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Their success was followed, on the unequal fucceffor in Tippoo. But in 13th of February, by the reduction India they have no idea of a delegated of the important fortress of Calicut. power, leis absolute than the supreme. Their ítrength however did The princes who governed Canara permit them to undertake any thing and M fore had no check upon farther, and things remained with any ambitious views with which this out any alteration in this part of event mig he inipire them. Their India till the month of August. tovereign was engaged in an arduous

Ac that time, a second detach- and expentive war. His subjects ment having arrived at Calieut, they were weary of the burdens inseproceeded from that fortress, and parable from that state. They had penetrated pretty deep in the south- a power at hand, with which it ern division of 1 fore. Tippoo would be easy to frame any alliance, crossed the peninsula, and arrived the tendency of which thould be to in their neighhoui hood with his subvert the empire of their mafusual celerita. it was with the ex- li required perhaps the intere treineft ditficulty they regained the cosition of good fortune, as well as sea-coast, and encamped near l'a. all the spirit and activity of Tippoo, nani. Their gallant adversary at- to counteract chele unfavourable cira tacked their lines. Here however cumitances. he was repulled b colonel Macleod, Hyder Ali Khan was born in the who had just tak n the command of year 1728., Never was there a man our forces, with confiderable lofs, lets marked with that effeminacy and The battle was fought in the clole listlessnets we are accustomed to conof November.

nect with Afiatic manners. He was The presidency of Bombay, un- born a soldier. In the midst of a derstanding the critical fituation of fumptuousnels of apparel and furni. their little arm: in Mysore, sent out ture, of which an European can general Matthews with an with difficulty form the idea, he was ment of two thousand men to its re., perfectly fimple, acceslible, and af. lief. This officer learned, upon his fable. He was unwearied in whare. passage, the victory of colonel Mac- ver he undertook, and examined ieod, and immediately resolved to almost every thing in person. Ex. land in Carara, which was more clufively of the pursuits of war and distant from the scene of action in ambition, his temper appears to the Carnatic, and, as he believed, have been equable, and his difmore pe:netrable than the southern position humane.

His mind was province. He arrived in the neigh, but little subject to the tinge of prebourhood of Onore in the end of judice. In general, he regarded the December.

subjects that came before him with An event the most favourable to

the eye of a citizen of the world. his success had just taken place. It He was much inclined to gaiety, was the death of Hyder, the Han- and turned almost every incident nibal of the British possessions in In- into cheerfulness and merriment, dia. It was not merely that his! His character was extremely affec. abilities would be wanted: he was at tionate, and his attachment to his rea distance from the scene of action lations and friends could not be in Canara : and it has already been exceeded. One feature in his porseen that be was provided with no trait is particularly interesting, bis

absolute

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abfolute ignorance of diflinulation. ral Matthews with making a private His manners were natural and frank, agreement with the viceroy, subseand the impression that was upper. quent to the general capitulation, by moft in his mind was always visible which that prince had been perin his countenance.

mitted to claim a considerable treaWe recurn to a less agreeable fub- sure that was at first destined for the ject, the operations of war.-Gene- plunder of the army. The general, ral Matthews stormed Onore on the in return, declared of his whole gth of January, 1783. In the fol. force, that they were “ loose and lowing week, colonel Maclec', with unfeeling as the most licentious freeas many troops as could be spared booters;" and infinuated, in no unfrom our positions in Myfore, are intelligible language, that colonel rived at ihat place on board the Macleod and his associates had been transports, which general Matthews extremely active in diffeminating had dispatched to the south to re- this peftiferous fpirit. The dejecceive him. The open country was rion, he added, which these pronow speedily reduced. Hyderna. ceedings, which struck immediately gur itself furrendered on certain fti. at his property and authority, had pulations between the British com- occafioned in the viceroy, was such mander and the viceroy of Canara. as to render it impossible to concert Mangalore and Carwa, two strong with him those measures which fortreffes on the coast, were taken might be necessary for the preservaby force, and this fertile and fa- tion of his conqueft. vourite kingdom was completely The prefidency of Bombay took subdued.

