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the animation of the perishing man, he is thus reproved "- an excellent BREAST"-"Breast" and voice were by Bryce, the pedlar: Are you mad? you, that have of old synonymous, and it is, therefore, not necessary to lived so long in Zetland, to risk the saving of a drowning substitute breath, as some have recommended. man? Wot ye not, if you bring him to life again, he will be sure to do you some capital injury?' Sir Wal

- for thy LEMAN”—The word is spelled lemon in ter Scott has a note upon this passage :

the old copies, and Collier supposes the meaning may " It is remarkable that, in an archipelago where so

be, that Sir Andrew sent the Clown sixpence in return many persons must be necessarily endangered by the

for, or to buy a lemon. But it is clear enough that Sir waves, so strange and inhuman a maxim should have Andrew sent the sixpence to the Clown's sweetheart. engrafted itself upon the minds of a people otherwise “Leman" has been differently derived from l'aimant, kind, moral, and hospitable. But all with whom I have (Fr.) or, more probably, from the Saxon leof, (dear,) spoken agree that it was almost general in the beginning

But its sense in Old-English is familiar for a of the eighteenth century, and was with difficulty weeded

lover, or mistress. out by the sedulous instructions of the clergy, and the

– IMPEticos thy GRATILLITY"—“This is evidently rigorous injunctions of the proprietors. There is little doubt it had been originally introduced as an excuse for

a touch of the fantastic language which the Clown con. suffering those who attempted to escape from the wreck

tinually uses. Johnson would read—I did impetticoat to perish unassisted, so that, there being no survivor, she

thy gratuity." No doubt we understand it so. But might be considered as lawful plunder.'

then comes a grave discussion among the commentators, " It appears to us, however, if we mistake not the

whether the Clown put the sixpence in his own pettimeaning of our text, “if you will not murder me for my

coat or gave it to his leman. Dr. Johnson says, with

great candour and wisdom" There is much in this love, let me be your servant,' that the superstition was

dialogue which I do not understand.” And we are not confined to the Orkneys, in the time of Shakespeare. Why should Sebastian murder Antonio for his love, if

content to plead his sanction in not entering upon this this superstition were not alluded to ? Indeed, the an

recondite question of the petticoat; in leaving unex. swer of Sebastian distinctly refers to the office of hu

plained the still more abstruse histories of • Pigrogromimanity which Antonio had rendered him, and appears

tus' and the · Vapians;' and in giving up the riddle why to glance at the superstition as if he perfectly understood

'the Myrmidons are no bottle-ale houses.'"-KNIGHT. what Antonio meant— If you will not undo what you " -- a song of Good Life"-i.e. A “civil and virtuous have done, that is, kill him whom you have recovered, song," as it is called in the “Mad Pranks, etc., of Robin desire it not.' The vulgar opinion is here reversed.”- Good-fellow,” in opposition to a “ love-song." KNIGHT.

They sing a catch—This “catch” is contained in SCENE II.

Ravenscroft's “ Deuteromelia,” (1609,) where the air is " – RECEIVE it so-i. e. Understand, or take it so,

given to the following words :without reference to the ring. Viola follows it up by

Hold thy peace, and I pr'ythee hold thy peace,

Thou knave, thou knave! hold thy peace, thou knave. expressing surprise at what Malvolio had said about the ring, which she had never seen till then.

“ It appears to be so contrived," says Sir John Hawkins,

" that each of the singers calls the other knave in turn. " the PROPER FALSE"-" Proper" is here handsome,

“ – a Catalan”—It is not easy to explain this term as in OTHELLO

of reproach, nor is it of much consequence. Stevens This Ludovico is a proper man.

supposes it to mean a cheat, or a thief. Cataian" is This adjective is compounded with “false" in the same

found in Davenant's “ Love and Honour," in the sense way that we subsequently have beauteous-evil.

of sharper. Cathay was the old name of China. “ – such as we are made of, such we be”—The folios

" – a Peg-A-RAMSEY"-Sir Toby grows more musiread, “ For such as we are made, if such we be." I

as he grows more mellow. His allusions are all to cannot perceive that this gives any satisfactory sense, songs and tunes, some not of the most decorous characand have adopted Tyrwhitt's correction of for if-thus ter, on which much learning will be found in the comgaining a natural sense, expressed in a phrase of the

mentators. Poet's manner, as in the TEMPEST—"such stuff as dreams are made of.Knight and Collier, however,

