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the inference of its signifying the exposition of Scripture “ Every man praying or prophesying having his head covered.' Also, in Acts xv. 32, it is said, “ Judas and Silas being Prophets exhorted the brethren :" in this passage exhortation is applied to Judas and Silas as an exercise of their office of Prophets. In 1 Cor. xiv. 6, prophecy is joined with knowledge and doctrine, as an ordinary part of Divine service; and is so understood in 1 Thess. v. 20, “ Despise not prophesyings."*
53.—EVANGELISTS, OR GOSPEL PREACHERS. This designation occurs three times (Ephes. iv. 11), “He gave some Evangelists.” (Acts xxi. 8), He entered into the house of Philip the Evangelist.” (2 Tim. iv.5), “ Do the work of an Evangelist.”—This term is of the most extensive signification, and applicable to every preacher of the Gospel; but it is supposed to apply more peculiarly to those who preached the Gospel for the first time to any people, and who were its first communicators in
and so it is applied to Philip, the only case in which it seems a distinctive appellation-he having made known the Gospel with great success to the people of Samaria. (Acts, viii.)
* This is the interpretation of most commentators. 'See Hammond, the most learned and catholic of the English expositors, in locum; and also on 1 Cor. xiv. 5; Henry on 1 Thes. v. 20; Scott on 1 Thes.
1:20. Macknight, on 1 Cor. xi. 10, writes thus : 66. And to another Prophecy, that is, the inferior gift of Prophecy, when, by inspiration, they uttered prayers and psalms in which the Church joined them or delivered a discourse relating to some point of doctrine or practice. Judas and Silas possessed this gift. (Acts xv.32.) The inferior Prophets had exhortations, prayers, and psalms given them by inspiration, which they uttered in the Church for the edification of the brethren. (1 Cor. xiv. 15, 26.) Hence they are called, ver. 28, helps, or helpers; and are said (Jude v. 20) to pray in the spirit, and their prayer is called 'inwrought prayer(James v. 15, 16); and the psalms which they uttered are called spiritual' songs.' (Eph. v. 19.) Lastly, the persons endowed with the gift of prophecy were sometimes inspired to foretel future events (Acts xxi. 10), and to point out persons fit for sacred offices.”
"Prophetas, duplici genere intelligamus, et futura dicentes, et scripturas revelantes.”—St. Ambrose in 1 Cor. xii.
“So also Lightfoot (Harm. Evan. Matt. ii: 4) says, that as the name of scribe was given to Ezra (Ez. vii. 6), as being an interpreter of the law, according to our Lord's definition (Matt.
xiii. 52); and that the Chaldee Paraph.on Jerem. vi. 23, and viii. 10, reads scribe for prophet; and also that the Apostle Paul used the word prophet in the sense of scribe, or expounder of the law. (1 Thes. v.20; 1 Cor.xiv.5.)
54.--PASTORS (SHEPHERDS, GR.) This word occurs seventeen times, applied literally. (Luke ii.8), “In the same country shepherds feeding their flocks.” It generally means a “guide or leader.” It is applied to Christ (John x. 2, 11, 14, 16), “I am the good Shepherd;' also in Heb. xiii. 20, “Our Lord Jesus, that great Shepherd;" and 1 Peter ii. 25, “Are now returned unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls." It is applied to Christian ministers (Eph. iv. 11), “And some Pastors," &c.
55.-TEACHERS. This term occurs fifty-eight times, and is a title given to Christ upwards of forty times. It seems the common appellation applied to him
by the Apostles. (See Mark ix. 17 38; Luke xxii. 11.) It is applied (Acts xiii. 1) to the ministers of Antioch. In 1 Cor. xii. 28, and Eph. iv. 11, to a class of ministers. In 1 Tim. ii. 7 to St. Paul, “I was ordained a Teacher of the Gentiles ;" also 2 Tim. i. 11. It is applied to Ministers generally (2 Tim. iv.3), “heap tothemselves Teachers, having itching ears.” (Heb. v. 12), “For when for the time ye ought to be Teachers.” (James iii. 1), “ Be not many masters”-teachers.
