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By an ukase of the Emperor Alexander, the 'male population of Poland has, with few exceptions, been made liable to the military conscription, from twenty to thirty years of age. A rescript to the governor of Cherson, in favour of the Duchobooze, a sect of dissenters from the Greek Church, is highly honourable to the humane feelings and enlightened views of this monarch.
Letters from Constantinople of the 1st February state, that the British minister is still in negotiation relative to the affairs of the Ionian Islands, of which the divan pertinaciously refuses to acknowledge the independence. Yet it was not unknown at Constantinople, that General Maitland had arrived at Corfu, and had convoked the Grand Senate to pronounce definitely on the administration or organization of the state. If we may credit letters from Vienna, inserted in the Paris papers, it would seem that the Porte has to contend with a rebellious subject in the person of the Pacha of Bagdad, who having been formally deposed by a firman from Constantinople, refused to resign his power, and acknowledge his successor. It is also stated in the same journals, that the Pacha of Egypt, the most powerful of the Turkish governors in the Mediterranean, is preparing to dispute the sovereignty of that province with the Ottoman Porte.
The president of the United States transmitted to both Houses of Congress, on the 4th December, a message by Mr Todd, his secretary, of which we can only give the general outline. It begins by noticing the partial failure of the crops, the depression of particular branches of manufactures, and of navigation,-complains of the British government for prohibiting a trade between its colonies and the United States in Amerirican vessels-notices the attack on the American flag by a Spanish ship of war, and the uncertain state of the relations with Algiers-expresses much satisfaction at the tranquillity that has been restored among the Indian tribes, and between these tribes and the United States-recommends a reorganization of the militia, provision for the uniformity of weights and measures, the establishment of a university within the district which contains the seat of government, an amendment of the criminal law-and suggests, that the regulations which were intended to guard against abuses in the slave trade should be rendered more effectual. The expediency of a re-modification of the judiciary establishment, and of an additional department in the executive branch of the government, are recommended to the
consideration of Congress.-On the subject of finance the president expresses much satisfaction. The actual receipts of the revenue during 1816 are said to amount to about 47,000,000 of dollars, and the payments to only 38,000,000; thus leaving a surplus in the treasury, at the close of the year, of about 9,000,000 of dollars. The aggregate of the funded debt, on the 1st January 1817, is estimated not to exceed 110,000,000 of dollars, the ordinary annual expenses of government are taken at less than 20,000,000, and the permanent revenue at 25,000,000. The state of the currency and the establishment of the national bank are then noticed; and Mr Madison concludes this moderate and well-written document, by referring to the near approach of the period at which he is to retire from public service, and with animated expressions of satisfaction at the tranquillity and prosperity of the country.
It is pleasing to observe the facility with which useful institutions are adopted, under the harmony at present subsisting among mankind. The Provident or Saving Banks, which have been established so beneficially in Britain, are likely to be soon very generally resorted to in the United States. The plan was in progress at Boston before the close of 1816, and was countenanced by a large body of the state legislature.
From the report of the late secretary to the treasury, it appears that the gross revenue for the year 1816 amounted to 59,403,978, and the expenditure to 38,745,799 dollars, leaving an excess of receipts, amounting to 20,658,179, exclusive of the sum in the treasury on the 1st of January 1816.
A bill has been brought into Congress, to prevent citizens of the United States from selling vessels of war to the subjects of any foreign power, and more effectually to prevent the arming and equipping of vessels of war intended to be used against nations in This bill is amity with the United States. supposed to be chiefly directed against the insurgents of Spanish America, and to have been brought forward through the representations of the Spanish minister.
It has been officially announced, that Mr Monro has been elected president, and Mr Tomkins vice-president, for the constitutional term of four years from the 4th of last month.
An act of Congress has passed, by which all British vessels entering the ports of the United States, from our colonial possessions, are to be subjected to an additional duty of two dollars per ton. This proceeding is resorted to, in consequence of the exclusion of the American shipping from our West India islands.
It has been proposed, in the House of Representatives, to reduce the peace establishment to 5000 men, and also to repeal all the internal taxes.