- Coziers' catches"-i. e. Botchers' catches." retain and defend the old reading, which is said to allow

A“cozier” meant either a tailor or a cobbler. Minshew the following sense :—“ How easy is it (says Viola) for

says that it is a cobbler; but it is, in fact, any person handsome false men to set their forms in the waxen

engaged in sewing—from the Fr. coudre. hearts of women; for which, alas ! our frailty is the

Snick up"—A term of contempt, of which the cause, not ourselves, inasmuch as we are made such as

precise meaning is lost. Stevens would derive it from we are, if indeed we be such."

sneak-up," applied to the Prince (HENRY IV., part i.) " — FADGE"— To suit, to agree. Drayton has

by Falstaff, and such may have been its origin; but it

became afterwards equivalent to the phrase “Go and With flattery my muse could never fadge.

hang yourself,” or “Go and be hanged.” SCENE III.

Farewell, dear heart, since I must needs be gone"

In Percy's “ Reliques," the ballad from which this line " — DILUCULO SURGERE"-Diluculo surgere saluber- is taken is inserted at length, from the “Golden Garland rimum esl—“'Tis healthiest to rise early.” This well

of Princely Delight.” What is subsequently sung by known adage Shakespeare found in Lily's “Grammar;" Sir Toby and the Clown is a variation, for their purpose, the manual of his age.

of parts of the first two stanzas of the ballad. "- a stoop of wine”—The word “stoop," says Out o' TUNE"—So all the old copies; but modern Reed, is derived from the Belgic, and is equivalent to a editors read, “Out of time ?"-as if it were a question measure of two quarts.

put to Malvolio, in reference to what he had said soon

after his entrance. All that Sir Toby means is, that the “ the picture of WE THREE"-An allusion to an old

Clown had sung out of tune. • Sir, ye lie !" is addressed print, formerly a favourite ornament of the room-walls

to Malvolio with the purpose of affronting him. of country alehouses. It represented tro only, but, nnderneath, the rustic connoisseur read this complimentary

" Dost thou think, because thou art virtuous, there inscription" We three are asses ;" or the more refined shall be no more cakes and ale ?—It was the custom, and metrical one

on saints' days and other holidays, to eat ginger-cakes

and quaff ale, in their honour; and Malvolio, sometimes We three Loggerheads be.

affecting to be, as Maria says, “ a kind of Puritan," may






be supposed to have censured this practice as supersti. is a slang term of contempt, often used by the old dra. tious, which the Puritans did.

matic writers. So, in the old comedy of “Gammer “ – rub your chain with crumbs" - "Stewards former

Gurton's Needle," (act iii, scene 3,) “Thou slut! thou

cut !ly wore gold chains, as a mark of distinction, and these chains were cleaned with crumbs. Nash, in his . Have

SCENE IV. With You to Saffron Walden,' (1596,) charges Gabriel Harvey with having stolen a nobleman's steward's feature, or countenance. In her reply, Viola plays up

- upon some FAVOUR"_"Favour" is often used for chain;' and in Webster's • Dutchess of Malfy,' (1623,)

on the double meaning of the word — a little, by your occurs this passage— Yea, and the chippings of the buttery fly after him, to scouer his gold chain,'"

favour." "STE

Too old, by heaven. Let still the woman take"

We learn from Mr. Collier that it was an opinion, con. - a NAYWORD"--i. e. A byeword, says Stevens.

fidently stated by Coleridge, in his lectures, in 1818, Forby (“Vocabulary of East Anglia") defines it, “.


(of which only fragments are preserved in his printed byeword, a laughing-stock."

works,) that this passage had a direct application to the “- an AFFECTIONED ass”-i. e. An affected ass.

circumstances of his own marriage with Anne Hatha“Affection" for affectation was common at the time.

way, who was so much senior to the Poet. Some of

Shakespeare's biographers had previously enforced this “- great swaths"-i. e. Great parcels, or heaps. | notion, and others have since followed it up; but Cole"Swaths” are the rows of grass left by the scythe of ridge took the opportunity of enlarging eloquently on the mower.

the manner in which young poets have frequently con“ – PenthESILEA"_" Penthesilea" was a celebrated

nected themselves with women of very ordinary per.

sonal and mental attractions, the imagination supplying queen of the Amazons, politely slain, in single combat, all deficiencies, clothing the object of affection with by Achilles.

grace and beauty, and furnishing her with every accom*— call me cut"_“Cut” (a docked or curtail horse) plishment.

