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It is with concern that the Bombay Literary Society have observed that much delay has occurred in the publication of the first volume of their Transactions; but in consequence of the printing taking place in England, it has not been in their power to prevent it: without waiting, however, to learn what success may have been obtained by their former pages, they have determined to lay before the public another volumė, which they trust will be found not entirely undeserving of attention.

When this Society was established, it was intended that its researches should comprehend subjects of literature in general, and not be confined to such as are merely Oriental. But the studies and pursuits of its members must naturally, from their place of residence, induce them to direct their attention to the History, Literature, and Antiquities of Asia. The field is vast; and although not altogether unexplored, still much of it remains either inaccurately surveyed, or not yet described. It may be hoped that the societies which have been established in India will contribute to throw a new and brighter light on many subjects that are at present obscured by the darkness of antiquity; and to exhibit a correcter view than is to be found in any work hitherto published of the natural history of this extensive continent, and of the actual state of the manners and political economy of the various nations which inhabit it. In such labours the Bombay Literary Society are happy to participate; and they trust that future communications will enable them to render their Transactions the valuable repository of such short tracts or essays as may tend to the attainment of so desirable an object, but which their writers may think not adapted for a larger work.

Respecting the papers contained in this volume, with the exception of

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the one comprising a description of Abyssinia, no remarks can be necessary. This paper was written by Mr. Pearce, an English seaman who was left in Abyssinia at the time of Lord Valentia's visit to Massowa in 1805. It was after being nine years in that country that he addressed this account to Sir Evan Nepean: and the Society, to whom it was presented, have thought proper to publish it with as few corrections as possible ; as they conceive that this plain and unadorned description, although written by a man entirely unlettered, conveys an interesting and striking view of the real situation of that country.

The Society avail themselves of this opportunity of observing, that they do not hold themselves in any manner responsible for the opinions which may be contained in the papers that are inserted in their Transactions ; and that they never will, in their collective capacity, pass any decision on any disputed point of literature.

Bombay, 18th May, 1819.

CO N T E N T S.

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1. Norice and Extracts of the Miritolmemalik (Mirror of Coun

tries) of Sidi Ali Capoodawn. By Mr. JOSEPH HAMMER, of
Vienna. Read 31st October, 1815

page II. A small but true Account of the Ways and Manners of the

Abyssinians. By Mr. NATHANIEL PEARCE. Read 30th April,

1816
III. An Essay on Persian Literature. By Captain Vans KENNEDY.

Read 30th September, 1817
IV. Description of a volcanic Eruption in the Island of Sumbawa.

By Andrew STEWART, Esq., Assistant Surgeon of the Bombay

Establishment. Read 27th January, 1818
V. Remarks on the Chronology of Persian History previous to the

Conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great. By Captain Vans

KENNEDY. Read 31st March, 1818
VI. On the Ruins of Boro Budor in Java. By John CRAWFORD, Esq.

Resident at Djocjocarta in Java. Read 26th August, 1817.

Illustrated by seven Drawings
VII. Account of a curious Case in Surgery. By CHARLES LINTON, Esq.

Read 30th June, 1818. With a Drawing
VIII. Account of the Progress made in deciphering Cuneiform Inscrip-

tions. By Mr. CHARLES BELLINO. Read 30th June, 1818.

With three Drawings upon two Plates
IX. Some Account of the Caves near Baug called the Panch Pandoo.

By Captain F. DANGERFIELD, of the Bombay Military Esta

blishment. Read 28th July, 1818. With three Drawings X. An Account of the Province of Cutch, and of the Countries lying

between Guzerat and the River Indus: with cursory Remarks on the Inhabitants, their History, Manners, and State of Society.

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NOTICE AND EXTRACTS OF THE MIRITOLMEMALIK

(MIRROR OF COUNTRIES) OF SIDI ALI CAPOODAWN.

By Mr. HAMMER, of Vienna.

Read 31st October, 1815.

The Author, captain of the Egyptian fleet of Solimaun the great Ottoman emperor, had received orders to carry fifteen Turkish ships from Bassora down the Persian Gulf and up the Arabian to Suez. But not being well acquainted, as it seems, either with the monsoons or with the coast of India, he lost his way and his fleet, and was obliged to make his way over-land from Guzurat, by Hind, Sind, Zabulestaun, Bedakhshaun, Khottaun, Tooran, Khoussaun, Khowarezem, Kipjak, Pak, and Asia Minor, to Constantinople. The description of this journey is the subject of the Mirror of Countries, in the Introduction of which the author gives of himself the following account.

“ Your most humble servant the writer of this book, Sidi Ali Ben Hossein, had made from his youth nautics and seamanship the principal object of his studies and endeavours. He was a witness to the glorious

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