The exports from the the year ending 30th
United States, for September 1816,
amounted to 81,920,452 dollars, of which 64,781,896 were of domestic materials, and 17,138,556 foreign.
A report from the committee on manufactures was presented to the legislature of the state of New York on the 20th January, which recommends, for the encouragement of the infant manufactories of the United States, particularly of woollen and cotton, either a permanent augmentation of the duties on their import, or a prohibition of all such as can be supplied by the home manufactures.
By the Newfoundland Gazettes, we learn that a question of great importance attracts the attention of the inhabitants of that island, and one which is of much interest to the inhabitants of Great Britain. The validity of marriages solemnized by dissenting ministers has been disputed, and reference made on the subject to the statute law of England.
The legislature of Jamaica, it appears, have strictly complied with the request of his Majesty's government, to prevent any infringement of the laws for the abolition of the slave trade.
The cause of the insurgents in Spanish America ebbs and flows with such rapid and uncertain vicissitude, that it is extremely difficult to give any thing like a correct view of the state of the contest in these widely extended regions. We see them defeated, and driven from place to place,-rallying, returning, and victorious in their turn; but no decisive advantage seems as yet to have been gained by either party, nor does there appear, in the accounts which have reached this country, sufficient materials from which to form a decided opinion on the future progress and final results of a contest which is marked by want of system and energy on both sides. Whatever may be the result of the present struggle, however, the time cannot be far distant when these extensive countries will form several rich, powerful, and independent states, a consummation devoutly to be wished-for their own sakes, and for the general prosperity of the civilized world, of which they are probably destined to form one of the most valuable and interesting divisions.-Lord Cochrane and Sir Robert Wilson are said to be about to embark in the cause of Spanish American independence. Such strongly constructed and unquiet minds seem to be necessary to the progress of human affairs; and in this scene of trouble, their energies may produce a happy effect upon the hitherto feeble and unenlightened subjects of one of the worst governments that ever oppressed and degraded the human race.-Sir Gregor M'Gregor who has so much distinguished himself in this contest, is the son of the late Captain Daniel M'Gregor, a gentleman of Argyle
shire in Scotland, who was long an officer in India. He is under thirty years of age, served as a captain with the British army Spain, was afterwards colonel in the British service, and had a Spanish order of knighthood conferred upon him, and was allowed by the Prince Regent to assume the title in his native country.
The Portuguese troops have invaded the territory of Monte Video; but whether in consequence of an arrangement with Old Spain, or with a view to conquest on their own account, does not seem to be very clearly ascertained. It is not likely that their interference will materially affect the general result, except in so far as it may have a tendency to carry the flame of revolution into their own transatlantic territories.
We have received what is called the revived constitution of Hayti, or rather of that part of the island which is under the government of Petion. It is comprehended in 11 articles, which are subdivided into upwards of 200 sections; and, like most other exhibitions of this sort, it makes a sufficiently respectable appearance on paper.
The Haytian Royal Gazettes notice the king of France's proposals to Christophe, and the indignation of his sable Majesty and his minister the Duke of Marmalade, at the insolent superscription of the papers, which, instead of being most respectfully addressed to" His Majesty the King of Hayti," were directed only to "Monsieur the General Christophe, at Cape François." The letters were returned unopened.
EAST INDIES.- -Calcutta papers an nounce the agreeable intelligence, that Captain Webb has crossed the several ranges of the snowy mountains, and entered Tartary. It is his opinion that he might, without great difficulty, from the situation whence he last wrote, penetrate into the heart of Russia. Much may be expected from Captain Webb's scientific skill towards a correct knowledge of these stupendous heights, whose summits have been found to rise more than 28,000 feet above the level of the sea, nearly 8,000 feet higher than Chimboraze, the loftiest of the Andes.
At a late meeting of the Asiatic Society, a curious document was communicated, respecting several classes of robbers and murderers, known in the south of India by the name of Phansegars, and in the upper provinces by the appellation of Thugs; the peculiarity of whose practice is the employment of a noose, which they throw round the traveller whom they have fallen in with on the road, apparently by accident, and whom they thus strangle and rob; they live in a regular society, and roam the country in gangs, under a regular sirdar, or chief.
