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the most proper, full, and pregnant expressions imaginable. First, in the vulgar phrase of Moses, as most consonant to his description : " for by him were all things created that are in heaven, and that are in earth ;” signifying thereby that he speaketh of the same creation. Secondly, by a division which Moses never used, as describing the production only of corporeal substances : lest, therefore, those immaterial beings might seem exempted from the Son's creation, because omitted in Moses” description, he addeth “ visible and invisible;" and lest in that invisible world, among the many degrees of the celestial hierarchy, any order might seem exempted from an essential dependence upon him, he nameth those which are of greatest eminence, “ whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers,” and under them comprehendeth all the rest. Nor doth it yet suffice, thus to extend the object of his power by asserting all things to be made', by him, except it be so understood as to acknowledge the sovereignty of his person, and the authority of his action. For lest we should conceive the Son of God framing the world as a mere instrumental cause, which worketh by and for another, he sheweth himself as well the final as the efficient cause : “ for all things were created by him and for him.” Lastly, whereas all things first receive their being by creation, and when they have received it, continue in the same by virtue of God's conservation, “in whom we live, and move, and have our being ;" lest in any thing we should be thought not to depend immediately upon the Son of God, he is described as the conserver as well as the creator ; " for he is before all things, and by him all things consist.” If, then, we consider the two last cited verses by themselves, we cannot deny but they are a most complete description of the creator of the world ; and if they were spoken of God the Father, could be no way injurious to his majesty, who is no where more plainly or fully set forth unto us as the maker of the world.
Now although this were sufficient to persuade us to interpret this place of the making of the world, yet it
will not be unfit to make use of another reason, which will compel us so to understand it. For undoubtedly there are but two kinds of creation in the language of the scriptures, the one literal, the other metaphorical ; one old, the other new; one by way of formation, the other by way of reformation. “If any man be in Christ he is a new creature,” saith St. Paul; and again, “In Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, but a new creature.” Instead of which words he had before, “faith working by love. For we are the workmanship of God, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them.” From whence it is evident, that a new creature is such a person as truly believeth in Christ, and manifesteth that faith by the exercise of good works; and the new creation is the reforming or bringing man into this new condition, which by nature, or his first creation, he was not in. And therefore he which is so created is called a new man, in opposition to “ the old man, which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts :” From whence the apostle chargeth us to be "renewed in the spirit of our mind,” and to “put on that new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness ;" and “ which is renewed in knowledge, after the image of him that created him.” The new creation then is described to us as consisting wholly in renovation, or å translation from a worse unto a better condition by way of reformation; by which those which have lost the image of God, in which the first man was created, are restored to the image of the same God again, by a real change, though not substantial, wrought within them now. Now this being the notion of the new creation in all those places which undoubtedly and confessedly speak of it, it will be necessary to apply it unto such scriptures as are pretended to require the same interpretation. Thus therefore I proceed. If the second or new creation cannot be meant by the apostle' in the place produced out of the Epistle to the Colossians, then it must be interpreted of the first. For there are but two kinds of creation mentioned in the scriptures, and one of them is there expressly named. But the place of the apostle can no way admit an interpretation by the new creation, as will thus appear: The object of the creation, mentioned in this place, is of as great latitude and universality as the object of the first creation, not only expressed, but implied, by Moses. But the object of the new creation is not of the same latitude with that of the old. Therefore that which is mentioned here cannot be the new creation. For certainly if we reflect upon the true notion of the new creation, it necessarily and essentially includes an opposition to a former worse condition, as the new man is always opposed to the old; and if Adam had continued still in innocency, there could have been no such distinction between the old man and the new, or the old and new creation. Being then all men become not new, being there is no new creature but such whose faith worketh by love, being so many millions of men have neither faith nor love; it cannot be said that by “ Christ all things were created anew that