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upon recalls ; which is done in the stances of each person, are transcribfollowing manner :

ed from the book of that thip from A list of the claimants entitled to which he claims his wages, into the wages froin thips that have been list or ticket. Each entry is an exact paid, is sent from the ship where copy of the entry relative to the same they are on board, to the pay-of. person in the ship's book; and it fice at the port ; this list is examin- must be so; for otherwise the reed with the hip's books that are in maining defalcations, and the full the office ; and the persons upon and net wages, could not be cal. the list who can be paid, are distin. culated. After this is done, where guished from those who cannot. The the paymeu is by list

, previous to current number in the ship's book the payınent of the thip, or by ticis entered upon the list, opposite the Ker, the wages are calculated; the name of the person, that he may be open columns are all filled up; and if the more easily found upon the book by lift, the net wages are paid ; or when he comes to be paid. The if by ticket, that ticket is alligned list thus corrected, is returned to upon the treasurer for payment of the captain ; who sends on fore, the net sum therein mentioned; and under the care of a commissioned in both these modes, to prevent officer, those men who appear upon double payments, the thip's book is the lift entitled receive their marked, opposite the name of cach wages : they are paid each upon the perfon, in what manner paid, and book of that ship to which he be- by what treasurer. longed, and the date of the day he A payment, subsequent to the is paid upon is set oppofite to his making up of the ship's book, is

made upon a list of arrears, that is, Where the list contains the names a book that contains the name of of men belonging to thips whose each ship, and the names and cirbooks are not at that port, the pay cumstances, extracted from the soslerks apply to the pay officers of veral ships' books, of all persons paid those ports where the books are, for after the books on which they claim extracts ; that is, for copies of the wages have been made up and fientries relative to those men, in the nally closed. All Tips' books are books from which they severally at present made up and remain after. claim their wages : upon the re- wards at the Navy office in Loncon. ceipt of these extracts, the list is A claimant upon such books pust corrected by them, in such a man• first apply for his wages to the nivy. ner as to inform the captain which board : they refer to the ship's book of those men he may send to be lodged in the ticket-office ; aid if paid; and, that these payments may he appears to be entitled, they ore be set off upon the proper ship's der him to be entered and paii upbooks, the account of the extracts, on the list of arrears, and his name that is, of the men thus paid, is is marked upon the ship's book as sent every quarter to the several paid in that manner, and by what ports.

treasurer. In payments by lists, either pre- These different modes of pay. vious to the pay-day of the thip, or ment vary the vouchers of the trea. after the ship's book is made up, or surer. The previous list or tiket is by tickets, the name, time of fer- a voucher for the total of tle net více, defalcations, and other circum. fums contained in the list, or or the

single

name.

single net sum in the ticket, for that claimants upon ships' books paid by treasurer who pays it, whether he and belonging to his predeceflor, continues in office long enough, or after they are finally closed and not, to pay the book from whence made up; and this method is by a the list or ticket is extracted.

list of arrears.

Suppose, then, all When a book is finally made up the ships' books paid upon by a treathe defalcations, oppofite the names surer were, upon his resignation or of those persons, who have been death, to be immediately laid by, paid, either by previous lifts or and all payments upon them to tickets, and of those who remain cease: could the succeeding trcaunpaid, are entered in the proper furer, by the fame means, pay all columns. The defalcations of each the remaining claimants upon those are cast up, and the coral entered in books, without any material inconthe column of full wages. Every venience, either to the seamen or to column is caft up to a total, and the the pay-office ? treasurer, whose book it is, is allow- This depends upon the difference ed, and that book so filled up in his which the substitution of the list of Foucher, for the total fum in the arrears in the place of the strips' column of full wages; but as he has books will occasion in the payments. paid the feamen, not their full but The previous application by the their net wages only, he discharges claimant to the navy-board must be himself of the difference, that is, of dispensed with. The fhips' books, the defalcations, by the receipts of instead of being sent to the navythe purser, or other persons entit- office after they are closed, must reled, to whom he has paid thein; main at the out-ports as they do and if he has not paid all the defal- Lifts of arrears, distinguillications, he charges himself with ed from those used after the inips? what remains unpaid in his volun- books are made up, must be kept tary charge of the year, in which there as well as in London. Thus he has credit for that lip's book, far there seems to be no difficulty: and this remainder is afterwards paid At present, if a single claimant apby the treasurer in office by a defal- pears upon a recall, his ship’s book cation list.

