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thereby, it will find its level again by escaping on the sides of the bason, each way; but let a card, or some other obstacle, be pat on one side, and the whole quantity will escape by the other side, to produce a level. Just so it is with the water forced into the Gulph of Mexico by the Trade Winds; for, as it cannot find its level by escaping on both sides, from the Gulph; owing to the north coast of South America extending so far to the eastward, as again to meet the Trade Winds, it all, therefore, ́escapes on the north side, and takes its course along the east coast of Florida, until it passes the Bahama Islands, and then, as I have said, forces its way into the Atlantic Ocean, to restore the level interrupted by the Trade Winds. It cannot escape between the Islands, because it meets the trade winds again. This current it is, which, forcing its way into the Atlantic Ocean, governs the navigation of that sea, and carries vessels so much to the eastward of their reckoning, that they approach the western shores of Europe before they are aware of it; and the weather very frequently proves so hazy and cloudy, that no observations can be taken to correct their

longitude, before they get into soundings. I have been informed in the west of Eng land, that a vessel has been known (the name of which was mentioned to me) to -have run on shore on the north coast of Devonshire, with all her small sails set, in the night time, right before the wind. But the frequency of wrecks, on those shores, is but too well ascertained by the many melancholy accounts which our naval his tary affords.

The beedlessness of our seamen is

proverbial; but in no instance is it more

gross and culpable than in approaching the British Channel. They do not consider that the same wind which is fair for their voyage from the westward, has its influence on the waters of the Gulph stream, and sets them more than usually forward. It also prolongs their extent and power, and carries them with proportionate violence against the coast of Portugal; insomuch that the reckoning of vessels coming from England is vitiated by this influence, driving them out of their course;—which in one instance cost Britain eighteen ships and a man of war, in a single night.— Knowing this inattention of our seamen, Capt. Hadley in laying down the Scilly Islands in his Chart, is upposed to have placed the westernmost half a degree, or more, to the west, further than they really are not that he did not know their true

position; but, by this honest fraud to induce the mariner to keep a sharp look out, sooner than he otherwise would have done. The perfection to which modern maps are brought has removed this salutary error: and it will be an unspeakable advantage if this remonstrance of Admiral Swiney should be attended with the desired effect, and infuse caution into the incautious.

If it were possible to compose a complete History of the Gulf of Streams, it would

Vessels should, therefore, always sound at sun-set, whenever they get within one hundred leagues of Scilly by their reckon ing, when coming from the westward : and the depth of water, or having no sound-be found to comprize a series of Anomalies ings, will ascertain what sail they may of the most extraordinary kind :-somecarry in the longest night, without getting times scarcely sensible, and not felt among into danger before morning. But the mis- the tides; at others so strong, that all vesfortune is, vessels will depend on their reckoning, and run for the English or Bri- sels within its influence shall be many In some tish Channels without sounding, more leagues-out of their reckoning. especially if they happen to have had mild places, it requires a strong wind to stem it; weather on their voyage. I, myself, in a and we have heard of vessels which every two-decked ship, was near being on the day seemed to advance against it, but, after rocks of Scilly, when coming from the West Indies. a fortnight, or even three weeks' sailing found themselves, on nearing the land, scarcely twenty leagues from the port of their departure. It is the UNCERTAINTY of this cause of error, that should render mariners vigilant, and even jealous; especially when fair gales and favourable weather have conspired to please them.

The loss of the Alexander, East Indiaman, off Portland, on the 25th of March, 1815, when every soul on board perished, gave rise to the publication of these observations, which, though they may not possess much merit, it is hoped will not bring "into contempt the humble exertion of


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The processes of art are rarely, or never, independent, oue of another, nor is there one that can properly call itself detached, or isolated. Perhaps, this is the great secret which maintains the superiority of British manufactures. It is granted freely, that in some one point of manufacture the Continental artists equal, or excel us; but, in the whole taken together, in the general excellence of the several departments whose combined result does, and must, conduce to that whole, there is no country like Britain, so complete, and so masterly.

of people than one: THE RAW MATERIAL


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Having been introduced to a person, who some years ago formed an establishment of this sort in the island of Sicily, I have learned several important circumstances relating to this business, which have never yet been given to the public. I have also been favoured with the perusal of a great part of the correspondence which passed on the occasion; and having obtained leave to print the whole, or auy part of these letters, I shall subjoin such extracts as I conceive will be interesting to those who may be desirous of acquiring more infor mation on the subject.

In the first letter, which is dated Messina the 6th September, 1808, this intelli"The time of gent correspondent says, pressing is generally in the latter end of the mouth of November and December,

for till that period the lemons* yield little or no juice."

