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shinin sae clear that the deepness o' the pool was a great cheat. Geordie bait his lip for perfect eagerness, an' his een war stelled in his head-he thought he had him safe i' the pat; but whenever be put the grains of the leister into the water, I could speak nae mair, I kend sae weel what was comin; for I kend the depth to an inch. Weel, he airches an he vizies for a good while, an' at length made a push down at him wi' his whole might, Tut!-the leister didna gang to the grund by an ell-an' Geordie gaed into the deepest part o' Pool-Midnight wi' his head foremost! My sennins turned as suple as a dockan, an' I just fell down i' the bit wi' lauchinye might hae bund me wi' a strae, He wad hae drowned for aught that I could do; for when I saw his heels flinging up aboon the water as he had been dancin a hornpipe, I lost a' power thegither; but Mathew Ford harled him into the shallow wi' his leister.
"Weel, after that we cloddit the pool wi' great stanes, an' aff went the fish down the gullots, shinin like a rainbow. Then he ran, and he ran! an' it was wha to be first in him. Geordie got the first chance, an' I thought it was a' owre; but just when he thought he was sure o' him, down cam Mathew full drive, smashed his grains out through Geordie's and gart him miss. It was my chance next; an' I took him neatly through the gills, though he gaed as fast as a shelldrake.
"But the sport grew aye better. Geordie was sae mad at Mathew for taigling him, an' garring him tine the fish (for he's a greedy dirt), that they had gane to grips in a moment; an when I lookit back, they war just fightin like twae tarriers in the mids o the water. The witters o' the twa leisters were fankit in ane anither, an' they couldna get them sindrie, else there had been a vast o' blude shed; but they were knevillin, an' tryin to drown ane anither a' that they could; an' if they hadna been clean forefoughen they wad hae done't; for they were aye gaun out o' sight an' comin howdin up again. Yet after a', when I gaed back to redd them, they were sae inveterate that they wadna part till I was forced to haud them down through the water and drown them baith."
"But I hope you have not indeed
drowned the men," said I. only keepit them down till I took the power fairly frae them-till the bullers gae owre coming up; then I carried them to different sides o' the water, an' laid them down agroof wi' their heads at the inwith; an' after gluthering an' spurring a wee while, they cam to again. We dinna count muckle o' a bit drowning match, us fishers. I wish I could get Geordie as weel doukit ilka day; it wad tak the smeddum frae him-for, O, he is a greedy thing! But I fear it will be a while or I see sic glorious sport again."
Mr Grumple remarked, that he thought, by his account, it could not be very good sport to all parties; and that, though he always encouraged these vigorous and healthful exercises among his parishioners, yet he regretted that they could so seldom be concluded in perfect good humour.
"They're nae the waur o' a wee bit splore," said Peter; "they wad turn unco milk-an'-water things, an' dee away a' thegither wantin a broolzie. Ye might as weel think to keep a alevat working wantin barm."
"But, Peter, I hope you have not been breaking the laws of the country by your sport to-day?"
Na, troth hae we no, manclose-time disna come in till the day after the morn; but atween you an' me, close-time's nae ill time for us. It merely ties up the grit folk's hands, an' thraws a' the sport into our's the gither. Na, na, we's never complain o' close-time; if it warena for it there wad few fish fa' to poor folk's share."
This was a light in which I had never viewed the laws of the fishing association before; but as this honest hind spoke from experience, I have no doubt that the statement is founded in truth, and that the sole effect of close-time, in all the branches of the principal river, is merely to tie up the hands of every respectable man, and throw the fishing into the hands of poachers. He told me, that in all the rivers of the extensive parish of Woolenhorn, the fish generally run up during one flood, and went away the next; and as the gentlemen and farmers of those parts had no interest in the preservation of the breeding salmon themselves, nor cared a farthing about the fishing associations in the great river, whom they viewed as monopolizers of that to which they had no
right, the fish were wholly abandoned to the poachers, who generally contrived, by burning lights at the shallows, and spearing the fish by night, and netting the pools, to annihilate every shoal that came up. This is, however, a subject that would require an essay by itself.
