unto the Lord, peradventure I shall make an atonement for your sins.”
Gen. ch. xviii. ver. 32: “ And he (Abraham) said, O let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak yet but this once,--peradventure ten shall be found there. And he said, I will not destroy it for ten's sake.” I find several others performing the office of mediator and intercessor in common with Jesus, as I noticed before ; and indeed this seems to have been an office common to all Prophets : but none of them is supposed to have been clothed with Godhead and manhood in union. Jeremiah, ch. xxvii. ver. 18: “ But if they be Prophets, and if the word of the Lord be with them, let them now make intercession to the Lord of Hosts,” &c.' Deut. ch. v. ver. 5:
Deut. ch. v. ver. 5: “I (Moses) stood between the Lord and you at that time, to shew you the word of the Lord.” I regret very much that a sect generally so enlightened, should, on the one hand, have supposed the divine and human natures to be so diametrically opposed to each other, that it is morally impossible for God even to accept intercession from a mere human being in behalf of the human race, and, on the other hand, should have advanced that the Deity joined to his own nature that of man, and was made flesh, possessing all the members and exercising all the functions of man-propositions which are morally inconsistent with each other.
To avoid the supposed dishonour attached to the