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And here I might end the discussion of Shelley's handling of the myth; but I cannot refrain from directing your attention to the marvelous power of the myth which could so blend the Greek and Christian genius, and contain the passion of the French Revolution issuing in the highest and most extreme forms of Christian ethics — in non-resistance, that is, and in the forgiveness of enemies. I say nothing of the practical wisdom of this doctrine; what is it, but the old verses?

"But I say unto you, that ye resist not evil; but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also:"

but I desire that you should identify this wisdom with its moment of utterance. The French Revolutionthe Revolution of the Terror and the block, of the burnt chateaux and the Napoleonic wars, was over and done with; Shelley, in whom its spirit burnt as the pure flame, had rejected its methods, while holding to its ideals. He had lifted it from a political to a moral cause: he had abandoned the sword as its Evangel, and he put persuasion in the place of force, and love in the place of hate, and the genius of victory which he invoked was the conversion of society by the stricken cheek and the lost cloak. The idea of humanity was the fountain of his thought and the armor of his argument. I will not refrain from saying that the idea of a suffering humanity, which finds the path of progress in invincible opposition to the ruling gods of the hour in the faith in greater divinities to come, is properly crowned and consecrated by this doctrine, that patient forgiveness of the wrong is the essence of victory over it, and the sure road to its downfall. But the significance of such a myth

is not to be exhausted by one poet, or by one treatment; and in my next lecture I shall take up the work of Keats, Goethe, Herder, and Schlegel, in interpreting life, as they conceived it, by the same formula.

I have left myself a moment to bring forward two considerations which may prove suggestive. The first is the analogy between Hebrew and Greek myths in the point that whereas in Eden the eating of the fruit of the knowledge of good and evil, whereby man became as God, was the occasion of man's ills, so in the myth of Greece the sharing of men in the divine fire was the cause of the sorrows of civilization. The second is that in the drama of the Book of Job there is a strong likeness to the situation in Prometheus, in the point that there is no action, but only a passive suffering in the principal character; and that in this suffering there is a dissent from the wisdom of Divine ways; that Job holds to his integrity and faith in his own righteousness in the face of all disaster and all argument, in quite the Promethean spirit, obdurately; and that he has the Promethean faith in the issue. The situation lies in the verse:

"Though he slay me, yet will I trust in him; but I will maintain my ways before him."

The dignity of the human soul is dramatically upheld at the great climax of Job's final assertion of his righteousness; and the situation is solved only by the voice from the whirlwind declaring that as nature is a mystery, much more must human life find mystery as an element of its being. But in this great drama- one of the marvelous works of human genius- though there is the presence of unjust suffering, of human integrity, and of a final victory of the right there is no such clear presen

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tation of the idea and its operation, as is found in the Promethean legend — the idea formulated in this myth by the race out of its knowledge of its own life, not as a dramatic incident such as Job's, but as a pervading and constant law the idea that the progress of man lies in an immortal suffering, an invincible endurance of the injustice of the present world, in anticipation of the absolute justice known only to the prophetic heart within. This idea is a natural product of man's reflection on his history, a natural interpretation of his experience; and he finds it imaginatively embodied in Prometheus more adequately and humanly than elsewhere. It has entered into thousands of lives in this century of the Revolution, with both illumination and courage; sharing in this idea, and the life which is led in obedience to it, the humblest of men shares in the sublimity of the great Titan.

IV

THE TITAN MYTH

II

THE importance of history in literature can hardly be emphasized too much. I have not hesitated to speak of mythology and chivalry, and even of the Scriptures, as transformations of history, and of imaginative literature as the spiritual after-life both of historical events and conditions in the narrow sense, and of general human experience in the broad sense. I have directed attention. also to the influence of history in a more direct way, in the literature of the last century to its inspirational power there; out of it came, in particular, the picturesqueness of the historical novel; and, inasmuch as the romantic spirit of the century explored all lands and times for new material, and eagerly absorbed all that travel or research brought forward new to the European mind, it naturally happened that the conception of historical humanity became one of rich variety; the formula

"many men, many minds" - received unending illustration, and it might be thought that the result would have been to impress on the race a sense of hopeless diversity in its members rather than of unbroken unity. But history had this inspirational power, not only in literature, but in philosophy; the mind of man was stimulated to find in all this new mass of different detail a single principle that would explain and reconcile the ap

parent confusion-to frame, that is, a philosophy of history. Herder, the German writer, was one of the most influential of the great men who attacked this problem; he gave his life to it. At the dawn of a new age, you know, there is often a singular phenomenon: men of genius arise, with a poetical cast of mind, and they are prophetic of the new day because they show forth some single idea or mood of it though they do not grasp the whole; they catch like morning clouds, some the red, some the gold, some the purple ray, but none of them gives that one white light which will prevail when the day is fully come. An outburst of poetry the prevalence of a poetical view of things is the sign of an advance along the whole line. Herder was a man of this kind; and it is easy now to say that his method was imperfectly scientific, and that his imagination and desire led him astray. Nevertheless he had one of those minds which, if it does not build a system squared of solid timber, flings seeds on every wind like a living tree. His intellect was capacious, and in the attempt he made to include all things in his philosophizing he seems an anticipation of Herbert Spencer; in his theorizing, too, students find innumerable thoughts that are halfguesses which are almost the words of Darwin. He was, thus, you see, in the true path of advance; he caught the first gleams of the new hour of time. He was interested, over and above all else, in humanity and its destiny as disclosed in history. He saw in history the working of a law of beneficence and justice, which though it might not seem such when viewed in its means, always and unfailingly is such when viewed in its end; thus from the concourse and struggle of forces in civilization there is always issuing the slow triumph of reason. This was

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