the most decided part with colonel Thus far the expedition of gene- Macleod. On the 27th of March ral Matthews is extremely brilliant, they determined to remove general and the reader is no doubt prepared Matthews from his command, and for the highest applauses of the ar- appointed colonel Macleod to fuc- a my under his command Unfortu. ceed him. In the mean time they nately these applauses cannot be be- received intelligence from general ftowed. The scene which is so beau- Matthews of a force collecting a. riful to a superficial view, contained gainst him, and the most preiling within itself the feeds of anarchy applications for a reinforcement. and confusion Colonel Macleod But, whether from inability, or the and some other officers left the vic- impreflion they felt from their disaptorious army in the midst of its probation of his conduct, no reinprogress, and retired to Bombay. forcement was prepared. Colonel The birtereit recriminations between Macleod, who left Bumbay on the the general and his officers succeed- 5th of April, took with him only ed this retreat. One point of dif- the Ranger cutter to convey him to pute between them was a matter of the fortrefs of Onore. rank. The commander was only a Tippoo, without evacuating the general upon the company's staff, forts of the Carnatic, marched the and colonel Macleod was a senior principal part of his army through officer in the king's lervice. An- the paties, and arrived before his other question respected the plunder capital in the beginning of April. of Tippoo's unfortunate subjects. Aíkirminh took place almost inmeThe disgusted others charged gene, diately between bis troops and the

English

war.

English, in which general Matthews changed. The bafis of the treaty had the advantage. But this was was a mutual restirution. We with: only preparatory to the more im- drew our protection from Ragoba, portant scenes that were to fucceed. and consented to replace Futty Sing By a capital piece of generalship, in the ticuation in which he had been Tippoo made himlelf master of two before the commencement of the paffes in the ridge of hills that di- We even connived at the reside Bednore from the sea-coast, and capture of Gualior, which we had thus cut off the possibility of our re- delivered to the raja of Gohud, by treat. General Matthews shut him. Madagi Sindia. self up in Hydernagur. His torce Immediately after the conclusion consisted of near 2,000 men. This of a peace, which might have been place, however, which had been ori- expected to be secure, in propora ginally taken without resistance, again tion to the flow and deliberare manfurrendered on the 3d of May to the ner in which it had becn framed, an victorious Tippoo. The fuba is faid, extraordinary event took place which

however, to have tarnished his fplen- had nearly thrown every thing into • did reputation by violating the terms confufion. Colonel Macleod, in his

of the surrender, and retaining the way to Onore, was obliged to pass unfortunate army in durance, after by a considerable extent of the Mahaving promised to suffer them to ratta territories. On the 8th day depart with the honours of war. In of May 1783, he was affailed by the mean time a wreck of our con- a number of armed vessels belong. quest remained to us in the ports of ing to the Maratta government ; Mangalore and Carwa. Tippoo im- and after a desperate defence of five mediately sat down before the first hours, in which himself was danand strongest of these.

gerously wounded, and several vaWe have already mentioned the luable officers killed, he was carried cessation of hostilities with the Ma- in triumph into the port of Ghe. rattas, which took place in the close ria. For some time no satisfaction of the year 1781. It had been pre- could be obtained. At length on ceded by a separate peace with Ma- the 27th of May colonel Macleod dagi Sindia, who from that moment and his companions were dismissed, seems to have become our cordial and returned to Bombay. By later ally. In the beginning of the year accounts we are informed that the 1782, he negociated with us a ge- ministry of the peshwa had made a Beral peace in the name of the Ma. more satisfactory apology. ratta states. The preliminaries were About the time in which general settled on the 17th of May. At the Matthews conquered the kingdom same time an eventual treaty of par- of Canara, a revolution is said to tition of Hyder's dominions was have taken place at Syringpatnam, agitated. These negociations how- the capital of Mysore, in favour of çver were suspended by an extraor- the forgotten raja. The detachdinary and alarming delay of the ment, that garrisoned the province ratification on the part of the of Tanjour, was ordered upon this peshwa. The ceremony at length occasion to penetrate into Mysore ; took place on the 20th of Decem- and they successfully attacked some ber; and on the 24th of February of the towns nearest to Tanjour. 1783, the ratifications were ex. In the midst of their progress they