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- FREE maids"-. e. Chaste maids, employed in making lace. This passage has puzzled the commentators. Johnson says, free is perhaps vacant, unengaged, easy in mind.'

Stevens once thought it meant unmar. ried; then that it might mean cheerful; and at last concludes that its precise meaning cannot easily be pointed out.'. Warton mentions, in his notes on · L'Al. legro' of Milton, that it was a common attribute of woman, coupled mostly with fair; but he did not venture upon an explanation. The following extracts will show


that in our older language free was often used for chosle,
pure. Thus Chaucer, in the ‘Prioress's Tale :'-
O mother maide, O maide and mother fre.-(Ver. 13397.)

This song, I have heard say
Was makid of our blisful Lady fre.-(Ver. 13594.)

Wherefore I sing, and sing I mote certaine

In honour of that blisful maiden fre. "In the Speculum Vitæ' of Richard Rolle, (MS..) it is thus applied to the Virgin Mary

have been known to Shakespeare: it was reserved for Racine to transfer its spirit into his “ Phedre"—the most beautiful production of the modern classic drama.

"- bide no DENAY"_i. e. Denial. “Denay" is often used as a verb, but there is no other instance in which it is converted into a substantive.




For our Lorde wolde boren be
Of a weddid woman that was fre,

That was blessid Marye mayde clene. The force of the word will be best understood by the following examples of its use, from the same poem :

Wherfor God sa is in the Gospelle,
Yf two of yow with hert fre, (i. e. pure,)
Accorden togethir with me,
Whatever ye of my fadir craue,

Withoute doute ye sal baue.

When he praied to God with hert fre. “ Its occurrence in Spenser, and our old "Metrical Romances,' is so frequent, coupled with fair, that I am surprised it had not struck some of the commentators that beauty and chastity were the highest gifts with which the sex could be endowed; but Drayton uses it in his fourth • Eclogue:

A daughter cleped Dowsabel, a maiden fair and free. And Ben Jonson makes part of the praise he lavishes on Lucy, Countess of Bedford

I meant to make her fair, and free, (i. e. chaste,) and wise,
Of greatest blood, and yet more good than great."

SINGER. " the OLD AGE”—The “old age” is the ages past, the times of simplicity.

- sad CYPRESS"-" There is a doubt whether a coffin of cypress-wood, or a shroud of cypress, be here meant. The sad cypress-tree' was anciently associated, as it is still, with funereal gloom, and was probably used for coffins. The stuff called .cypress,' (our crape,) which derives its name either from the island of Cyprus, or from the French créspe, was also connected with mournful images. In a subsequent scene of this play, Olivia says

a cyprus, not a bosom, Hides my heart. In the Winter's Tale, Autolycus reckons among his wares

Lawn as white as driven snow,

Cypress black as e'er was crow. In Ben Jonson's 'Epigrams,' we have 'solemn cypress' as opposed to cobweb-lawn.' It is difficult, and perhaps unnecessary, to decide the question; for the sentiment is the same, whichever meaning we receive.”— KNIGHT.

thy mind is a very opal”—An“ opal” is a stone of various colours, according to the light in which it is

The Clown wishes the duke to have his dress made to correspond with his mind.

" A blank, my lord. She never told her love"-Cole. ridge says,

“ After the first line the actress ought to make a pause, and then start afresh, from the activity of thought, born of suppressed feelings, and which thought had accumulated during the brief interval, as vital heat under the skin during a dip in cold water.”

“ – like patience on a monument"-Every reader who is willing to take the obvious sense would take this to mean, that the lady sat smiling at her grief, as Pa. tience is represented in monumental sculpture. But some of the critics have imagined that the comparison is with a figure of Patience smiling at another of Grief, on the same monument. There seems no foundation for this refinement, but if the passage were at all ambiguous it would be cleared up by the use of this figure elsewhere. Thus, in Pericles, we have

Thou dost look
Like Patience gazing on kings' graves, and smiling

Extremity out of art.
Middleton, in the same age, has-

Like one that's forced to smile upon a grief. There is a passage in the beginning of the “ Hippolytus" of Euripides, describing Phedra brooding over her secret love, which is singularly like this in thought, and in plaintive sweetness of melody and language. It is of course merely one of the coincidences of genius, for there is no reason to think that the “ Hippolytus" could

SCENE V. my METAL of India"-So the original foliomettle. The second folio has netile, which is followed in many editions. “My metal of India" is, obviously, my heart of gold, my precious girl. My nettle of India is said to be a "zoophyte, called the Urtica Marina, abounding in the Indian seas." We cannot but ask, with Knight, “Was Sir Toby likely to use a common figure, or one so far-fetched ? If Shakespeare had wished to call Maria a stinging-nettle, he would have been satisfied with naming the indigenous plant-as he has been in RICHARD II. and HENRY IV.,-without going to the Indian seas."