"The country round Messina consists of mountains of immense height, rising one above another, and thickly covered with fruit trees, chiefly olives and lemons, which render this place the very best in the world for procuring lemon-juice."

"The quay surpasses most others, extending for a mile and a half, close to the edge of which ships lie in 20 fathom water. Formerly a range of superb houses, perfectly uniform, extended the whole length of this marino, or quay; but ever since the earthquake these magnificent mansions lie in ruins."

It might be supposed, for instance, that where Nature furnished the principal inggredieut, that Art might easily furuish the accessaries required by the manufacture, but experience has demonstrated the contrary. A remarkable instance, in proof of this, is related by Mr. Parkes, in his valuhable and improving work, called "Chemical Essays," 5 Vols. London, 1815. The desire was to obtain the acid of lemons in a chrystallized, or at least, in a dry state, from the place where nature had bestowed them in profusion. Such a place is the island of Sicily. The process is, to squeeze out the juice and saturate it with whiting; dry this, and cask it up, for exportation. Now, the island certainly furnishes lemons, in millions; the farmers press the juice into casks, and the buyer racks it off into other casks. Here begin the difficulties; the casks are infirm, and unless im3. ported, are scarce;-stowage is wanting, "As soon as the country people press and much of the juice perishes before it is shipped. Then, saturate it with whiting, the juice, they bring it in heret for sale. "the island yields no The buyers do not afford it warehouseand preserve it: but, whiting; you must send for that to Eng-room, but roll it into the street, exposed land." It requires a large vat; but, there to the weather and to the heat of the sun, where it remains till an opportunity offers is no wood in the island to make it of; no It is therefore not surworkman to put it together. It requires for shipping it. baskets for draining-" the Sicilians make prising that so much is imported that is none such; fetch them from England."-In musty and perished, and that the English short, if England will have this citrate of merchants often find it so bad on its arrival in England as to create a difficulty in prolime, in a compact state, it must furnish- baskets, curing for it even the amount of the imwhiting—vats-pumps— casks port duty." and ships in which to transport it. Now, to whom, after all, does this commodity properly belong?—to its native island, or to an island fifteen hundred

miles off?

The probability is, that citrate of lime might be made from lemons, and their juice, imported into England-might be made in England infinitely more readily, and quite as cheap, as in the districts which furnish the most abundant supply of le

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In one of his letters he remarks, that at this time of the year 200 lemons are generally required to furnish one gallon of juice; and that, on this account, there are presses in the island which are so constructed that they will squeeze many thousands of lemons at once.

†The farmer brings it to Messiua in his own casks, and the merchant must pros vide casks to rack it into, when he takes in 2 A 2 away,

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standing the large size of the apparatus, the effervescence occasions me much trou ble; and this I attribute to the chalk being sifted to so fine a powder.

"Neither the monks, nor any of the inhabitants seem to have the slightest curiosity to know what the article is, although, until it is dry, it continually occasions a most agreeable odour."

In a letter dated Messina, Sept. 30, 1808, he says, "The pressing continues till the following March, the quantity of juice produced increasing every month, in proportion as the fruit becomes riper, and the necessity of gathering them greater. The juice is sold by the saim, which is a measure equal to 21 gallons English." "The citrate, when taken from the baskets in which I drain it, is of a consisJune 22, 1809. "The storing of lemontence and grain as fine as butter, and so juice is here a most difficult and expendelicate of touch, when about half dry, sive thing, since the soldiers occupy all the that if, as ou some occasions, when the wea-places formerly used for this purpose, and ther looked uncertain, it became prudent also many of the convents, which have all to remove it into the warehouse, to be unvery large repositories." der cover, it could scarcely be touched without breaking and crumbling into dust."

May 8th, 1809. "I have had many difficulties to contend with in bringing the preparation of the citrate of lime to any perfection; and this chiefly in the drying it, an object of the most material importance; and so much have I been perplexed on this score, that I have felt my expectatious quite damped upon the occasion."

"I observed to you before, that the weather had not been settled enough to admit of any attempt at drying out of doors; for the high mountains hanging over us are until the present month continually bringing down showers: and the atmosphere, during this time, is very unfavoura ble to drying."

"I therefore made use of the upper rooms of my house for this purpose, where I spread out the citrate, and constantly attended to turning it and exposing it to the air for two months: it now appeared perfectly dry, and as hard as it its original state of chalk; and wanting the rooms to bring forward more, I proceeded to pack it in large casks, to be ready for shipping. However, at the expiration of two or three days, when I began to fill up and cooper the casks, I found the article so heated that I was obliged inmediately to tura it all out again to dry it better."