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were recalled to join the grand are general Stuart. This officer, on the my at Madras, who had now a 7th of June sat down before lud. new enemy to encounter in M. de dalore. For some time the fiege was Bussi, governor of Mauritius, just carried on with great spirit and perarrived with a reinforcement of severance. But general Stuart had 3,500 French troops. It was for. not only the garrison from within to tunate that this celebrated and hoary contend witn, bur from without the chief did not arrive till a few days marquis de Bulli and admiral Suffrein. after the occasion that had so cri- A Night engagement took place on tically called Tippoo out of the the 20th, between this officer and Carnatic.

fir Edward Hughes, which made no General Coote, who had wintered alteration in the ítate of affairs. The at Bengal, deterinined once more progress of the contest must have to pass to Madras, though his con- been ruinous ; it could scarcely be ftitution was fo broken, that it was productive. Fortunately, to prenot expected he could live to com- vent the effusion of human blood, plete the voyage. He arrived how- the news of peace arrived at Madras ever on the 24th, and expired on on the 25th, and a ceffation of hofti. the 26th of April. By his death lities was completely settled on the the command devolved on major 4th of July,

CHAP

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America. Fate of the Loyalists. Resignation of Washington. Its Finance and

Ireland. Affairs of the Unfortunate Genevese. Scotland. Controverly of Lay Patronage, &c. HE contest, which for so long mitted to when introduced under the

a time fixed our attention on venerable fanction of precedent; but the military transactions of our late the most moderate exertions are un colonists, being happily terminated; willingly admitted in a new and unour curiofity is naturally turned to practised fovereignty. The general their civil affairs, the operations of congress of the United States, contheir constitution, the fpirit of their vinced of these truths, were sensible proceedings, and the degree of har. to the necessity of discharging a conmony or rivalship that subfists be- fiderable part of their burdens in tween neighbouring states. Such as directly by anticipations and the have taken a part in our intestine operations of finance. One of the dissenfons are interested in the sub- first resources they employed was ject, because it tends to decide whe. that of issuing paper currency. But ther it was fit in policy to yield their as they posseiled no means of main, independency, or poflible yet to have taining its credit, it funk by degrees torn from them this tavourite jewel. into such a state of depreciation, as The fpeculative politician must be to occafion the greatest inconveni. defirous to be informed respecting encies, and at length to become almost their fituation, because it is inti- entirely useless. They then recurred mately connected with the question to the more useful method of loans, of the comparative excellence of a which were negociated both at republican government. And to all home and abroad, to a considerable it has the grace of novelty. Their amount. constitution is yet in a state of incor- But in spite of all the resources rectness and infancy; their rank they could invent, their difficulties among the nations is unfixed; and increased. To have some idea of they are the firit enlightened people, these it is only necessary to recur in who have formed for themselves an the most cursory manner to the state independent government in the wel- published by congress of their retern hemisphere.

ceipts and disbursements for the year The subject of revenue is ever an 1782. For the service of this year important branch in the history of that allembly had stated the neces, modern nations, and circumstances fary revenue at 1,800,000l. Of this have occurred to make it particu- sum only 94,5001. were raised by larly interesting in the case before the respective colonies, 187,500l. us. The Americans have had in were borrowed in France and Hol. their outset an extensive and obsti- land, and there were 69,750l. in the nate war to support, which 'neces. public treasury at the commence. sarily demanded the greatest ex- ment of the year: the whole a. pence. As a people, they were mounting to 351,750l. This scanty by no means opulent. And then pittance scarcely exceeded the mere all authority is founded in opinion. expence requisite for feeding their The most pernicioys abuses are sube ariny, and was nearly doubled by

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