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But now,

of the people, even although they bill would afford them more frequent
should not desire it. Men of integri. opportunities of exercising their frak-
ty and virtue, by making exertions chise. The exercise of a repeated
of this kind, would recal the lower controul of the people over their re-
orders of men to a proper sense of presentatives he considered as the
thcir confequence, would rescue methout the most effectual for reco.
them gradually from abasement, vering their dignity and for giving
and prevent that fatal extremity rigour to the conftirution.
of corruption which preceded thre Sir Edward Aftey exprefled a
downfall of nations. Feeling in this high approbation of Mr. Sawbridge
manner, it was an infinite fatisfaction for his perseverance in his endea-
to him, that numerous associations

to shorten the duration of had been formed for awakening the parliaments. Our ancestors, in a people to proper ideas of their im- critical fituarion of public affairs, portance. Their aim was laudable; had consented to septennial parliaand in fpite of ridicule of every ments.

the fan kind, it was his hope that they would political cause had no longer any abound and prosper.

power or existence, it was proper The earl of Surry was likewise ihat parliaments Nould be shortened. ftrenuous for the motion ; and in- This was an advantage which was fsited that seven years was too long to be claimed not as a favour, but a period for any individual to be as a right. It belonged to the peoentrusted with the power of his con- ple, and ought not to be with-held ftituents. It would be right that from them. Ic ought now to be demembers should be sent frequently manded the more itrongły, as from back to those who had deputed them a late coalition, a poffibility might be to the house, that the electors might inferred, that a confederacy mighe have proper opportunities of thew. be formed to extend parliaments to ing them their approbation by re- ten or twelve years, or even to renpeared acts in their favour, or of der them perpetual. punishing their misconduct by dif- Notwithstanding the anxiety and mission and neglect. It was his keenness with which the motion of opinion that the members for the Mr. Sawbridge was supported, it was boroughs ought peculiarly to vote loft by a majority of 123 to 56. for the present motion ; because the

CH A P. XIII.

Taxes. Stamps on Bills of Exchange, Receipts, Probares of Wills and Ls

gacies, Bonds and Law Proceedings. Additional Tax on Stage Coaches,
and Diligencies. Duties on Contracts and Inventorirs, Turnpike Road and

Inclosure Bills, Quack Medicines, Carriages, Births, Marriages, and Deatha
Specification of the New Duties. Debates concerning thens.
26.

proposing the taxes, difagrecable nature of the business apologized to the house for the expresied his conciousness of its ex

sens

:

treme difficulty, he derived a con- mand, they were so expressed as to folation from the neceility there ex. have exactly this appearance. By isted for enabling government to dil: this extension of the tax, and this charge che intereit of the loan, regulation, he expected to raise Cenforming anxioully to the duties 44,000l. of his office, he had turned his His next tax regarded a matter thoughts to discover by what means which had been often deliberated a fund would be raised with certainty upon; but which had never been on the one hand, and with the least carried into execution. He alluded potlible inconvenience to the public to a tax upon receipts of every deon the other. He had thought of the nomination. The number of recuftoms and excise; but it seemed ceipts granted during the space of to him to be improper to augment a year must be immente; and if this the burdens of chose great branches tax could be protected against evaof the revenue, after a year of great fions, it would be productive to an natural distress. The scarcity of uncommon degree. He wished, corn was an acknowledged point, however, out of tenderness to the and to create burdens which would poor, to exempt from this duty all ultimately fall upon it would be un- bills for less than 40s. By this exwile and impolitic. It was from emption, he imagined, he should other quarters that he expected a remove every idea of distress and relief at present : and he truited that hardship from the lower conditions the objects upon which he had fix of the people. Upon all receipts ed, would appear as delirable to the for more than 40s. and under 201. house as they did to him.

he was desirous to lay a stamp duty The first objects of taxation he of 2d.: and upon all above 201. a proposed were bills of exchange. duty bf 4d. He stated the peculiar The stamp tax, with regard to them advantages of this tax to be, that it which had been imposed the pre- would fall lightly and generally; and ceding year, had been very produc- he believed that he would not be mistive. For this reason, he con- taken, if he hould make its proceived that it would bear a large in- duce to amount to 250,00ol. crease. It was therefore his opi. By a duty on probates of wills nion, that the duty Mhould be dou. and on legacies, he proposed to raise bled. The last year the tax had 40,cool. By a duty upon bonds, produced 56,ocol. and the additional warrants, law processes, and admifo duty would produce the same sum. fions to inns of court, he conceived To this tax it was his intention to that there might be raised the sun fubjeâ all promiffory notes, and of 60,000l. By a small additional bills of exchange drawn upon foreign tax on coaches and diligences, he countries. It was also his meaning thought that a revenue might acto take away an exception in the crue of 25,000l. From a duty on act of last year, which had opened contracts and inventories, he exa road to numberlels cvations. This pected the sum of 10,ooul. From exception was in favour of all bills

a tax on turnpike road and inclou drawn upon demand. Now under sure bills, an annual produce might the favour of this exception, means be received to the amount of bad been ingeniously cuotrived, that 20,0col. bills thould be so drawn, that though He then pointed to quack medi. they were aot in t:ct bills on de- cines, as a proper subject of taxation.