July 4, 1809. "I cannot recollect whether I informed you, but I have been under the necessity of hiring a large room formerly the refectory of the convent, the door of which opens on the terrace where I dry. This serves also to store the citrate when dry, and at times, when the weather looks squally, to bring it under cover; a very necessary precaution in this climate, as the rain descends in torrents unknown to us in England, and would very soon wash away every thing; so that you see, this business, when conducted on a large scale, requires plans and precautions which nothing but actual operations can point out to us."

June 22, 1810. "I find as much difference in lemon-juice as in wine, and both have more or less body, according to the particular soil on which the fruit grows, When fresh squeezed all seems equally. sharp and good. The hot weather, however, is the test, and much will not bear it ; it often changes very quickly, and a mawkish vinegar-sort of taste alone remains. -Though the early juice resists the heat the best, I can positively assert that, with the utmost care, there is no certainty of preserving its native sharpness in the hot mouths, but by the addition of lume, or some other agent."

Before I conclude this part of the Essay, it will be right to apprize those who may The cisteru* in which I work is capa- intend to embark in this business, that it ble of containg 12 pipes; but notwith-will be necessary to send the writing from England, as neither lime, chalk, nor any other suitable ingredient for the purpose is to be found in Sicity.

In another letter he says, "It is impossible at any price to procure a cistern of wood in this place capable of holding the necessary quantity. There is no wood to be obtained in the island fit for it, and much less could a workman be found who would be capable of patting it together. Even baskets for draining must be sent from England, as none but very small ones are to be had in Sicily, and those very, poor and slender."

In sending out whiting or chalk, it will be advisable not to rely entirely on one shipment; for, should the calcareous earth be lost, it is probable the whole purchase of juice would be spoiled, before a fresh supply could be written for, and actually arrive in the island.

Parkes's "Chemical Essays," Vol. III. p. 47, &c.

National Register:



Destructive Conflagration. Halifax, (N. S.) Orl. 14.-A most dread. ful conflagration broke out in the town of Halifax ou the night of the 9th instant, by which several buildings were in a short time totally destroyed. The loss is calculated at 40,000l. which has ruined several worthy individuals, but little of the property having been insured. Fortunately there was scarcely a breath of wind at the time, or the greater part of the town would have been destroyed. The military composing the garrison, and the crews of the ships of war, were most actively employed on this distressing occasion, and have been highly and justly applauded for their ex


selves, as cheaper than steam-engines, and as free from the accidents which, from mismanagement, have attended steam engines, on confined and crowded decks. These vessels so impelled he proposes to call team boats, instead of steam boats, and he has already built one 66 feet long and 41 feet wide, which he runs with success as a ferry boat. He advertises that be will build boats to run any distance by animal power as fast as by steam, and at half the expence.

Death; extraordinary Miser.

At Norfolk, America, May 16, Peter Forde, a native of France, and well known for his penurious habits, and strong attachment to the precious metals. During a residence in that place of probably twenty years, he continued in the occupation of a retail grocer, upon the most limited scale, his stock in trade seldom exceeding 500 dolars; yet in this inconsiderable way, it is asserted that he accumulated upwards of 20,000 dollars! The manner in which he lived may in some degree account for an accumulation so disproportionate to the means he employed. He denied himself all the comforts of life, kept no company, and Extract of a letter, received by a gen-employed no servants, except occasionally tleman of Cliff, tear Selby, from his brother, at Baltimore, in America, dated May 25, 1816: You seem to complain of being oppressed with taxes; I will give you a small account of our's, in a free country as they please to call it. My house rent is £67 10s., tavern license


Expences of living.

£15 58. 6d., furniture tax 25s., watch (gold) 9s., dogs 9s., water £4 10s. a-year. We are taxed for every thing we possess. I give you a statement of our markets:Wheat 10s., Oats 4s. 6d., Barley 5s. 6d. per bushel: Beans we have none: Potatoes 9s. per bushel: Beef 1s. Sd. per pound: Veal 1s. Sd.; Mutton 9d. Pork 10d.; Bacon 1s. 8d.; Butter 3s. 6d. per pound; Eggs 1s. 6d. per dozen ; and every thing in proportion. You can now form your opinion of both countries."

Fire in the woods, not extinguished. The destructive fire in the woods in the district of Maine still continues its ravages, by the last accounts. Some heavy rains which had fallen had tended partially to check its progress. The conflagration has not been confined to the brush-woods alone, as was first supposed, but old forests of many miles' extent have been swept away by the devouring flames.

Теат Восиз.

Mr. Hart, of Philadelphia, instead of a steam engine of so many horses' power, has introduced the force of the horses them

a negro boy to stay in the shop when he went out. One room served him for his store, parlour, bed chamber, and kitchen; and the whole expense of his household would be over-rated at 100 dollars a year. The acquisition of money constituted his only source of enjoyment; for this he gave himself up to a life of wretchedness in other respects, that might have challenged the compassion of mendicity itself; and beyond this his ideas of happiness never wandered. He has left no relation, and we understand did not make a will; and being a Freuch subject, his estate of course falls under the administration of the French Consul. Several thousand dollars in specie, we learn, were secreted in various parts of his lodgings!