is examined, his name found, his The keeping open the Phips' books wages are calculated, the open coso long as they are at present, pre- lumns of defalcations and the covents the after-claimants from being lumns of wages filled up, upon the very numerous, and consequently thip's book. If he is paid upon the the list of arrears from being very list of arrears, his hip's book is long; insomuch that it serves as a equally examined, the same calcufingle voucher only, for the amount lations and the same entries are of the net sum of the payments made made ; but in the one case the enupon this list by a treasurer during tries are made in the ship's book, his whole treasurership, and that net and in the other, upon the list of total sum is entered as one payment arrears ; and besides this, the oriin his final account.

ginal entries appearing upon the From this description of the modes Thip's book, are copied from thence of paying fhips now in use in the into the list of arrears : and this is Navy-office, it appears, that there the only difference between the two does at this time exist a method, by methods of payment. As this cowhich a subsequent treasurer pays pying takes up time, the payment

upon balances

now.

upon a list of arrears is longer than to be procured, there is always time the payment upon a thip's book, by enough to transcribe the entries bethe length of time it takes to tran- fore the list is returned to the capa fcribe these entries.

tain ; and in this case the actual payUpon inspection of a ship's book ment is more easily transacted; for made up, and of a list of arrears, where the claims arise upon differ. the entries transcribed appear to be, ent ships, as all are entered upon the the name of the claimant, the cur- list of arrears, the trouble of turn. rent number, the quality, the times ing to each tip's book is avoidof entry and of discharge, with from ed. In payment of these lists care three to five casual defalcations; for must be taken that the captain fends though there are fourteen columns on shore to be paid all who are refor casual detalcations, yet there are turned to him capable of being paid, feldom entries made in more than that the payınent upon the list of five of them; and these are usually arrears may be complete. A fick for cloaths of different kinds, 10- man may be paid afterwards, or if bacco, and the two months advance. a man is prevented from coming at

The name of the nip likewise, to all, his name may be ítruck out of which the claimant belonged, is en- the list, tered upon the list; and, to pre- There is one instance, and the vent over.payments, the ship's book only one that occurs to us, in which is marked, opposite the name, as the tîine taken up in transcribing paid by list of arrears. From these may be material; that is, where, entries arises all the additional trouble upon a ship's being paid off, a numto the pay clerks, and delay to the ber of her men are turned over to a seamen, by the subititution of the ship under failing orders, and the list of arrears in the place of the captain applies for their immediate ships' books.

payment: in this case, at present, As there are now, at every pay. the commissioner goes on board with ment upon recalls, besides the com- his pay clerks, and pays the men millioner, his clerk, and a second that are turned over upon the ship' clerk in the treasurer's office, three book; was he to pay them upon a pay clerks, with each a fhip's book list of arrears, it might poffibly take in which the same entries are made; up near double the time, and the so at a payment upon a list of ar- service would be so far retarded. rears there must be the like number This case can happen only in of clerks and lists, and the fame en- time of war; and where the sertries made in each lift; but tranfo vice presses, and the captain has not cribing into three liits will take up time to send on fhore a list of the no more time than the transcribing seamen who are to be paid; and into one, if an attending clerk reads where the vacancy of the treasurer. the entries in the ships' books, ship happens between the pay-day whilst the other three transcribe them of the thip’s book and the time into their lifts. Where the number when the men turned over call for of claimants is not great, the time it their wages. takes to transcribe there articles can- As lo many circumstances must not be very considerable. Where concur, and consequently the case the payment is in consequence of a can rarely exist, we do not think list sent from the thip, which is the the inconvenience that may arise in ulual course, and where extracts are this one accidental event, counter.

balances the many public advan. not been able to trace them to their tages that certainly attend it in origin. One shilling was the abateevery other event; and consequently, ment in the chest column in the that the proposed regulation ought year 1685: not therefore to be rejected.

The deduction of six pence under But the time employed in paying the title of the hospital, is ordered, the seamen upon the ship's books, as by the act of the 7th and 8th of well as upon lists of arrears, may, William the Third, chap. 21st, to be in our opinion, be shortened, and inade from the wages of the feamen, the pay clerks be relieved from fome and applied for the better support part of their trouble. The sums of Greenwich hospital. An order applicable to the chest, and the hof- of the board of admiralty, dated the pital, the three pence in the pound, 3d of September 1696, directs the and the marine stoppages, are de- navy board to carry this act into ductions, after a certain rate, out execution. of the wages of the officers, feamen, His late majesty king George the and marines : we applied to the Second, in confequence of a voluncommiflioners of the navy, to know tary agreement of the officers of the by what authority these deductions navy, by a commission dated the are made : from their returns to our 30th of August 1732, directs, that requisition, we collect the following the three pence in the pound shall information :