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It was right that the public should " That a stamp duty of one Chile derive fome compensation for the ling be laid upon every picce of velinjury which they suffered from lum or parchment, or sheet or piece pretenders to a skill in the medical of paper, upon which any bill of art. He therefore proposed to de- exchange, promiffory note, or other rive from quacks, and their medi- note, Niall be engroffed, written, or cines, the revenue of 15,000l. An printed, where the fum expreffed univerfal register of all carriages was therein, or made payable thereby, also suggelted by him. In conse. shall amount to the sum of fifty quence of this regulation, he con- pounds or upwards. ceived that all carriages not liable " That towards raising the supat prefent to any duty, should be re- ply granted to his majesty, a ftampgiftered, and fubjected to a duty of dury of two-pence be charged upon is. per wheel per year. He con- cvery piece of vellum or parch. tended, that this taxation would not ment, or theet or piece of paper, be heavy, as it would be no more upon which any receipt, or other tean 25. a year for a cart, and 4. difcharge, given upon the payment for a waggon. It would yet pro- of money amounting to two pounds, duce annually 25,000l. In the last and not amounting to the fum of place, he proposed a register of twenry pounds, shall be ingrossed, births, marriages, and deaths; and written, or printed, every fuch rethe amount of this regulation he ceipt to be charged with the said stated at the sum of 15,000l. Of dury. these different taxations he confider. • That towards raifing the supply ed that the produce would be fully granted to his majesty, an additional fufficient to extinguish the intereft stamp-duty of four-penee be charged of the late loan of twelve millions. upon any piece of vellum or parchCollecting together the sense and ment, or sheet or piece of paper, meaning of these taxes, he threw upon which any receipt or arher them into a series of refolutions, discharge, given upon the payment which he moved, and which were of money amounting to the sum of to the following purpose.

twenty pounds and upwards, Mall “ That the stamp-duties now be ingroffed, written, or printed, charged upon every piece of vellum every such receipt to be charged or parchment, or sheet or picce of with the said duty. paper, upon which any inland bill

w That towards raising the supply of exchange, promissory note, or granted to his majesty, an additional other notc payadle otherwise than stamp-duty of two shillings and lixe upon demand, do cease, determine, pence be laid upon every skin or and be no longer paid or payable. piece of vellum or parchment or

“ That a stamp duty of lix-pence Theet or piece of paper, upon which be laid upon every piece of vellum Arall be ingroffed, written, or printor parchment, or sheet or piece of ed, any receipt, or other discharge paper, upon which any foreign or for any legacy left by any will, or inland bill of exchange, promiffory orher testamentary inftrument, or for note, or other nore, shall be in- any share or part of a personal estate gro:Ted, written, or printed, where divided by force of the statute the sum expressed therein or made of distributions, or the custom of payable thereby, Mall not amount any province or place, the amount to the sum of fifty pounds whereof Thall not exceed the value of twenty pounds; and where the of his present majesty, (except bonds enouni ihall exceed the value of given as a security for the payınent twenty pounds, and not amount to of any sum or luins of money.) one hundred pounds, an additional “ That towards raising the supply ftamp-duty of five thillings; and granted to kis ir ajeity, an additienal where the amount thereof mhall be itamp-duty of five shillings be laid of the value of one hundred pounds upon every skin or piece of vellum or an additional stamp duty of twenty parchment, or Meet or piece of pafhillings; and a like additional per, upon which any bond thall be {tamp duty be charged upon every ingroffed, written, or printed, given further sum of one hundred pounds as security for any sum of money, So left by any will, or other tefta.. the amount whereof shall exceed one mentary instrument, or for any fliare hundred pounds; and an additional or part of a personal efate divided stamp-duty of ten thillings, where by force of the farute of distribu- the amount thereof Mall be of the tions, or the custom of any province value of five hundred pounds or or place.