More correct accounts say that this overrates his stock in trade,which never exceeded 200 dollars, and that, by no other visible means than the profits of this scanty business, he had hoarded up nearly fifty thou sand dollars! About 20,000 dollars were

deposited in the Bauks, 15,000 dollars he invested in real estate, and about 10,000 had sometime ago remitted to Frauce, and dollars in gold, were accidentally found. after his death, deposited in the false bottom of a wooden chest, under a quantity of old clothes and rubbish! The extraordinary weight of the chest. after its visible contents were taken om, excited curiosity, and led to the discovery of the treasure!

Fine Arts Patronized.

M. Saint Martin, Counsellor in the High Court of Justice of Liege, has given this

He has a brother living in France, who has a large family; to this brother, it was the last request of the deceased, that all his effects in this country might be remitted.-city (Brussels) a proof of his regard, by re(Norfolk Paper.)


Sporting at Vienna,-On the 13th of November, the meadow of Simmering near Vienna, displayed horse-racing upon á grand scale. Our Ambassador, Lord Stewart, won the first four prizes, three of 'which were against Count Szecheny, and one against Count Wenceslas Lichtenstein. Count Szecheny won the first against Lord Stewart. Each race was for 200 ducats. On the 21st, the races were repeated. Their Royal Highnesses the Grand Dukes were on the ground. A mare, the property of Lord Stewart, won the first prize against Prince Lichtenstein's horse. Prince Esterhazy left Vienna the same day, to proceed to Naples. The Prince will pass through his estates in Hungary he has invited all the fashionable world to meet him there, to form a grand hunting party.

Incautious Astronomer.

questing the Governor of the province to accept a certain number of paintings, to serve particularly for the instruction of young artists. These paintings are thirty in number, and his Excellency the Commissioner-General of Public Instruction has authorised the Governor to accept his patriotic offer, and to place the pictures in a convenient situation, till the apartment in the University, which is preparing for them, can be got ready.


The late Eclipse great obscurity.

A letter from Copenhagen of the 19th Nov. says, "the eclipse of the sun which took place to-day, was very visible: about ten minutes past teu in the morning, there that one could neither read nor write." was so much obscurity for two minutes,


The Gazette de France has published a statement of the prices of the chief necesA letter from Vienna, dated the 29th of saries of life in France, from which it ap November, says" Prince Leopold, of Si- pears that in some articles we have the adcily has been so unfortunate as nearly to vantage in point of cheapness. According lose his eye-sight, from having imprudent-to this statement, Bread cost 18 sous, or ly looked too long at the eclipse of the sun on the 19th of this month, without the protection of a coloured glass."


State of the French Frontiers. Brussels, Dec. 2.-For some time past robberies and all kinds of excesses, such as maliciously burning houses and barns, have begun to be again very numerous in the neighbouring French departments. The dearness of provisions is by no means the only cause of this; the numerous seditious pamphlets and incendiary writings, which have been circulated there for some time past, proves that the evil-disposed and adversaries of the Government, make use of every circumstance to increase the general distress. The Civil and Military Authorities have taken measures to check this evil as much as possible. In the towns and in the country, the National Guard performs its duty with double zeal. The military force must assist, and the Commanders of the Army of Occupation have been requested in those places where the means are insufficient, to assist the Magistrates to the utmost of their power. It is hoped that these measures will have the cst result.

9d. British, per loaf of 4lb.; Beef 7d. a Butter 1s. 2d.; Eggs 1s. 7d. (two dozen) pound; Veal 80.; Mutton 7d.; Pork 8d.; Sugar is. 6d. per lb.; Coffee 1s. 5d.; and Candles 10d.

Price of bread: management at Peris.

In Paris the four-pound loaf is only eighteen sols (nine pence); but immediately out of the gates of the town it is sold for four and twenty. In some of the provinces bread is sold at eight sols a pound; and in many at seven. This high price of provi• sions, joined to the low wages which result from the want of commerce of every kind, causes the most serious distress. Potatoes are neither abundant nor good of their kind: they have been too much wetted in the ground to keep well. The crop of chesnuts has failed in several provinces of France, where they are the principal, if not the sole food of the peasants during four months, the want of them, in a year like this, is no small addition to the universal distress. In Paris, compensation is made to the bakers to enable them to sell their bread at eighteen sols. It has been at all times customary in France to make a sacrifice to prevent the inhabitants of the capital from suffering by a too great rise in the necessaries of life; the expense of

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