Our conversation turned on various matters connected with the country; and I soon found, that though this hind had something in his manner and address the most uncultivated I had ever seen, yet his conceptions of such matters as came within the sphere of his knowledge were pertinent and just. He sung old songs, told us strange stories of witches and apparitions, and related many anecdotes of the pastoral life, which I think extremely curious, and wholly unknown to the literary part of the community. But at every observation that he made, he took care to sleek down his black hair over his brow, as if it were of the utmost consequence to his making a respectable appearance, that it should be equally spread, and as close pressed down as possible. When desired to join us in drinking tea, he said "it was a' nonsense thegither, for he hadna the least occasion;" and when pressed to take bread, he persisted in the declaration that "it was great nonsense." He loved to talk of sheep, of dogs, and of the lasses, as he called them; and conversed with his dogs in the same manner as he did with any of the other guests; nor did the former ever seem to misunderstand him, unless in his unprecedented and illiberal attempt to expel them from the company."Whitefoot! haud aff the woman's coat-tails, ye blockhead! Deil hae me gin ye hae the mense of a miller's horse, man." Whitefoot instantly obeyed." Trimmy! come back aff the fire, dame! Ye're sae wat, ye raise a reek like a cottar wife's lum -come back, ye limmer!" Trimmy went behind his chair.
It came out at last that his business with Mr Grumple that day was to request of him to go over to Stridekirton on the Friday following, and unite him, Peter Plash, in holy wedlock with his sweetheart and only joe, Jean Windlestrae; and he said, if I "would accompany the minister, and take share of a haggis wi' them, I wad see some good lasses, and some good sport too, which was far better." You Vol. I.
may be sure I accepted of the invitation with great cordiality, nor had I any cause to repent it. I have, since that time, had many conversations with Peter, of which I have taken notes; but the description of a country wedding, together with the natural history of the Scottish sheep, the shepherd's dog, and some account of the country lasses, I must reserve for future communications. H.
OBSERVATIONS ON THE CULTURE OF THE SUGAR CANE IN THE UNITED STATES, AND ON OUR SYSTEM OF COLONIAL POLICY.
WHILE the example of the successful efforts made by the negroes in Hispaniola for the recovery of their freedom and independence, and the recent commotions in our own West India colonies, have powerfully attracted the public attention, it seems to have entirely overlooked the rising competition which must, at no distant period, materially affect the demand for the staple commodity of these distant settlements. From a short statement given in Mr Pitkin's Statistical View of the Commerce, &c. of the United States, published last year, it appears, that in 1810 above TEN MILLIONS of pounds weight of sugar had been manufactured from the cane in the state of Louisiana:* and so rapidly has its cultivation extended, that in 1814, only four years afterwards, not less than FIFTEEN MILLIONS of pounds, or above 8,300 hogsheads, were made in the same district. The culture of the cane has also been introduced into Georgia, and there seems little reason to doubt of its succeeding equally well as in Louisiana. "In 1805," says Mr Pitkin, "Thomas Spalding, Esq., a gentleman of wealth and enterprise, procured one hundred cane plants from the West Indies, for the purpose of trying them on his plantation, on an island near the seacoast of Georgia. After repeated trials, in which he was guided principally by his own judgment and experience, he completely succeeded. About three years since, he made a
*Hennepin, quoted by Labat, asserts that the sugar cane is indigenous in Louisi ana, and was found growing spontaneously near the mouth of the Mississippi on its first discovery.-Edwards' Hist. West In dies. Vol. ii. 208, 4to ed.
small quantity of sugar of a good quality; and in 1814, he had one hundred acres in cane, which produced seventy-five thousand weight of prime sugar, and four thousand gallons of molasses; and but for the want of boilers, which, on account of the war, could not be brought to his plantations, he would have produced one hundred thousand weight. The culture of the cane is found not to be more laborious than that of cotton, and is not liable to so many accidents. One thousand pounds per acre is not considered a great crop. This at ten cents, (54d.) would be one hundred dollars. Almost every planter along the sea coast of Georgia is now turning his attention, more or less, to the culture of the sugar cane; and from experiments already made, the cane is found to grow luxuriantly as far north as the city of Charleston in South Carolina."