" - hor he JETS"-To "jet" is to strut, or swagger; one of the commonest words in writers of the time.

"- the lady of the Strachy"-" There is, doubtless, an allusion here to some popular story not now known;

Strachy' (printed, or misprinted, in Italic in the original edition) being the name of some noble family, of which one of the female branches had condescended to marry a menial. Possibly that family was the Strozzi of Florence; and the copyist of Shakespeare's MS., not being able to read the word, wrote • Strachy' for Strozzi, or Strozzy. On the other hand, Knight suggested that

Strachy' was the strategus, or governor, of some province, whose widow had married below her rank. Warburton's conjecture of Trachy, from Thrace, and Stevens's notion about the starchy, connected with the laundry, are equally untenable. The meaning of Malvolio merely is, that a great lady had married a servant; and whether ‘Strachy' be a corruption, or the real name given in the old story to which Shakespeare referred, is a matter of little consequence."-COLLIER.

"- a STONE-BOW"-A bow used for the purpose of discharging stones.

"- a day-bed'-“Day-beds," or couches, were a luxury among the rich in Shakespeare's time; and, according to a line of Spenser

Some for untimely mase, some for delight. “ — vind up my watch—Pocket-watches were first brought from Germany about the year 1580, so that in Shakespeare's time they were very uncommon.

" play with my-some rich jewel"-So the old copy, but omitting the dash. Stevens understands

“ my some rich jewel" to mean, “some rich jewel of my own;" but it is more natural to suppose that Malvolio, having mentioned his watch, then a rarity, wishes to enumerate some other valuable in his possession, and pauses after “or play with my," following it up with the words “some rich jewel;" not being able on the sudden to name any one in particular.

"- her great P's."-" In the direction of the letter, which Malvolio reads, (says Stevens,) there is neither a C nor a P to be found." To this Ritson ingeniously answers, “ From the usual custom of Shakespeare's age, we may easily suppose the whole direction to have run thus:- To the Unknown belov'd, this, and my good wishes,' with Care Present."

-Soft”—Malone contends that the word “Soft" applies to the wax, and is not an exclamation; Stevens shows that the wax used for letters, at this period, was not commonly “soft.” There can be no doubt that “soft!” here is to be taken exactly in the same sense as "softly!" and "soft!” used by Malvolio afterwards.


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" — the NUMBER's altered”-i. e. The “number” of after. The meaning is--Daylight and open country do the metrical feet is altered.

not discover more. Champaign” (spelled champain - BROCK”-i. e. Badger.

in the old editions) was a common word for a wide ex

panse of country. " the staNNYEL”—“ Stannyel” signifies a species of hawk.

“ — POINT-DEVICE"-i. e. Exactly, with the utmost

nicety. “The phrase (says Douce) has been supplied - any FORMAL capacity-i. e. Any one in his from the labours of the needle. Poinct, in the French senses—not deranged. So, “a formal man," in the language, denotes a stitch ; devise, any thing invented, COMEDY OF ERRORS.

disposed, or arranged. Point-devisé was, therefore, a “Sowter will cry”—" Sowter" is used for the name particular sort of patterned lace, worked with the needle ; of a dog, which, having found the scent, gives tongue.

and the term point-lace is still familiar to every female." Fabian afterwards carries on the allusion : “ the cur is It is incorrect to write point-de-vice, as is usually done. excellent at faults."

“ — at TRAY-TRIP”—“Tray-trip," or trey-trip, seems, Daylight and CHAMPAIGN”—The modern reader is by various quotations, to have been a game at which apt to suppose this to be an allusion to the popular French dice were employed. By “play my freedom," Sir wine ; but that was not known in England till a century || Toby means, stake his freedom.