upwards. " That towards raising the fup- " That towards raising the supe ply granted to his majesty, an addi- ply granted to his majesty, an additional itamp duty of twenty fhillings tional ftamp duty of fix pence be be laid upon every lkin or piece of charged upon every piece of vellum vellum or parchment, or iheet or or parchment, or meet or piece of piece of paper, upon which shall be paper, upon which shall be ingroffingroaed, written, or printed, any ed, or written, any original writ probate of a will, or letters of ad- (except such original upon which ministration for any estare, of or à writ of capias illues) subpæna, above the value of ore hundred bill of Middlefex, latitat, writ of pounds; and a further addicional capias, quo minus, writ of dedimus dury of twenty fillings where the potestatem, to take answers, exa. estate is of or above the value of mine witnefles, or appoint guarthree hundred pounds ; and a fur- dians, or any other wric whatsoever, ther additional duty of twenty fail. or any other process or mandate that lings where the estate is of or above shall illue out, or pass the seals of the value of lix hundred pounds; any of the courts at Weltminfter, and a further additional duty of courts of the great selfion in Wales, twenty shillings where the estate is courts in the counties palatine, or of or above the value of one thou. any other court whatsoever, holding sand pounds.

plea, where the debt or damage doth " That towards raising the fup- amount to forty shillings or above, or ply granted to his majesty, an ad. the thing in demand is of that value ditional Itamp-duty of one shilling (writs of covenant for levying fines, be laid upon every skin or piece of writs of entry for suffering common vellum or parchment, or sheet or recoveries, and writs of habeas core piece of paper, upon which shall be pus, always excepted.) ingrossed, written, or printed, in · That towards raising the sup. Great Britain, any indenture, lease, ply granted to his majeity, an ad. or other deed, for which a stamp- ditional stamp duty of forty shillings duty of one thilling and six-pence is be laid upon every skin or piece of payable by virtue of an act made vellum or parchment, or meet or in the seventeenth year of the reign piece of paper, upon which shall be ingrossed, written, or printed, any ingrossed, written, or printed, any dispensations to hold two ecclesiastic admittance, or instrument for admitcal dignities or benefices, or both a ting of any fellow of the college dignity and a benefice, or any other of physicians, or of any attorney, dispensation or faculty from the lord clerk, advocate, proctor, notary, or archbishop of Canterbury, or the other officer or officers, in any court master of the faculties for the time whatsoever in Great Britaiii, (not being,

being an annual officer in any corThat towards raising the sup- poration or inferior court whose ofply granted to his majesty, an ad-fice is under the value of ten pounds ditional stamp-duty of forty thillings per annum in salary, fees, or other be laid upon every skin or piece of perquilites.) vellum or parchment, or theet or " That towards raising the fuppiece of paper, upon which fall be ply granted to his majeits, an addiingrofied, written, or printed, any tional itamp-duty of four-pence be admission into any of the four innslaid upon every piece of vellum or of court,

parchment, or meet or picce of pa" That towards raising the sup- per, upon which Ihall be ingrofled, ply granted to his majelty, an ad- written, or printed, any note or bill ditional stamp-duty of four pounds of lading, which shall be signed for be laid upon every skin or piece of any goods or merchandizes to be vellum or parchment, or theet or exported. piece of paper, upon which shall be “ That towards raising the supingroffed, written, or printed, any ply granted to his majesty, an addiregister, entry, testimonial or certi- tional stamp duty of cight-pence be ficate, of the degree of utter ba- laid upon every skin or piece of velrifter, taken in any of the said four lum, or sheet or piece of paper, upon inns of court.

which fhall be ingroffed, written, or “ That towards raising the supply printed, any certificate or debengranted to his majesty, an additional iure for draiving back any customs itamp-duty of forty Quillings be laid or duties, or any part of any customs upon every fkin or piece of vellum or or duties, for or in respect of the parchment, or sheet or piece of paper, re-shipping or exporting of any upon which thall be ingroffed, writ. goods or merchandize which Mail be ten, or printed, any grant or letters exported, or shipped to be exported patent under the great feal of Great from Great Britain for any parts beBritain, or the seal of the duchy or yond the seas, county palatine of Lancaster, of any “ That towards raising the suphonour, dignity, promotion, fran- ply granted to his majesty, an addichilç, liberty, or privilege, to any tional stamp-duty of one filling be person or persons, body politic or laid upon every skin or piece of velcorporate, or exemplification of the lum or parchment, or licet or piece fame. (comıniffions of rebellion in of paper, upon which shall be in. process always excepted.)

grossed or written, any citation or “ That towards raising the sup- monition made in any ecclesiastical ply granted to his majesty, an addi- court, or any libel or allegation, țional ftamp duty of forty shillings deposition, answer, sentence, or final be laid upon every skin of piece of decree, or any inventory exhibited vellum or parchment, or meet or in any ecclesiastical court, the courts piece of paper, upon which fhall be of admiralty, ar cinque ports, or

where

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