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from their transparent amber colour-they rust then be taken out, and put into the spinning frames called Fungs, and unless rainy, exposed throughout the day to the sun and air. On the following day, after a little exposure to the sun, the cocoons are to be taken out of the frames and placed in Coolahs, taking great care that they are not put one over the other, and the Coolahs deposited in a dry place. On the sixth day they will be fit for winding off-The cocoons that are to be wound off, if proposed to be kept for any time must be baked in an oven slightly heated, otherwise the moth will eat its way through,

Island where Bullocks cannot be reared, will by this, be indebted to you for milk and draught cattle which were wanting.The Silk Worms also get on well; they hatch irregularly: but I already have five hundred that are quite healthy and can with confidence assure you that your beneficent intentions will be accomplished, and that the Colony will owe to you this new branch of industry, which until now had been in vain attempted to be introduced. Port Louis, 21st Dec. 1815.

By Order, E. A. DRAPER,
Act. Dep. Sect. to Govt

The information required in the 2d paragraph can only be answered in general terms, the Silk that is for the most partrians and Printers to Government. wound off at the fiatures, is from 8 to 24 cocoous, it is wound thro' hot water

Port Louis, Murch 1, 1816. To Messrs Baron and Bouvignee, Libra

which by dissolving the natural gum, has the effect of causing the web to part freely --the water should be kept at a regular

heat.

I have the honour to be, &c. (Signed) W. WATTS, RESIDENT. Radnagore Factory, 4th Aug 1815.

Extract from a Letter from Mr. Chazal to His Excellency the Governor, under date the 19th December, 1815.

"I have the satisfaction of announcing to your Excellency, that I already have more than fifty Silk Worms, quite lively and healthy, and even supposing that the remainder should not turn out well, I cau venture to warrant that this quantity is sufficient to assure to the Colony the benefit which your Excellency is desirous of procuring it -The Eggs hatch but ill, and only a small number daily-change of climate is doubtless the cause, for the Mulberry which shoots forth its first leaves in India in February, does it here in September, and it will not be earlier than in a year or two that these precious Worms can be perfectly used to the climate."

*Note. This is accounted for perhaps, by the correspondence, which shews that the eggs do not hatch naturally until February or March being Eggs of Annual Silk Worms.

BUFFALOIS INTRODUCED. Extract of a Letter from Mr. Chazal to His Excellency the Governor, bearing date the 26th December, 1815.

The two capital Buffaloes you sent me are in health, they appear to like our quarter, and this is another benefit conferred n us. The high and humid parts of the

GENTLEMEN, His Excellency the Governor having forwarded to me several skeins of silk manufactured in the Colony, the merchants and inhabitants as the most with a request that should shew them to complete evidence of the successful introduction of Silk worms into this Colony— I request you will have the goodness to insert in your next Gazette my having deposited in your Library this fire Essay of a manufacture for which this Colony is indebted to the paternal solicitude of his Excellency and the infallible results of which must conduce to the prosperity of the island by adding to its productions this new branch of exportation.

I have the honour to be, &c. &c. &c.
(Signed) MAURE,
Govt. Broker.

DEPOSIT OF

NAUTICAL CHARTS to be FORMED.

MAURITIUS PROCLAMATION.

In the name of his Majesty George III. of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, KING.

His Excellency R. T. Farquhar, Esq. Governor and Commander in Chief of the Island of Mauritius and Dependencies, Captain General and Vice Admiral, &c. &c. &c.

