The State of the Science of Political Economy Investigated: Wherein is Shewn the Defective Character of the Arguments which Have Hitherto Been Advanced for Elucidating the Laws of the Formation of Wealth
Whittaker, 1838 - 73 頁
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able absentee additional adduced admit adopting advance advantage argue argument arrived asserts attempted attention branches bringing British brought called capital causes chapter character commencing commodities conclusion consequently consideration considered constructed contains course desire direct division doubt effect employed employment England enter entire error establish evidence examination exists facts fail following passage foreign foreign trade formation give greater home trade human important increase industry inquiry issues labour laws London manner manufactures matter means merely mind namely nature necessarily necessary notice object occurs operation opinion passage Political Economy population portion practical present principle Principles of Political production profit progress proportion proposition proved question quoted reasoning reference regard remarkable Report respecting restrictions result Scotland Smith society solution sustain theory things tion trade treating true truth wealth writers
第 29 頁 - Every individual is continually exerting himself to find out the most advantageous employment for whatever capital he can command. It is his own advantage, indeed, and not that of the society, which he has in view. But the study of his own advantage naturally, or rather necessarily leads him to prefer that employment which is most advantageous to the society.
第 44 頁 - It may be fairly pronounced therefore, that, considering the present average state of the earth, the means of subsistence, under circumstances the most favourable to human industry, could not possibly be made to increase faster than in an arithmetical ratio.
第 32 頁 - British profit higher than it otherwise would have been both in that and in all the other branches of British trade. If, since the establishment of the act of navigation, the ordinary rate of British profit has fallen considerably, as it certainly has, it must have fallen still lower, had not the monopoly established by that act contributed to keep it up.
第 5 頁 - When both are the produce of domestic industry, it necessarily replaces by every such operation two distinct capitals which had both been employed in supporting productive labour, and thereby enables them to continue that support. The capital which sends Scotch manufactures to London, and brings back English corn and manufactures to Edinburgh, necessarily replaces, by every such operation, two British capitals which had both been employed in the agriculture or manufactures of Great Britain. The capital...
第 53 頁 - What these rights are it is not my business at present to explain; but there is one right which man has generally been thought to possess, which I am confident he neither does nor can possess — a right to subsistence when his labour will not fairly purchase it.
第 52 頁 - I can easily conceive that this country, with a proper direction of the national industry, might in the course of some centuries contain two or three times its present population, and yet every man in the kingdom be much better fed and clothed than he is at present.
第 34 頁 - ... merits of Dr Smith. In adopting the discoveries of others, he has made them his own ; he has demonstrated the truth of principles on which his predecessors had, in most cases, stumbled by chance ; has separated them from the errors by which they were...
第 32 頁 - In consequence of the monopoly, the increase of the colony trade has not so much occasioned an addition to the trade which Great Britain had before, as a total change in its direction. Secondly, this monopoly has necessarily contributed to keep up the rate of profit in all the different branches of British trade higher than it naturally would have been, had all nations been allowed a free trade to the British colonies.