CEYLON. The dutch planters of Ceylon have adopted some judicious regulations for the gradual abolition of slavery; all children born of slaves, after the 12th of August last, are to be considered free, but to remain in their master's house, and serve him for board, lodging, and clothing; the males till the age of 14, and the females till 12 after which to be fully emancipated.
CHINA. Although no official intelligence has been received by government from Lord Amherst, since his arrival at Pekin, yet there is reason to believe, from private accounts from Canton, of the 17th November, that the British embassy to that court has entirely failed; though it is impossible at present to assign the reasons. Another cir
cumstance mentioned in these letters, threatens to produce still more unfortunate effects. The Alceste British frigate, commanded by Captain Maxwell, was fired at by the forts on either side of the river; but the ship, being immediately moored within pistle shot of one of them mounting forty guns, with two broadsides silenced both batteries. The Alceste was then suffered to proceed quietly to her destination; and what is most singular, up to the 17th November, not the slightest notice had been taken of the affair by the governor of Canton.
PERSIA. The government of Persia, it is said, have applied for the permission of the British government to take British_officers on half pay into their army, with a view of introducing modern tactics into the military establishment of that country; an attack being apprehended on the part of Russia. It is even stated in a letter from Calcutta, of the 15th October, that the Archduke Constantine has entered Persia at the head of 100,000 Russians; but this report as yet gains little credit in this country.
CONGO EXPEDITION. The detailed accounts of the expedition to explore the river Congo, or Zaire, reached the Admiralty some weeks ago. Melancholy as the result has been, from the great mortality of officers and men, owing to the excessive fatigue rather than to the effects of climate, the journals of Captain Tuckey, and the gentlemen in the scientific departments, are, it is said, highly interesting and satisfactory, as far as they go, and we believe they extend considerably beyond the first rapid, or cataract. It would seem, in
deed, that the mortality was entirely owing to the land journey beyond these rapids, and that Captain Tuckey died of complete exhaustion after leaving the river, and not from fever.
We lament to learn, that when the Dorothy transport was at Cabendo, in the end of October last, there were ten Portuguese ships in the port waiting for slaves, and two from Spain.
The Congo discovery vessel arrived at Portsmouth from Bahia last month. The journal of the lamented Captain Tuckey is said to describe the country he explored for 226 miles, as a rocky desert, and thinly peopled region, not worthy of further research.
March 29.-Information has just been received of the death of Major Peddie, before he reached the Niger. Lieutenant Campbell is now the commanding officer; and, we understand, proceeded to carry into execution the orders received by Major Peddie.
ST HELENA.-The Orontes frigate, which left St Helena on the 4th January, has brought to England Colonel Poniowski, the Polish officer who followed Bonaparte, and who was sometime since banished from that island to the Cape, for improper conduct; and Lord Somerset has now sent him to Europe. Les Casas and his son have been also sent to the Cape in the Griffin sloop of war, in consequence, it is said, of their concerting a plan of correspondence with France.
A letter, addressed by order of Bonaparte to Sir Hudson Lowe, governor of St Helena, by General Montholon, brought to this country by Napoleon's usher of the cabinet, M. St Santini, has been published, in which the Ex-emperor loudly complains of the rigorous manner in which he is treated by Sir Hudson Lowe. But the conduct of this officer was defended by Earl Bathurst, in the debate to which Lord Holland's late motion on the subject gave rise, and the insinuations thrown out by Bonaparte against the British government were very satisfactorily repelled.
ISLE OF FRANCE.-On the 25th of September, a great fire happened at PortLouis, which is said to have destroyed property to the value of a million and a half Sterling. Nineteen streets were entirely consumed, including hospitals, prisons, barracks, magazines, and other public buildings. The greater number of the unfortu nate inhabitants have been reduced to absolute poverty.
PROCEEDINGS OF PARLIAMENT.