Considering that the safety of Naviga tion results from the accuracy of Nautical Charts, and from the precision with which each object is laid down, or its position ascertained, either by astronomical observations or by any other means; to which must be added a knowledge of the differeut phenomena, which in certain latitudes appear in different ways, and in one sea son more than another,

Considering that it would be advantageous to receive, on the one hand from mariners who arrive in this Colony, all discoveries and observations which may tend to correct and render more perfect the Charts of these seas; and, on the other, to communicate to those who sail from Port Louis, memoranda which it would be advantageous for them to consult; and to point out to them the objects most worthy of observation, in the seas which surround us, and in those parts of the world with which we have the greatest intercourse :And having judged that the best methods of carrying this object into effect, is the re-establishment of an Office for the reception of Nautical Charts and Journals, and for the delivery and reception of the necessary extracts,

Has Decreed and Decrees.

tions which they may have made during
theirVoyage agreeable to the present Procla-
mation shall be taken, and copies of them
shall be given, by the Port Captain, to the
Commanders of vessels about to sail for the
East and West Coast of Madagascar, for
the Coast of Africa, for the Seychelles, or
which may be destined to navigate in any
other latitudes to the north of the Equator.

Art. 7th-All Commanders of vessels from whatever part of the world they may come, shall, on their arrival in this Port, be summoned by the said Port Captain, who shall make kuown to them the present Proclamation, to deliver at the said Office the extracts from their Journals or Log-books, which may be the most advantageous to Navigation.

Art. 8th-All Commanders of Vessels shall be allowed to consult the Charts,

Art. 1st-The Office or depot of Nauti-Journals, Memoranda, &c. which are in cal Charts and Journals shall be immediately re-established-due notice will be given of the place where it is to be held, and of the person appointed to take charge

of it.

Art. 2d-Into this Office shall be transferred all Nautical Journals, Memoranda, Charts and Plaus whatever, which may be found in the different Registries, and Public Offices of this Colony.

Art. 3d-All commanders of Vessels sailing from this Colony shall comply, as far as circumstances will allow them, with the following instructions.

Art. 4th-They shall profit by all circumstances which may tend to facilitate the passage to the island of Mauritius, and to the coast of India in the bad season; and to ascertain the position of the islands in the Archipelago to the N. E. of Madagascar, and of the Northern part of that vast Island, particularly from Mauhar bay to Cape d'Ambre in the East, and from Cape d'Ambre to Bombetoc, and even to Cape St. Andrew in the West.

the said Office, and to take, or cause to be taken by any of their Officers, whatever notes they may deem useful for their voyage, or may wish to obtain for their own information, provided always that in no case and under no pretence whatever, the papers of the said Office be displayed, without a special authorization from us.

Given at Port Louis, this 26th day of Dec. 1815.

(Signed) R. T. FARQUHAR.
By Order, E. A. DRAPER,

Act. Dep. Sec. to Government.
JAVA.

(From the Penang Gazette of Feb. 10, 1816.) The following article contains an account of a phenomenon, which, if not absolutely matchless, is extremely rare and uncommon. That another of much the same kind is known, only renders this the more credible, The wonders of nature are not all known to us, and gentlemen who have witnessed such phenomena, do much more than merely gratify curiosity by pub

VOLCANIC SPRINGS OF BOILING

MUD.

Art. 5th-They are also requested to ne glect no means of ascertaining with accu-lishing their observations made on them. racy the position of different parts of the Coast of Africa, particularly that between Mozambique and Soffala, as seamen differ materially in several interesting points on this part of the Coast, as for instance with regard to the Cape d'Algade, the longitude and even the latitude of which have never been correctly stated.

Having received an extraordinary account of a natural phenomenon in the plains of Grobogua, 50 Paafs N. E. of Solo; a party set off from Solo the 25th Sept. 1814, to examine it.

Ou approaching the Dass or Village of Art 6th-All Commanders of vessels on their return to this Port, shall be obliged Kuboo, we saw between two topes of trees to present their Log-books at this Office, a plain, an appearance like the surf breakwhere extracts of the remarks and observa-ing over rocks with a strong spray falling

for the use of the Emperor of Solo; in dry weather it yields 30 Dudgins of 100 catties each, every mouth, but in wet or cloudy weather-less.