be from that time abated from the The copy of an inquisition taken personal pay and half-pay of offiat Rochester in the fifteenth year of cers therein described, for the reJames the First, before commission- lief of poor widows of commiffioners of charitable uses appointed to ed and warrant officers of the navy, enquire into the state of the fund be- and appoints commissioners for conlonging to the chest at Chatham, ducting this charity ; this commilrecites the origin of the payment of fion was carried into execution by the fixpence (part of the deduction an order of the board of Admiralty, of one thilling) to the chest at Chat- dated 29th September 1732, directham : an extract of so much of it ed for that purpose to the commisas relates to the subject matter, be- fioners of the navy. fore us, we have inserted in the ap- The marine stoppages are directed pendix ; and from thence it appears by an order of the lame board, dated that this deduction commenced in the 2d November, 1756. year 1590, and was a voluntary gift Where a fund is to be created and contribution of a certain por- and established for a public pur. tion of their respective wages, by pose, a grofs fum is better calcu. the masters, mariners, Nipwrights, Tated for it, than a sum compoundand seafaring men, then employed ed of various deductions : the one in the service, to be a perpetual ree is simple, easy, and certain ; the lief for hurt and maimed mariners, other complex, troublesome, and carpenters, and seamen.

uncertain. The commissioners of The four pence to the chaplain, the admiralty and of the navy must and the two pence to the surgeon, have full knowlege what tums have which are the remaining parts of been issued every year out of the the one filling deduction under the sea-pay, to the chest at Chatham, title of the chett, are very ancient. Greenwich hospital, and the fund The conuniffioners of the navy have for the relief of poor widows, ever

us

since their institution. They may a weak one is deceived by an imsconjecture from the experience of ginary income. many years, what will be the wants As the modes suggested of pro. and supplies of those charities, in viding for these charities, and of every possible fituation of the na. paying the chaplains and surgeons, vy. The wages of the officers and appear to to be practicable, féamen is the fund for them all. they ought, in our opinion, to be No reafun, then, occurs to us, substituted in the place of the modes why, on settling the navy establim- in use ; one consequence of which ment every year, certain portions will be, that the four columns of of that fund should not be appro- the chest, the hospital, the three priated to the support of thefe cha- pence in the pound, and the marities, to be issued, from time to rine stoppages, are rendered usetime, by the treasurer of the navy. less, and may be left out of the ships' At present, he advances to all of books, them sums on account, and upon There is another defaleation, calculation : neither the commis- which, in our opinion, ought to be fioners, nor trustees for these cha- omiited for the future, as not an. rities, can know their income from fuering the end proposed; that is, the sea-pay for any one year, until the deduction under the title of reseven or eight years after that year nereal cures.

This is a payment is expired." They cannot know it, to the surgeon of fifteen shillings until the books of all the thips paid for every cure ; and is directed to in that year are made up ; and the be charged against their wages by books are now in arrear as far back an order of the board of admiralty, as the year 1775. The same boards dated gth of April 1756. Bcfore must likewise be acquainted with that year, the mulēt upon the leathe incomes of the chaplain and was one pound ren Millings furgeon of every Mip, of whatever for every cure; the order reduces rate in the navy; at least they know it to fifteen fhillings; and itates, what is a proper and adequate com among reasons for the reduction, pensation for their several services. " that this great charge on the feaIthat objection, then, arises to the men did not prevent the evil.” If allowing to each of them, instead of a certain pecuniary mulet was not these deductions, one stated, cer- severe enough to prevent the of tain, annual falary, according to his fence in the year 1756, half that ftation, payable vut of the fund of mulēt can hardly be supposed more wages ?

efficacious in the year 1782. A puIt appears, in our judgment, a nishment that neither corrects the general, useful regulation, where. offender, nor deters others, is in ever it is practicablc, to take away itself an evil, from which the fube the diftin&tion between nominal and ject should be relieved; and therereal wages and falaries, that the fore, we think the furgeon should reputed compensation for service attend to every disease of the feamen may be the sum actually received, at the public expence, and be allowthat every man may know the price ed a certain compensation adequate to of his labour and abilities. Where his skill and trouble. the noininal exceeds the real, an The omiffion of these five coignorant mind suspects fraud, and fuinns in the ships' books, will acce

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