Tuesday, 28th January.-The Prince Regent came to the House of Lords with the usual state at three o'clock, and opened the Session of Parliament with the following speech from the throne:
My Lords and Gentlemen,
It is with the deepest regret that I am again obliged to announce to you, that no alteration has occurred in the state of his Majesty's lamented indisposition.
I continue to receive from Foreign Powers the strongest assurances of their friendly disposition towards this country, and of their earnest desire to maintain the general tranquillity.
The hostilities to which I was compelled to resort, in vindication of the honour of the country, against the government of Algiers, have been attended with the most complete
The splendid achievement of his Majesty's fleet, in conjunction with a squadron of the King of the Netherlands, under the gallant and able conduct of Admiral Viscount Exmouth, led to the immediate and unconditional liberation of all Christian captives then within the territory of Algiers, and to the renunciation by its government of the practice of Christian slavery.
I am persuaded, that you will be duly sensible of the importance of an arrangement so interesting to humanity, and reflecting, from the manner in which it has been accomplished, such signal honour on the British nation.
In India, the refusal of the Government of Nepaul to ratify a treaty of peace which had been signed by its Plenipotentiaries occasioned a renewal of military operations.
The judicious arrangements of the Governor-general, seconded by the bravery and perseverance of his Majesty's forces, and of those of the East India Company, brought the campaign to a speedy and successful issue; and peace has been finally established, upon the just and honourable terms of the original treaty.
Gentlemen of the House of Commons, I have directed the estimates of the current year to be laid before you.
They have been formed upon a full consideration of all the present circumstances of the country, with an anxious desire to make every reduction in our establishments which the safety of the empire and sound policy allow.
I recommend the state of the public income and expenditure to your early and serious attention.
I regret to be under the necessity of informing you, that there has been a deficiency in the produce of the revenue in the last year; but I trust that it is to be ascribed to temporary causes; and I have the conso
lation to believe, that you will find it practicable to provide for the public service of the year, without making any addition to the burdens of the people, and without adopting any measure injurious to that system, by which the public credit of the coun try has been hitherto sustained.
My Lords and Gentlemen,
I have the satisfaction of informing you, that the arrangements which were made in the last Session of Parliament, with a view to a new silver coinage, have been completed with unprecedented expedition.
I have given directions for the immediate issue of the new coin, and I trust that this measure will be productive of considerable advantages to the trade and internal transactions of the country.
The distresses consequent upon the termination of a war of such unusual extent and duration, have been felt, with greater or less severity, throughout all the nations of Europe, and have been considerably aggravated by the unfavourable state of the
Deeply as I lament the pressure of these evils upon this country, I am sensible that they are of a nature not to admit of an immediate remedy; but whilst I observe with peculiar satisfaction the fortitude with which so many privations have been borne, and the active benevolence which has been employed to mitigate them, I am persuaded that the great sources of our national prosperity are essentially unimpaired, and I entertain a confident expectation, that the native energy of the country will at no distant period surmount all the difficulties in which we are involved.
In considering our internal situation, you will, I doubt not, feel a just indignation at the attempts which have been made to take advantage of the distresses of the country, for the purpose of exciting a spirit of sedi tion and violence.
I am too well convinced of the loyalty and good sense of the great body of his Majesty's subjects, to believe them capable of being perverted by the arts which are employed to seduce them; but I am determined to omit no precautions for preserving the public peace, and for counteracting the designs of the disaffected: and I rely with the utmost confidence on your cordial support and co-operation, in upholding a system of law and government, from which we have derived inestimable advantages, which has enabled us to conclude, with unexampled glory, a contest whereon depended the best interests of mankind, and which has been hitherto felt by ourselves, as it is acknowledged by other nations, to be the most perfect that has ever fallen to the lot of any people.
Lord SIDMOUTH, after strangers had withdrawn, informed the House, that as the Prince Regent was returning from the House and the carriage was passing in the Park, at the back of the garden of Carleton House, the glass of the carriage window had been broken by a stone, as some represented it, or by two balls fired from an airgun, as others stated it, which appeared to be aimed at his Royal Highness.