Next morning we rode 24 Paals to a

to leeward. The spot was completely sur rounded by Huts and Apparatus for the manufacture of salt, and at a distance looked like a large Village. Alighting, we went to the Bluddugs' as the Javanese call them. They are situated in the Vil-place in a forest called Ramsam, to view lage of Kuhoo, and by Europeans are call- a salt lake, a mud hillock, and various ed by that name. We found them to be boiling pools. on an elevated plain of mud about two miles in circumference, in the centre of which immense bodies of soft mud were thrown up to the height of 10 to 15 feet in the form of large bubbles, which bursting-emitted great volumes of dense white smoke. These large bubbles of which there were two, continued throwing up and bursting 7 or 8 times in a minute by the watch at times they threw up two or three tons of mud. We got to leeward of the smoke, and found it to stink like the washings of a gun barrel.

As the bubbles burst, they threw the mud out from the centre with a pretty loud noise, occasioned by the falling of the mud on that which surrounded it, and of which the plain is composed.

The Lake was about a mile in circumference, of a dirty looking water, boiling up all over in gurgling eddies, but more particularly in the centre, which appeared like a strong spring. The water was quite cold, and tasted bitter, salt, and sour, and had an offensive smell.

some seconds before the bubble burst ;— the outside of the hillock was quite firm. We stood on the edge of the opening and sounded it, and found it to be 11 fathoms deep. The mud was more liquid than at the Bluddugs, and no smoke was emitted either from the lake, hillock, or pools.

About 30 yards from the lake stood the Mud-hillock, which was about 15 feet high from the level of the earth. The diameter of its base was about 25 yards, and its top about 8 feet-and in form an exact cone. The top is open, and the interior keeps constantly boiling and heaving up like the Bluddugs. The hillock is entirely formed of mud which has flowed out of the top ;every rise of the mud was accompanied by a rumbling noise from the bottom of the It was difficult and dangerous to ap-hillock, which was distinctly heard for proach the large bubbles, as the ground was all a quagmire except where the surface of the mud had become hardened by the sun;-upon this we approached cautiously to within 50 yards of one of the largest bubbles or mud-pudding as it might properly be called, for it was of the consistency of custard-pudding, and was about Close to the foot of the hillock was a 100 yards in diameter:-here and there, small pool of the same water as the lake, where the foot accidentally rested on a which appeared exactly like a pot of water spot not sufficiently hardened to bear, it boiling violently;-it was shallow, except sunk-to the no small distress of the walker.in the centre, into which we thrust a stick We also got close to a small bubble, 12 feet long, but found no bottom. The (the plain was full of them, of different hole not being perpendicular, we could not sizes) and observed it closely for some time. sound it with a line. It appeared to heave and swell, and when 'About 200 yards from the lake were the internal air had raised it to some height two very large pools or springs, 8 and 12 -it burst, and the mud fell down in confeet in diameter; they were like the small centric circles; in which state, it remained pool, but boiled more violently and stunk quiet until a sufficient quantity of air again excessively. We could not sound them for formed internally to raise and burst ano-the same reason which prevented our ther bubble, and this continued at inter-sounding the small pool. vals of from about a minute to 2 minutes.

From various other parts of the pudding round the large bubbles, there were Occasionally small quantities of sand shot up like rockets to the height of 20 or 30 feet, unaccompanied by smoke:-this was in parts where the mud was of too stiff a consistency to rise in bubbles. The mud at all the places we came near, was cold.

The water which drains from the mud is collected by the Javanese, and being exposed in the hollows of split bamboos to the rays of the sun, deposits crystals of salt. The salt thus made is reserved exclusively

'We heard the boiling 30 yards before we waterfall. These pools did not overflowcame to the pools, resembling the noise of a of course the bubbling was occasioned by the rising of air alone. The water of the Bluddugs and the lake is used medicinally by the Javanese.'

The Paal is somewhat less than an English mile.

Dreadful Desperation.

