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der the acts of Congress relative to copyrights, and the rights growing out of Patents for new inventions and discoveries in the useful arts.

373. They have likewise original jurisdiction, concurrent with the District Courts, and with the Courts and Magistrates of the several States, of all suits at Common Law where the United States, or an officer thereof, suès under the authority of an act of Congress; although the matter in dispute does not exceed one hundred dollars. .. 374. The Circuit Courts have appellate jurisdiction in all final decrees and Judgments of the District Courts, where the matter in dispute exceeds fifty dollars; and if any suit be. commenced in a State Court against an alien, or by a citizen of the State in which the suit is brought, against a citizen of another State, and the matter in dispute exceeds five hundred dollars, the defendant, on giving security, may remove the cause to the Circuit Court for the District ; and this right of removal is founded on the appellate power vested in the Courts of the United States over the State Courts in all cases of federal cognizance, which may be exercised as well before, as after Judgment. --375. The Circuit Courts of the United States, though inferior Courts in the language of the Constitution, are not so in the sense which the Common Law attaches to the term; nor are their proceedings subject to the narrow rules of interpretation which apply to inferior Courts of Common Law, and Courts of special jurisdiction. On the contrary, they are Courts of original and durable jurisdiction, and, as such, are entitled to 'liberal intendments in favour of their powers. - 376. They are, nevertheless, Courts of limited jurisdiction; and have cognizance, not of cases gene

rally, but only of a few cases under special circumstances, amounting to a small proportion of those which an unlimited jurisdiction would embrace ; and the legal presumption is, that a cause is without their jurisdiction until the contrary be shewn.

-377. The District Courts of the United States were · also created in virtue of the power granted to Con.. gress by the Constitution, of erecting tribunals infe.. rior to the Supreme Court.

378. The United States are at present divided into thirty-two Judicial Districts; and in general each Dis: trict is composed of an entire State ; but in some of the larger States there are two Districts.

379. A Court is established in each District, conşisting of a single Judge, who holds annually four stated terms, and also special Courts at his discretion ; and there is also a District Court for the District of Columbia, held by the Chief Justice of the Circuit Court for that District. . .. :

380. The District Courts have, exclusively of the State Courts, cognizance of all lesser crimes and offences cognizable under the authority of the United States, and committed either within their respective Districts, or upon the high seas, and which are punishable by fine not exceeding one hundred dollars, and imprisonment not exceeding six months.

381. They have also exclusive original cognizance of all civil causes of Admiralty and Maritime jurisdiction; of seizures under the impost, navigation, and trade Laws of the United States, where the seizures are made on the high seas, or in waters within their respective Districts, navigable from the sea by vessels of ten or more tons burden; and of all other seizures under the Laws of the United States; and of

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all suits for penalties, or forfeitures incurred under those Laws.

382. They have, moreover, jurisdiction concurrently with the Circuit Courts, and with the State Courts, of causes in which an alien sues for a violation of rights accruing to him under the Law of Nations, or a. Treaty of the United States; and of all suits at Com mon Law, in which the United States are plaintiffs, and the matter in dispute amounts to one hundred dollars.

383. They have jurisdiction exclusive of the State Courts of all suits against Consuls or Vice Consuls, except of offences of which the Circuit Courts of the United States have the exclusive cognizance.

384. They have, lastly, exclusive original cognizance of proceedings to repeal Patents obtained surreptitiously and upon false suggestions, and of complaints, by whomsoever instituted, in cases of capture made within the waters of the United States, or within a marine league of their coasts.

385. The Judges of the District Courts have, in cases where the party has not had reasonable time to apply to the Circuit Court, as full power as is exercised by the Judges of the Supreme Court, in granting Writs of Injunction in Equity causes, to operate within their respective Districts, and continue until the next sitting of the Circuit Court for the District.

386. The Courts of the Territories of the United States, have been created from time to time by Acts of Congress establishing TERRITORIAL Governments,

in those parts of the Union which were either ceded · by individual States for the common benefit, or, hav

ing been obtained by Treaty from foreign Nations,

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were never comprised within the boundaries of any of the original members of the Confederacy. ..

387. In the Territory of Michigan, Congress has adopted the principle of the ordinance for the Government of the “ Territory of the United States north-west of the river Ohio,” passed under the Confederation, by which the Judges hold their offices during good behaviour.

388. There is in Michigan a Supreme Court, consisting of three Judges (appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate), any two of whom form a Court, which possesses both a Common Law and Equity jurisdiction throughout the Territory. But a fourth Judge was subsequently added for certain remote counties, with an appeal to the Supreme Court of the Territory; and the powers and duties of the subordinate Magistrates are regu. lated by the local Legislature..

389. In the Territories of Arkansas and Missouri, the Judicial Power is vested in a Superior Court, and in such inferior Courts as their respective Legislatures shall from time to time establish, and in Justices of the Peace. The Judges of the Superior Court are appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate, and those of the inferior Courts, as well as the local Magistrates, by the Governor of the Territory.

390. The Superior Court in each of these Territories is held at such times and places as the local Legislature directs, and is composed of three Judges, who continue in office for four years, unless sooner removed by the President, and have jurisdiction in all civil and criminal cases, and exclusive cognizance of all capital cases within their respective Territories.

But any two of the Judges constitute a Court of appellate, and any one a Court of original, jurisdiction,

391. In Florida, the Judicial Power is vested in two Superior Courts, and in such inferior Courts and Magistrates as the Legislative Council of the Territory may establish.

*392. The Judges and the inferior Magistrates are respectively appointed in the same manner, and hold their offices for a similar term as the Judges and Magistrates of the Arkansas and Missouri Territories.

393. One of the Superior Courts is for East Florida, and the other for West Florida ; and each consists of one Judge. Fach Court has jurisdiction in all criminal cases, and exclusive cognizance of all capital cases, within its respective subdivision of the Territory.

394. These Superior Courts are invested with original jurisdiction in all Civil cases of the value of one hundred dollars, and cognizable by the Laws of the Territory; and they have, moreover, within their respective limits, the same jurisdiction in all cases arising under the Constitution and Laws of the United States, as is vested in the District Courts of the United States, in those Districts in which the latter have the powers of a Circuit Court, subject to the like rules and regulations in regard to Writs of Error and Appeals.

395. The Superior Courts of the other Territories in which a District Court of the United States has not been established by Congress, exercise within their respective limits the same jurisdiction, subject to the like appeal, as the District Courts having the

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