56.—PREACHERS (HERALDS, GR). This designation occurs three times. In 1 Tim. ii. 7 it is applied'to St. Paul, “Whereunto I am ordained a Preacher;" also 2 Tim. i. 11. It is applied to Noah (2 Pet. ii. 5), “Noah the eighth person, a preacher of righteousness.” The verb to preach occurs forty-nine times almost always in the sense of proclaiming, or making known publicly.
57.-MINISTER (UPERETES, GR. OFFICER). This word occurs nineteen times, and is generally applied to the officers or attendants of the Jewish Chief Priests ; it is applied to John, the companion of St. Paul. (Acts xiii. 5), “ Barnabas and Saul had John for their minister.” It is applied to St. Paul (Acts xxvi. 16), “ I have appeared unto thee, to make thee, Paul, a minister unto me.” (1 Cor. iv. 1), “Let a man account of us as ministers of Christ.”
58.-THESE APPELLATIONS NOT DISTINCTIVE. It is plain from this examination of the application of the terms Prophet, Evangelist, Pastor, Teacher, Preacher, and
Minister, that they were used as describing the office and ministration of the persons to whom they were applied, according to their meaning, and that they were not employed to distinguish different orders of ministers, but were used indiscriminately, and not as names of office.
It will be found that the four remaining designations of Apostle, Bishop, Elder, and Deacon, although frequently used according to the general signification of the words themselves, yet have a definite meaning as names of office in the Church, as distinguishing orders in the ministry, with distinct duties and differing degrees of authority and honour proportioned to the nature of their ministrations.
59.-DEACON, SERVANT, OR MINISTER. * The words Deacon, and to act as Deacon, are taken, in forty-four places in the New Testament, as expressing general service not of a religious nature; as, in John xxii. 12, “ The King said to his servants”—(Deacons). It is applied to religious service forty-eight times. In Rom. xv. it is applied to our Lord,« Jesus Christ was a minister of the circumcision ;” also Gal. ii. 17. In ten passages of Scripture St. Paul applies the name to himself. (Eph. 111. 7), The Gospel whereof I was made a Minister”—(Deacon). (Col.
Whereof I Paul am made a Minister.” (Acts xx. 19), “God had wrought by his Ministry’- Deaconship; so also 2 Cor. iii. 3, and 1 Tim. i. 12. It is applied to the Apostles generally. (Acts vi. 4), “We will give ourselves to the ministry of the Word,” (2 Cor. v. 18, and vi. 3.) It is applied to the Angel, (Heb. i. 14); to Tychicus (Eph. vi. 21), “Tychicus, a faithful Deacon in the Lord;" to Epaphras (Col. i. 7), “Epaphras, a faithful Deacon of Christ ;" to Judas (Acts i. 17); to Barnabas (Acts xii. 25); to false Apostles, ministers of Satan. (2 Cor. xi. 15), “ If his Dea
* “ The Deacons in the Christian Church were so called after the officers appointed to attend the judges in every city. (Deut. xvi. 18.) These were called in Hebrew Äzanitæ, which is of the same import with the word Deacon; and their duties were the same,-to attend and wait
upon the Bishop, and do whatsoever he ordered them, preach, baptize, &c., read the Gospel, attend the Bishop in ministering the Eucharist, receive oblations from the Sub-Deacon, and bring them to the Bishop ; mind the people in performing the several parts of the Divine office; call on them to pray, to sing, to kneel, to hear, &c.; and so those who have used the office of a Deacon well (1 Tim. iii. 13), purchase to themselves a good degree, shall soon ascend to an higher order, say the Scholiasts, as Clemens, being St. Peter's Deacon at Roine, succeeded him in the Episcopal chair.”-Lightfoot.
