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Hudson's Bay from those of the St. Lawrence, amidst marvellous adventures, by hardy resolution and daring presence of mind, they had, in 1686, conquered the English posts from Fort Rupert to Albany River, leaving the English no trading-house in the bay, except that of which, in 1685, they had dispossessed the French at Port Nelson. That post remained to the English ; but the sons of Lemoine intercepted the forces which were sent to proclaim William of Orange monarch over jagged cliffs, and deep ravines never warmed by a sunbeam,-over the glaciers and mountains, the rivers and trading-houses in Hudson's Bay. Exulting in their success, they returned to Quebec.

In the east, blood was first shed at Cocheco, where, thirteen years before, an unsuspecting party of three hundred and fifty Indians had been taken prisoners, and shipped for Boston, to be sold into foreign slavery. The memory of the treachery was indelible ; and the Indian emissaries of Castin easily excited the tribe of Penacook to revenge. On the evening of the twenty-seventh of June, two squaws repaired to the house of Richard Waldron, and the octogenarian magistrate bade them lodge on the floor. At night, they rise, unbar the gates, and summon their companions, who at once enter every apartment. “ What now? what now?" shouted the brave old man ; and, seizing his sword, he defended himself till he fell, stunned by a blow from a hatchet. They then placed him in a chair on a table in his own hall :~"Judge Indians again !”-thus they mocked him : and, making cruel sport of their debts to him as a trader, they drew gashes across his breast, and each one cried, “Thus I cross out my account !" At last, the mutilated man reeled from faintness, and died in the midst of tortures. The Indians, burning his house, and others that stood near it, having killed three-and-twenty, returned to the wilderness with twentynine captives.

August comes. The women and children, at the Penobscot village of Canibas, have confessed their sins to the Jesuit Thury, that so they may uplift purer hands, while their fathers and brothers proceed against the heretics ;-in the little chapel, the missionary and his neophytes have established a perpetual rosary during the expedition, and even the hours of repast do not interrupt the edifying exercise. A hundred warriors, purified also by confession, in a fleet of bark canoes, steal out of the Penobscot, and paddle towards Pemaquid. Thomas Gyles and his sons are at work, in the sunny noontide, making hay. A volley whistles by them ;-a short encounter ends in their defeat. “I ask no favour," says the wounded father, “but leave to pray with my children." Pale with the loss of blood, he commends his children to God, then bids them farewell for this world, yet in the hope of seeing them in a better. The Indians, restless at delay, use the hatchet, and, for burial, heap boughs over his body. After a defence of two days, the stockade at Pemaquid capitulates; and the warriors return to Penobscot to exult over their prisoners. Other inroads were made by the Penobscot and St. John Indians, so that the settlements east of Falmouth were deserted.

In September, commissioners from New England held a conference with the Mohawks at Albany, soliciting an alliance. “ We have burned Montreal,” said they ; “We are allies of the English; we will keep the chain unbroken." But they refused to invade the Abenakis.

Had Frontenac never left New France, Montreal would probably have been safe. He now used every effort to win the Five Nations to neutrality or to friendship. To recover esteem in their eyes ; to secure to Durantaye, the commander at Mackinaw, the means of treating with the Hurons and the Ottawas; it was resolved by Frontenac to make a triple descent into the English provinces.

From Montreal, a party of one hundred and ten, 090. composed of French, and of the Christian Iroquois,-having De Mantet and Sainte Helene as leaders, and D'Iberville, the hero of Hudson's Bay, as a volunteer,for two-and-twenty days, waded through snows and morasses, through forests and across rivers, to Schenectady. The village had given itself calmly to slumber : through open and unguarded gates the invaders entered silently, and having, just before midnight, reached its heart, the war-whoop was raised (dreadful sound to the mothers of that place and their children!), and the dwellings set on fire. Of the inhabitants, some, half-clad, fled through the snows to Albany ; sixty were massacred, of whom seventeen were children, and ten were Africans. For such ends had the hardships of a winter's expedition, frost,


famine, and frequent deaths, been encountered. Such was war.

The party from Three Rivers, led by Hertel, and consisting of but fifty-two persons, of whom three were his sons, and two his nephews, surprised the settlement at Salmon Falls, on the Piscataqua, and, after a bloody en. gagement, burned houses, barns, and cattle in the stalls, and took fifty-four prisoners, chiefly women and children. The prisoners were laden by the victors with spoils from their own homes. Robert Rogers, rejecting his burden, was bound by the Indians to a tree, and dry leaves kindled about him, yet in such heaps as would burn but slowly. Mary Ferguson, a girl of fifteen, burst into tears, from fatigue, and was scalped forthwith. Mehetabel Goodwin would linger apart in the snow to lull her infant to sleep, lest its cries should provoke the savages. Angry at the delay, her master struck the child against a tree, and hung it among the branches. The infant of Mary Plaisted was thrown into the river, that, eased of her burden, she might walk faster.