A dreadful fire recently occurred at Passarowang, which in its rapid progress destroyed, within an hour, from ninety to a

perhaps ill guarded, or under charge of wearied attendants on foot. These the Pindarrees are obliged to abandon to an enemy of superior force: but when hard pressed, many unload the Ponies, mount them and escape; while others conceal themselves in villages, hills, or jungles, within reach. Meantime the horsemen make off rapidly, with the most valuable part of the booty; and if closely pressed, will march 100 miles in two days; 300 miles in a week; or 500 miles in a fortnight; over roads and hills impassable to horses unaccustomed to traverse them. At their leisure, they march with their cattle and followers at an ordinary rate of from 30 to 40 miles a day.

hundred houses. It was occasioned by a thief, who entered a house inhabited by a Javanese and his wife, having excavated a hole under the threshold of the door. The inhabitants being awoke, a conflict ensued between the thief and the man, whilst the poor woman retreated into an inner apartment. The noise soon assembled the neighbours, but with the timidity that cliaracterises the Javanese, they did not venture to enter the dwelling to afford the necessary assistance. The man being thus left alone, maintained a conflict for some time, in which he wounded his antagonist, but receiving himself a wound in the groin, was unable to effect his escape. The robber perceiving the house to be surrounded by armed people, and that his retreat was Just before they set out on a plundering impracticable, locked the door in the in-excursion, the Pindarrees shoe their horses; side, and set fire to the roof, which being and they provide sustenance for themselves composed of combustible materials soon and horses, till they reach the object of communicated to the whole buildings, and their expedition, to which they move with involved the adjacent houses in flames. unabated vigour, in order that no intimaThe poor woman, by cutting a hole through tion of their approach may be conveyed. the wall, contrived to get out, but dread- The appetite of the Pindarrees is satisfied fully burnt. The robber, it would appear, with the coarsest Cakes of wheat or joarea, preferred self-immolation to delivering him- parched peas or other grain. His horse is self up, and was found the next morning, as well fed, and treated, as time and circumamidst the ruins, seated in a large water-stances allow when not mounted, he jar, burnt to death, with both his legs and one hand consumed. Thus, by the desperation of one individual, have nearly a hundred families been deprived of their abodes, and have lost the greater part of their little property, which but for the exemplary exertions of the inhabitants, added to the fortunate circumstance of the wind subsiding at the moment, might have extended to the whole town.

HINTS ON THE NATURE AND EXTENT OF
THE PINDARREE FORCE: ACCORDING TO
THE LATEST INFORMATION.

grazes in the gram fields; or if the grain be cut down, and stacked, he feeds on the dry stalks and heads, and receives an additional stimulus by means of opium; with which his rider is always provided; and this, with his constant training, enables the animal to endure fatigue to an excessive and incredible degree. The party halts in the heat of the day, either in a place already pillaged, or under the shade of trees and hedges, it it can possibly be obtained; and commonly, about half a night's rest during the beginning and close of both night and day, contents them: they are usually in lively motion: they seldom proceed toge

ther in large bodies; but divide into small parties, each well knowing the appointed rendezvous. This is done, that the villages, the first instance, may anticipate no approaching evil; and to render all computation or conjecture of their strength in

effectual.

The habitude of Predatory Expeditions enables the people known under the appellation of the Pindarrees, to move with a rapidity when in the field, perhaps unequalled by any other Cavalry in the world. Having fixed on their object, they do not incumber themselves with Tents, Baggage, or any thing that can in the smallest degree impede their movements. The principal weapon of the Pindarrees is The slaves and vagabonds who never fail a spear about twelve feet long; in the use to follow in their train, ride Ponies; upon of this they are very dextrous. From a which their masters afterwards load por fifteenth to a twentieth part of the best tions of their spoil, the most valuable part horse carry match-locks; which they em of the prey being kept about their persons, ploy in their skirmishes with villagers. or on their own horses. The laden Tat-Two out of every five Pindarrees, may be toos, and Bullocks, which return with them, are frequently relieved at different places on their route. All that a pursuing party can expect, is to come up with this cattle,

considered as fight g men; two as Looties, or mere plunderers, mounted on half bred horses, of inferior ize though active and hardy. The remaining one may probaby