Both Houses examined witnesses on this communication, and presented addresses to the Prince Regent.
The address on the speech from the Throne was moved and seconded by the Earl of DARTMOUTH and Lord ROTHES in the House of Lords; and in the House of Commons by Lord VALLETORT and Mr DAWSON. Earl GREY moved an amendment in the Lords, which was negatived without a division; and the original address was carried in the House of Commons, in opposition to an amendment moved by Mr PONSONBY, by a majority of 152.
HOUSE OF LORDS.
Monday, Feb. 3.-Lord SIDMOUTH presented the following message, which was read by the Lord Chancellor :" His Royal Highness the Prince Regent, acting in the name and on the behalf of his Majesty, has thought proper to order to be laid before the House of Lords, papers containing an account of certain meetings and combinations held in different parts of the country, tending to the disturbance of the public tranquillity, the alienation of the affections of the people from his Majesty's person and government, and to the overthrow of the whole frame and system of the laws and constitution; and his Royal Highness recommends these papers to the immediate and serious consideration of the House."
THANKS TO LORD EXMOUTH.
Lord MELVILLE, after taking a review of the cause, the mode, and the effects of the expedition to Algiers, and paying a wellmerited tribute of applause to the promptitude, skill, and gallantry, displayed in that memorable achievement, moved the thanks of the House to Lord Exmouth, Sir David Milne, and the officers, seamen, and marines; and also to Admiral Capellen, and the officers and crews under his command; which motions were unanimously agreed to.
PRINCE REGENT'S MESSAGE. Feb 4-Lord SIDMOUTH rose to propose to their Lordships, an answer to the message which he had last night laid before them from the Prince Regent. Their Lordships would, he had no doubt, concur in the address which he should have the honour to propose, as it would pledge their Lordships to nothing except to an examination of the evidence. He would refrain from all reference to any ulterior proceed
ings, and recommend that nothing should be said or done until the report of the Committee should be laid before the House. The atrocious outrage lately committed against the Prince Regent was certainly regarded with the utmost horror and reprobation by an overwhelming majority of the nation; and he felt it his duty to state, that the present communication was not at all connected with that outrage.
After some general remarks by Lord Grosvenor, Lord Holland, the Earl of Liverpool, Earl Grey, and the Marquis of Buckingham, the address was agreed to, and the papers on the table were ordered to be referred to-morrow to a committee of Secrecy, consisting of eleven Lords, to be then chosen by ballot.
Feb. 6.-The Earl of LIVERPOOL took a review of the cause of this war, and of the operations which led to its successful termination, and moved that the thanks of the House be given to the Most Noble the Marquis of Hastings, for the able and judicious arrangements by which the war in Nepaul had been brought to a successful conclusion. The motion was agreed to; after which, thanks were voted to Sir David Ochterlony, and the troops under his command.
REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OF
Feb. 18.-The Earl of HARROWBY presented the report of the Secret Committee appointed to inquire into certain meetings and combinations endangering the public tranquillity, which was laid on the table, and ordered to be taken into consideration on Friday, and that the House be summoned for that day.
SUSPENSION OF THE HABEAS CORPUS
Feb. 21.-Lord SIDMOUTH introduced a bill, under the title of " A bill to enable his Majesty to secure, and detain in custody, such persons as his Majesty shall suspect of treasonable intentions against his Majesty's person and government.' "His Lordship intimated, that it was thought most convenient for their Lordships to discuss the principle of the measure on the second reading of the bill, which he intended to propose should take place on Monday next. Read a first time, and ordered to be read a second time on Monday.
Feb. 24.-Lord SIDMOUTH, after moving the order of the day for the second reading of the bill, observed, that whatever differences of opinion might exist as to this and other measures in contemplation, he was confident that no Noble Lord could have read and reflected upon the report of the Committee upon the table, without the deepest regret, calculated as it was to shock every feeling of loyalty to the Throne, and of affection for the illustrious individual exercising its functions, and to cast a loath some stigma upon the character and disp(