These facts render it nearly certain that America will soon be in a situation to export sugar; and I confess that I contemplate the probability of that event without any feeling of regret, and am even convinced it will be much to the advantage of this country. -If the Americans cannot undersell our planters, the latter have nothing to fear from their competition; but if they can afford us a valuable necessary at a cheaper rate, very cogent reasons indeed would be required to shew, why we should not become their customers-There is surely nothing so very attractive, or advantageous, in the possession of the West India islands, as to induce us to tax ourselves for their support, for such, to the consumers, is the real effect of every monopoly. Sufficient employment for capital can still be found in this country, and it is not necessary to force it into the colony trade, by giving an undue preference to its products over those of other countries; and even if such employment could not be found, it would be impolitic in government to give any factitious encouragement to one department of industry, inasmuch as it is certain some other branch must be thereby proportionally depressed. No bad consequences have resulted to us from purchasing the cotton of the United States; on the contrary, it has been attended with the happiest effects.-The Americans have taken an equivalent in our manufactured goods, and it is always reckoned
good policy to import raw materials with a view to export them when wrought up. If we shall hereafter purchase sugar from America, it will enable her merchants to order still larger quantities of our manufactures. They will not, we may rest assured, send us their produce gratis, and they cannot take money in payment, the real value of gold and silver being greater here than on the opposite side of the Atlantic. But supposing them to receive payment in gold and silver, it would only shew, that we found it more advantageous to export manufactures to countries abounding in those metals, and then to pay them over to the Americans, rather than export directly to the latter.
The remarks I have just made, apply equally to the case of any other power who might come into competi tion with our own sugar colonies: and now that peace has been restored to the country, and the attention of the legislature is no longer attracted by the momentous discussions to which an arduous and long protracted contest gave rise, I do hope that our system of colonial policy will be thoroughly investigated.-I am not aware that it has been materially changed since Dr Smith exposed its mischievous tendency; and I confess, I cannot see the utility of employing our soldiers and sailors at an infinite expense, to preserve a precarious authority over isles situated in an unhealthy and pestiferous climate, if we can purchase their products cheaper elsewhere.
No colonies were ever reckoned so important to this country, as those which now form the powerful republic of the United States. But has their independence had any bad effects on the wealth, commerce, or industry, of Great Britain? The reverse is decidedly the fact.-Without the expense of maintaining armaments to defend these distant and extensive territories, we have continued to enjoy every previous advantage resulting from their commercial intercourse.-As long as we can afford to sell manufactured goods to the Americans, cheaper than they can prepare them at home, and cheaper than they can purchase from any other power, we shall continue to supply their market to precisely the same extent we should have done had they still remained our colonies. Surely no person ima
gines, that had America been dependent on this country, we could have compelled her to purchase our merchandise, though really higher than that of other states. Our colonial system was always more liberal than that of Spain; but did all the restrictions, regulations, and guarda-costas, of that power, prevent her colonies from being deluged with the commodities of England, France, and Germany? No custom-house regulations, however rigorously enforced, can ever command or preserve any market; it is solely by the comparative cheapness and quality of the goods offered for sale, that the demand is regulated.
The dread of being deprived of colonial produce, if we had no colonies, appears equally futile and unfounded. What country can be mentioned, which, though it had no share in the colony trade, ever wanted its products, if disposed to pay for them? Countries possessing extensive colonies are frequently reduced to great difficulties by foreigners refusing to buy their commodities, but when did we hear of any people refusing to sell? This is altogether a visionary danger:-the
desire to sell has always been, and must always be, as strong as the inclination to purchase.
With the present colonial system the slave trade can only be considered as nominally abolished.-I do not imagine any such keen and determined opposition would have been made to the slave registration bill, if vast numbers of those wretched beings had not still found their way to our islands. But when the cultivation of the sugar cane shall become general in America, it is to be presumed that this infamous traffic will be really put an end to. A government residing on the spot, can see that the laws preventing fresh importations are rigorously executed; but the same thing cannot possibly be effected by a far distant government, whose agents must often be interested in a continuance of the traffic, which they are officially engaged to suppress.