cons also be transformed as the Deacons of righteousness." It is applied to Timothy (1 Thess. iii. 2), “ Timotheus, Deacon of God;"? —to Archippus, (1 Thess. iv. 17). It is taken generally on several occasions as denoting all who were engaged in the ministry; as (1 Tim. iv. 6), “If thou put the brethren in remembrance of these things, thou shalt be a good Deacon of Jesus Christ.” The term Deacon is, notwithstanding this various and extensive application, used as distinguishing a peculiar order in the ministry: it is so employed in 1 Tim. iii. 8, “Likewise must the Deacons be grave.' (1 Tim. iii. 12, 13),
“ Let them use the office of a Deacon; -“ They that have used the office of a Deacon well.” So also (Phil. i. 1)“ Paul and Timotheus to the saints at Philippi with the Bishops and Deacons.” The 6th chapter of the Acts gives the history of the ordination of the first seven Deacons to the peculiar office of distributing the alms of the Church, and superintending the daily ministrations and contributions. These seven persons were solemnly ordained by the Apostles with prayer and imposition of hands, the same form used in the ordination of Elders; and it cannot be doubted that they were constituted as a peculiar order of the ministry. Of the seven who were first ordained, Stephen and Philip preached the Gospel, and baptized great multitudes converted by their preaching (Acts viii.): but although they were empowered to do great wonders and miracles among the people (Acts vi. 8, and 9-13), yet were they not empowered to ordain and confirm by imposing hands upon who were converted by their ministry (Acts viii. 14); to do which office Peter and John were sent from Jerusalem. (Acts viii. 16.) Thus, then, we see that the term Deacon, although a distinctive name of an office of the ministry, was used with great latitude of application, being applied to all persons and offices to which the word, in its common meaning of servant, is appropriate.
60.-ELDER, (PRESBUTEROS, GR.). This designation occurs fifty-six times in the New Testament. It is applied in twenty-six places to the Jewish Elders, and sixteen times to Christian Elders. The Elders among the Hebrews were the magistrates, heads or rulers of the people. Even when slaves among the Egyptians, they had Elders. (Exod. iii. 16), “Go and gather the Elders of Israel together.” They are frequently afterwards mentioned in the history of the Israelites. (Numb. xi, 16–30; Judg.
xxi. 16; 2 Chron. xix. 8 - 10.) They were appointed by Moses to administer justice. (Exod. xviii. 12.) Their commission is given. (Deut. i. 16, 17.) They were joined with Moses in government (Deut. xxvii. 1), and constitute the council of the nation. (Judg. xxi. 16; 1 Sam. viii. 4; Ezra, X. 7, 8.) If the matter to be decided were ecclesiastical, the Chief Priest was to preside in the council; if it were civil, the king, or his deputy. (2 Chron. xix. 8—11.) We find the term Elder used twenty-six times in the Gospels as the name of persons in authority among the Jews. The civil code of the Jewish nation being the law of Moses, the lawyers and judges were divines, and probably the Elders of the nation were generally Priests and Levites. It is, however, quite apparent from the Gospels that they had both a religious and civil character and authority. The first occasion in which the term is applied to any members of the Christian ministry is in Acts xi. 30, where it is said that the Disciples sent their contributions " by Barnabas and Saul to the Elders at Jerusalem." In Acts xiv. 23, we are told that Paul and Barnabas “ ordained (by imposition of hands, Gr.) Elders in every church.” In 1 Tim. v. 22, St. Paul directs Timothy "not to lay hands on or ordain any man suddenly; and in Tit. i. 5, the Apostle says, “ that he left Titus in Crete to set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain Elders in every city.” We thus learn that Elders were ministers ordained either by the Apostles themselves, or by their companions appointed by the Apostles with authority to confer ordination. The term Elder seems to have been a general name applied to all ministers of the Gospel. All the ministers at Jerusalem are comprehended under the term Elders (Acts xv. 22), “Then it pleased the Apostles and Elders.” So also Acts xvi. 4; Acts xxi. 18. In Acts xi. 30, the whole ministry with the Apostles are included under the designation Elders*,
“And they sent their contribution to the Elders at Jerusalem by the hands of Barnabas and Saul.” St. Peter applies this name to himself. (1 Pet.v.1), “The Elders which are among you I exhort, who am also an Elder ;” and so St. John (2 John i.), “ The Elder unto the elect lady
and (3 John i.), “The Elder unto the well-beloved Gaius.”
St. Paul also includes himself among the number of Presbyters, where he says (1 Tim. iv. 14), “Neglect not the gift, which was given thee by prophecy with the laying on of the hands of the Presbytery;" which exhortation he repeats (2 Tim. i.
* Ignatius ad Philad. 5.—“Flying to the Gospel as to the flesh of Christ ; and to the Apostles, as to the presbytery of the Church.”