are in heaven and that are in earth,” when the greatest part of mankind have no share in the new creation. Again, we cannot imagine that the apostle should speak of the creation in a general word, intending thereby only the 'new, and while he doth so, express particularly and especially those parts of the old creation which are incapable of the new, or at least have no relation to it. The angels are all either good or bad: but whether they be bad, they can never be good again, nor did Christ come to redeem the devils; or whether they be good, they were always such, nor were they so by the virtue of Christ's incarnation, for “ he took not on him the nature of angels.” We acknowledge in mankind a new creation, because an old man becomes a new; but there is no such notion in the celestial hierarchy, because no old and new angels : they which fell, are fallen for eternity; they which stand, always stood, and shall stand for ever. Where then are the regenerated “thrones and dominions?". where are the recreated “principalities and powers?" All those angels, of whatsoever degrees, were created by the Son of God, as the apostle expressly affirms. But they were never created by a new creation “unto true holiness and righteousness," because they always were truly righteous and holy ever since their first creation. Therefore except we could get invent another creation, which were neither the old nor the new, we must conclude that all the angels were at first created by the Son of God; and as they, so all things else, especially man, whose creation all the first writers of the church of God expressly attribute unto the Son, asserting that those words, “Let us make man,” were spoken as by the Father unto him.
The necessity of the belief of this part of the article, that Jesus Christ is the proper and natural Son of God, begotten of the substance of the Father, and by that singular way of generation the only Son, appeareth first in the confirmation of our faith concerning the redemption of mankind. For this doth shew such an excellency and dignity in the person of the mediator as will assure us of an infinite efficacy in his actions, and value in his sufferings. We know “it is not possible that the blood of bulls and goats should take away sins :" and we may very well doubt how the blood of him who hath no other nature than that of man, can take away the sins of other men; there appearing no such difference as will shew a certainty in the one, and an impossibility in the other. But since we may be bought with a price," well may we believe the blood of Christ sufficiently “ precious,” when we are assured that it is the “blood of God :" nor can we question the efficacy of it in “purging our conscience from dead works,” if we believe “Christ offered up himself through the eternal Spirit.”. If we be truly sensible of our sins, we must acknowledge that in every one we have offended God; and the gravity of every offence must needs increase proportionably to the dignity of the party offended in respect of the offender ; because the more worthy any person is, the more reverence is due unto him, and every injury tendeth to his dishonour; but between God and man there is an infinite disproportion; and therefore every offence committed against him must be esteemed as in the highest degree of injury. Again, as the gravity of the offence beareth proportion to the person offended, so the value of reparation ariseth from the dignity of the person satisfying ; because the satisfaction consisteth in a reparation of that honour which by the injury was eclipsed ; and all honour doth increase proportionably as the person yielding it is honourable. If then by every sin we have offended God, who is of infinite eminency, according unto which the injury is aggravated; how shall we ever be secure of our reconciliation unto God, except the person who hath undertaken to make the reparation be of the same infinite dignity, so as the honour rendered by his obedience may prove proportionable to the offence and that dishonour which arose from our disobedience? This scruple is no otherwise to be satisfied than by a belief in such a mediator as is the “ only-begotten Sons of God, of the same substance with the Father, and consequently of the same power and dignity with the God whom by our sins we have offended. . Secondly, the belief of the eternal generation of the
Son, by which he is the same God with the Father, is necessary for the confirming and encouraging a christian in ascribing that honour and glory unto Christ which is due unto him. For we are commanded to give that worship unto the Son which is truly and properly divine; the same which we give unto God the Father, who “ hath committed all judgment unto the Son, that all men should honour the Son even as they honour the Father.” As it was represented to St. John in a vision, when he “heard every creature which is in heaven, and on the earth, and under the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all that are in them, saying, blessing, honour, glory, and power, be unto him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the lamb, for ever and ever.” Again, we are commanded “ to fear the Lord our God, and to serve him ;" and that with such an emphasis,
as by him we are to understand him alone, because : the Lord our God is one Lord.” From whence if