Returning from this expedition, Hertel met the war party, under Portneuf, from Quebec, and, with them and à reinforcement from Castin, made a successful attack on the fort and settlement in Casco Bay.

Meantime, danger taught the colonies the necessity of union, and, on the first day of May, 1690, New York beheld the momentous example of an American “congress.” The idea originated with the government of Massachusetts, established by the people in the period that intervened between the overthrow of Andros and the arrival of the second charter; and the place of meeting was New York, where, likewise, the government had sprung directly from the action of the people. Thus, without exciting suspicion, were the forms of independence and union prepared. The invitations were given by letters from the general court of Massachusetts, and extended to all the colonies as far, at least, as Maryland. Massachusetts, the parent of so many states, is certainly the parent of the American Union. At that congress, it was resolved to attempt the conquest of Canada by marching an army, by way of Lake Champlain, against Montreal, while Massachusetts should, with a fleet, attack Quebec. Thus did Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New York, having, at that time, each a government constituted by itself, in the spirit of independence, not only provide for order and tranquillity at home, but, un. aided by England, of themselves plan the invasion of Acadia and Canada.

Acadia was soon conquered : before the end of May, Sir William Phipps, failing to bring seasonable supplies to Falmouth, sailed to Port Royal, which readily sur. rendered. New England was mistress of the coast to the eastern extremity of Nova Scotia, though the native hordes of that wilderness still retained their affection for the French.

While the people of New England and New York were concerting the grand enterprise of the reduction of Canada, the French had, by their successes, inspired the savages with respect, and renewed their intercourse with the west. But, in August, Montreal became alarmed. An Indian announces that an army of Iroquois and English was busy in constructing canoes on Lake George; and immediatels Frontenac himself placed the hatchet in the hands of big allies, and, with the tomahawk in his own grasp, old as he was, chanted the war-song, and danced the war-dance. On the twenty-ninth of August, it was said that an army had reached Lake Champlain ; but, on the second of Sertember, the spies could observe no trail. The projected attack by land was defeated by divisions,-Leisler charging Winthrop of Connecticut with treachery, and the forces from Connecticut blaming Milborne, the commissary of New York, for the insufficiency of the supplies.

But, just as Frontenac, in the full pride of security, was preparing to return to Quebec, he heard that an Abenaki, hurrying through the woods in twelve days from Piscataqua, had announced the approach of a hostile fleet from Boston. The little colony of Massachusetts had sent forth a fleet of thirty-four sail, under the command of the incompetent Phipps, manned by two thousand of its citizens, who, as they now, without pilots, sounded their way up the St. Lawrence, anxious for the result of the ex. pedition against Montreal, watched wistfully the course of the winds, and hoped in the efficacy of the prayers that went up, evening and morning, from every hearth in New England.

Had the excursion from Albany by land succeeded, had pilots, or fair winds, or decision in the commander, conducted the fleet more rapidly, but by three days,—the castle of St. Louis would have been surprised and taken. But, in the night of the fourteenth of October, Frontenac reached Quebec. The inhabitants of the vicinity were assembled ; and the fortifications of the city had already been put in a tenable condition, when, on the sixteenth, at daybreak, the fleet from Boston came in sight, and soon cast anchor near Beauport, in the stream. It was too late. The herald from the ship of the admiral, demanding a surrender of the place, was dismissed with scoffs. What availed the courage of the citizen-soldiers who effected a landing at Beauport ! Before them was a fortified town, defended by a garrison far more numerous than the assailants, and protected by marshes and a river fordable only at low tide. The diversion against Montreal had utterly failed. The New England men re-embark, and sail for Boston. In Quebec there were great rejoicings. For the church in the lower town, the yearly festival of Our Lady of Victory was established; and in France a medal com• memorated the successes of Louis XIV. in the New World. The New England ships, on their return, were scattered by storms. Of one, bearing sixty men, wrecked on Anticosti, five of the few who did not perish from the winter, boldest of navigators, landed in Boston in the following May, after a voyage of forty-four days in a skiff. Sir William Phipps reached home in November. The treasury was empty. “Considering the present poverty of the country, and, through scarcity of money, the want of an adequate measure of commerce,” issues of bills of credit were authorized, in notes from five shillings to five pounds, to “be in value equal to money, and accepted in all public payments.” But, as confidence wavered, the bills of the colony, which continued to be issued, were made, in all payments, a legal tender, and, instead of bearing interest, were received at the treasury at five per cent. advance. 1691- Repulsed from Canada, the exhausted colonies at1696. tempted little more than the defence of their frontiers. Their borders were full of terror and sorrow, of captivity and death ; but no designs of conquest were formed. If Schuyler made an irruption into the French settlements on the Sorel, it was only to gain successes in a skirmish, and to effect a safe retreat. A French ship anchoring in Port Royal, the red cross that floated over the town made I way for the banner of France; and Acadia was once 092 more a dependence on Canada. In January, 1692, a party of French and Indians, coming in snow-shoes from

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