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To taste the bow.

gar Greek.




bound to Olivia, who is the limit (or list) of her expedi

tion. " — LIES by a beggar”-i. e. Sojourns, dwells. " — a CHEVERIL glove"—i. e. A kid glove, an easy

Taste your legs"—“Taste" was used by the Elizafitting glove. So, in ROMEO AND JULIET—"a wit of

bethan poets for try. The use of the word was not cheveril."

limited to taste by the palate. In Chapman's “Odys

sey" we have “ Would not a pair of these have bred"—Meaning a

He now began couple of pieces of money, instead of one only, which Viola had given him.

This sense of the word, as in many other instances, has · Cressida was a beggar"-In the “Testament of in its old age dropped out of good society, and become Cresseyde," a continuation of Chaucer's “ Troilus and

a slang phrase. It is odd enough that it appears, from a Cresside," by Rob. Henryson, Cressida is represented, passage in Aristophanes, to have been also slang or vulaccording to the romantic narrative of these lovers, as punished with disease and beggary for her perfidy :

" — we are PREVENTED"-i. e. Anticipated, gone begreat penurye Thou suffer shalt, and as a beggar dye.

fore-a use of the word now only retained in the

Common Prayer." “ – CONSTER"—With Knight, I have retained in the text the old mode of spelling this word as it was pro- “ your most PREGNANT and vouchsafed ear"-j. e. nounced, instead of construe. All the old poets so Ready, or prepared ear; as, in MEASURE FOR MEASURE, spelled the word, when used in this sense ; and it lasted we have pregnant and unpregnant, for ready and un

ተihus till Pope's time, in whose letters it may be found. ready. In colloquial use, this sound is still retained by schoolboys and their teachers.

“ – a CYPRUS, not a bosom" —Meaning, that her

heart may be as easily seen as if it were covered only " like the HAGGARD”-A “ haggard” is a wild or with a “

cyprus," or crape veil, and not with flesh and untrained hawk, which flies at all birds, without distinc- blood. tion.

"- a Grise”-i. e. A step—from the French grez. “— wise men's folly fall’n quite taints their wit”- The word occurs, also, in TIMON OF ATHENSThis is the old reading, which Heath thus explains :

for every grise of fortune. “But wise men's folly, when once it is fallen into extravagance, overpowers their discretion.” Malone, with

SCENE II. others, reads, But wise men, folly-fallen, quite taint their wit.

"I had as lief be a Brownist”—The sect of the

“ Brownists" arose in the middle of the reign of Eliza"- the list of my voyage”-Viola follows up Sir beth, and was so called from Robert Brown, its founder. Toby's figure of a trading-voyage, and says that she is He died in 1630. The sect was ridiculed during a long


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period, and to laugh at a Brownist did not go out of “ the belief that he's mad”—The excess of vanity fashion until after the Restoration.

is among the most ordinary moral phenomena of insani

ty, so much so that it would not be difficult to make a " — if thou THOU'st him"-"Shakespeare is thought to have had Lord Coke in his mind, whose virulent

plausible argument in favour of Olivia's judgment, and

to maintain that Malvolio was really out of his senses. abuse of Sir Walter Raleigh, on his trial, was conveyed in a series of thous. His resentment against the flagrant

It would form an amusing sequel to the Hamlet controа

versy, and might, if it did nothing more, be made fruitconduct of the attorney-general, on this occasion, was

ful in moral instruction. probably heightened by the contemptuous manner in which he spoke of players, his charge at Norwich, ' - 2 FINDER of MADMEN"-" Finders of madmen' and the severity he was always willing to exert against must bave been those who acted under the writ De Lilthem.”—THEOBALD and STEVENS.

natico Inquirendo; in virtue whereof they found the I have preserved the substance of the disquisitions of man mad."-Ritsos. the older critics on this point, as a curious specimen of

"- a BUM-BAILIE”—This was the old jocose pronuningenious error. We now know that this comedy was

ciation, as it is printed in the old copies, and is so still. writen before Sir Walter's trial; but, besides, it is not

There is no reason for altering it to bum-bailif, as has at all likely that here should be any allusion to a law

been done by Malone and others. yer's invective: it merely refers to the usages of the duello, and of the men of punctilio who challenged by "— too unchary on't"-i. e. On the heart of stone: rule.