The following table shews the quantity of sugar imported into the United States, and again exported, and, consequently, the quantity of foreign growth consumed in that republic from 1801 to 1812, both inclusive. It is extracted from Mr Pitkins' work, page 255.
1801,. 1802, 1803,
Average consumption of foreign sugar in the United States, during the twelve years ending with 1812,
Dover road. The dale to the right, with hamlets, villages, churches, gentlemen's seats, appears peculiarly elegant, contrasted with the plainness on the left. The road is carried along the east side of a valley. This valley is narrow and rich-of the glen sortand, as we approach Dover, it has several pleasing vista-openings in the Scottish style.
We got a small peep of the channel, two or three miles from Dover. The town itself is scarcely seen till we enter. On descending to the bottom, in which it stands, we took up a little man about twenty, one of the most free and easy persons I have ever met with. He introduced himself to us in a moment, and gave us all the information we wanted; indeed, much more than my companion S- seemed to want. But I was pleased with the rattle for the moment. He, however, did not lack either sense or discrimination. He pointed out the stream that creeps in the bottom, as being reckoned the richest in England of its size, for manufacturing returns. So he said. Saw several paper manufactories and flour mills. One of the former, he said, was famous for fine paper; the scenery of its banks pleasing, and from this account it became more interesting. It seems to descend from a vista on the right, and to run only four or five miles.
Our attention was attracted by a group of young women promenading in a green field on its banks, near a very small rustic chapel and church-yard; the latter only about fifty feet square. The whole formed a fine rural picture. On descending to the level of the stream, we found both the footway and the road covered with walkers; for this was Sunday afternoon, and the weather was uncommonly fine. When we entered the town, we still found the footway-for it has a footway on each side, and this was one of the few we were to see for many a hundred mile-still crowded with promenaders. The people well dressed, particularly the women. The girls very pretty. Seldom have seen so many fine faces in a town of the same size; but it was Kent. A smile on every countenance. I like to see the evening of the Sabbath-day kept in this cheerful but de
Dover. At the Paris hotel. Very good house. Civil and attentive. Full of passengers to and from the Continent. Walked out with my companions, Dr B. and Mr S. to view-hunt a little on the heights on so fine an afternoon. The town built on a narrow slip of land at the bottom of steep chalky cliffs. Ascended a circular excavation in the chalk. Three winding stairs up it, of about 200 steps. Made some years ago. Sentinels both at the entry below and above. Part of the works of defence, on the top of the hill, a little to the right of this. Ascend it by ladder stairs on the outside. These have a fine effect, combined with the fortifications. The castle, also, has a venerable and picturesque appearance from this station.
I inquired about Shakspeare's cliff of the soldiers. A decent-looking militiaman, who was carrying a pretty child, while two more were playing round him, pointed it out to me a mile or so off. A few halfpence made the little folks very happy, and the parent's fond eye glisten with delight. I cast a wishful look to this favourite cliff:-The declining day was so fine. But Dr B. said, he was so fatigued he could not think of it; and as I could not leave him so abruptly, I was obliged to give up the project, but not without regret that was constantly recurring. This is the inconvenience of a view-hunter entangling himself with any non-view-hunter as a travelling companion. He is prevented from seeing half of what he may see.—A word to view-hunters. I determined to give my companions the slip for the future, except at meals.
I then proposed ascending to the citadel. The way at first steep, and nearly on the edge of the precipice. Dr B. said to some of the soldiers who pointed out our way, as they were reclining on the declivity, that it looked like ascending to the skies. Nothing of that sort, said a drummer. I have climbed it often, and I never found I was a bit nearer heaven than before. The pert drummer might not be very far wrong with respect to himself.
The view of the harbour, which is a tide one, and very extensive, having gates between the outer and inner station, with the ships so far below us, formed an interesting picture. The sea was delightfully calm. The white