follow as riding tattoos, and armed with | Pindarrees, never moves but at the head of swords and sticks; for instauce, a body of the whole, or the greatest part of his Divi1000 Pindarrees may contain 400 fighting sion.-When half of it moves, it is genemen, of whom 25 are armed with match-rally led by Ranjan Jimir. Poodies of two locks, and the rest with long spears; also thousand Horse are usually commanded by about 400 Looties, with smaller spears and Kaloo Bahira; Sheik Dulla who when swords, and 200 of the lowest class, but, in expelled from Berar sought an Asylum estimating the number of a body of Pindar- with Cheetoo, often leads parties of a few rees invading a country, great allowances hundreds, especially into that province, and must be made for the exaggeration of the Kandeshan Cheetoo has teu Guns, besides terrified inhabitants, who often more than double their actual numbers, and sometimes some pieces in his principal hold, Lutwas, perhaps they convert hundreds into thou-dred mateblock men; in which he estaa strong Fort, with a Garrison of two hunsands. A fourth therefore of the force represented by a flying report of an invading party, may be taken as a fair proportion of their effective force in well mounted horse

men.

The Pindarrees were formed into two grand divisions, commanded by Herrod Burraun; till the commencement of the present century, when they became distributed according to the arrangement which now subsists, and nominally divided into two bodies, called Sindia Shabee, and Holker Shahee, designations denoting their ad

herence to those chieftains.

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His Infantry does not exceed five hundred, blished a foundery for cannon, in 1810. armed with matchlocks; and are unworthy of description. The Flags of Cheetoo and all the Sindia Shahee leaders, are of the Bhugera colour, a mixture of red and orange with a white snake in the centre. The Lugees, or small standards, have also the device of the snake, and are usually made of taffeta, green, yellow, or any but a dark colour; which is used by the Holkar Shahees. Almost all the leaders have rate Lugees.

sepa.

plexion inclining to fair; broken teeth, Cheetoo is fifty years old, with a com

grey hair and beard, eyes black. His sou These have become names well known Mahomed Prin is eighteen years of age, both in Europe and India; sometimes from Ranjein Sercier is about forty, dark, short, reports of what they had done, and the and very stout, and has a wound in his terrible sufferings they had inflicted on right arm. The younger Rajier is thirty, countries the wealth of which had tempted Shekh Dulla is about thirty-five, and the unsparing hand of the invader; and marked with small pox. such an invader! That their plans are well He formerly maintained a Bandini, which infested laid and fearlessly executed, their recent Beeran, but was compelled to fly from his irruption into the territories of the Com-station at the Doolgaut in the Goondevana pany sufficiently shews. They are cer tainly among the most formidable scourges of India; equaily with the Tiger, and other ferocious animals.

As the most considerable of these bodies is, certainly, that which acknowledges obedience to Sindia Shahee, we shall give that the first place.

SINDIA SHAHEE.

Cheetoo, or as he is called, Seetoo, by the Mahrattas, may be considered as the principal Chief of this class. In the year 1806, he attached himself to Sindia, from whom be received the title of Nawaub Hemaul

Mahommed Mooler Khan Sing. In April 1807, Cheetoo was seized in Siudia's Camp, and sent to the fortress of Guailior, in confinement-He was released towards the end of 1811. Cheetoo's force may amount to 3500 good horse; and to about 8000 of alldescriptions.

Cheetoo, like the other Chiefs of the

hills. Ou Cheetoo's confinement Ranjier went over with the Dhuna to Ho'kar, who

at the recommendation of Meer Khan conferred upon him the title of Nawaub Raji Mahomed Khatear ud Doulah. Oneyd Koowar, Jungle Koowar Hunee Koowar and Kuiloo Koowar are Chilasor, adopted sons of Cheetoo. Omyd Kooweer is forty years old, and blind of one eye. He is a good Officer and commands at Lutwas.

have cantoned at Nimawar, about ten coss
For the last two years Cheetoo's Dhuna
S. E from Lutwas, they keep their family
and property at Lutwas.

the most powerful of the Pindarree Chief-
Kurreen before his seizure in 1806, was
with Cheetoo, in 1811, but enjoyed his
tains: he was released at the same time
liberty for a few months only, being seized
in Holkar's Camp in 1812. His Dhuna is
Namdar Khan, Kurreem's Nephew.
now commanded by Khoosal Koowar, and'

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