“ bestowed my honour too incautiously on a heart of

stone." " his opposite"-i. e. His adversary, or antagonisl. The use of “opposite," in this sense, is very usual - Dismount thy TUCK; be YARE"—“Tuck” is in Shakespeare, and other dramatists.

rapier, and “yare" nimble. " the new map, with the augmentation of the In- UNHATCH'd rapier, and on CARPET consideradies"-"A clear allusion (says Stevens) to a 'map' en- tion”- According to most commentators, an “unbatched graved for Linschoten's • Voyages,' an English translation rapier” is an unhacked rapier, (from the French hacher.) of which was published in 1598. This map is multi- But Mr. Dyce has proved that to hatch meant the decolineal in the extreme, and is the first in which the East- rating of weapons by inlaying them with gold or silver, ern Islands are included."

and cannot have the sense given to it by most of the

editors. He would, therefore, read “unhacked rapier." SCENE III.

The words “ carpet consideration” refer to the dubbing "- thanks, and ever THANKS”—The folio has, “ And of what were called carpet-knights, as distinguished thanks: ever oft good turns”—which Collier and Knight from knights who had the honour conferred upon them both retain ; the former with the colon transposed thus, on the field of battle. Such knights, of whom King "And thanks, and ever:" the latter without alteration. James made hundreds, were the constant subjects of The probability of an accidental omission of the third ridicule by authors of the time. ** thanks” is so great, and the sense gained by inserting

" Hob, nob"_“Hob nob” is a corruption of hap or it so satisfactory, that I have not hesitated to adopt Malone's reading.

ne hap-i. e. “ let it happen or not happen;" and is

equivalent to “come what may." " — my woRTH"-"Worth" is used for wealth, in the same sense that we still say, colloquially, a man is

“ — sir priest, than sir knight—This expression toorth so much.

was probably proverbial, and arose out of the habit in

olden times of calling a priest “ sir,” as well as a knight. SCENE IV.

Thus, we have in this play “Sir Topas," and elsewhere "- bestow of him”—This was the language of the

“Sir Hugh.” time, though Stevens calls it a "vulgar corruption"

" — such a FiRAGO"-"No doubt, (as Johnson obfor on him." It was the form of expression among the highest classes.

serves) Sir Toby means to indicate by ‘firago,' that

though Viola looked like a woman, she possessed manly and civil"-i. e. Grave, and decorous. prowess. Virago is often used for a female warrior,

but it is spelled · firago' in the old editions, perhaps with " — not black in my mind—There was an old ballad-tune called “ Black and Yellow," and to this Malvolio

allusion to the word devil, in the preceding part of the

sentence." Thus Collier, and others; but may not the seems to allude.

word be one of Shakespeare's coinage, to express what "- kiss thy hand so oft”—This fantastical custom we now call a fire-eater? is taken notice of by Barnaby Rice, in “Faults, and Nothing but Faults," (1606 :)" And these · Flowers

- an UNDERTAKER"-"* Undertakers' were persons of Courtesie,' as they are full of affectation, so are they employed by the king's purveyors to take up provisions no less formal in their speeches, full of fustian phrases,

for the royal household, and were, no doubt, exceedingly many times delivering such sentences as do betray and

odious. But still, I think, the speaker intends a quibble; lay open their masters' ignorance; and they are •so fre- the simple meaning of the word being, one who underquent with the kisse on the hand,' that word shall not takes, or takes up the quarrel or business of another."'. passe their mouths till they have clapt their fingers over

Ritson. their lippes.”

lying, vainness, babbling, drunkenness"-Col" — FELLOW"-"Fellow," at this period, was used

lier holds that “lying" and "babbling” are not to be for companion, as well as in its derogatory sense. The

taken as substantives, but as participial adjectives; and actors constantly called each other “fellows." In the

that the line should be read thus:WINTER'S Tale, Antigonus speaks of the lords present

Than lying vainness, babbling drunkenness. as his " noble fellows."

empty TRUNKS”—“Trunks," which are now fur"-play at CHERRY-PIT”—The game of “ cherry-pit” | niture for the bed, dressing, or lumber-chamber, were. was played by pitching cherry-stones into a hole. in Shakespeare's time, appertainments to parlours, and “- in a dark room, and bound"-Chains and dark.

other company-rooms; were mounted upon feet, and ness were the universal prescription for lunatics, in the richly ornamented on the top, at the ends, and along time of Shakespeare. There was a third remedy, to

the sides, with scroll-work, and emblematical devices which Rosalind alludes in As You Like It:-"Love is

of all kinds. a madness, and deserves as well a dark house and a " — so do not l-i. e. I do not believe myself, bewhip as madmen do."

cause I dare not hope that my brother is still living.


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