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settle in another province, first pro. fhameless and undisguised the providing a substitute, that the culture jects of his ambition, it is not to be of the lands Mould not be impeded; denied that his reign has been an and that it shall be lawful for every extensive benefit to the natives of person to follow the art of his own bis hereditary dominions. We have choice without molestation. More lately seen an account drawn up by lately a new arrangement was made one of his ministers, by which it in law.proceedings for the advantage appears, that 2,000,000 of crowns of the fubject; the fees of the law have been expended by this prince yers being fixed at a very moderate in 1782, (and it should seem, that ancount, and a penfion granted them the disbursements of that kind in in lieu of their friner emoluments this year do not at all exceed those out of the imperial treasury. of twenty preceding years) in

The celebrated monarch of Prusia, draining marthes, rebuilding cities, though declining falt in the vale of establishing manufactories, fettling years, ftill exhibits the symptoms of colonies, relieving dilrels, and in that fingular character that has al. the other purposes of true philanways belonged to him. Two oc- thropy and extensive policy. At currences of the year 1783, other- the same time we are informed that wise inconsiderable, may on this ac. this able fovereign has not given count deserve to be mentioned. A less attention to the subjects of comletter of the king has been published, merce and navigation." The trade addressed if one of his nobility, who of Pruffia has increased so much in requested a commission in the army the course of this year, that the for his lon. I have given orders number of its fhips, which have some time since," replied the prince, paised the sound, and navigated the " that no persons of rank be ad- different feas of Europe, as far as the mitted in my armies; as such, after straits of Gibraltar, approaches that a campaign or two, generally retire of the five great

maritime powers, to their eitates, where they enjoy and even furpasses the number of the reputation of having been in merchant ships of all the rest of the service. If your son chufes to Europe taken together." be a soldier, his title will avail hiin The republic of the United Pronothing for preferment. If any of vinces had long been torn by inour men of fashion should by chance teftine factions; and an unfortunate. prove useful to his country, he will war had served to cherith the seeds have no occasion to plume himself of civil dissension. The natives, upon his quality. Titles and birth conscious to the languid and ingloare nothing but vanity and folly: rious proceedings of a country, that true merit is personal." About the had formerly iminottaliled herself same time hc published a rescript by her naval operations, were not declaring it to be his pleasure that willing to impute the alteration to no knceling Mould in future be any universal degeneracy, but cx practised in honour of his person ; clained with indignation and energy afligning for his reason that this act against those who poffefed the execuot humiliation was not due but to live departments of the itate. Their the Divinity.

prosecution of Lewis duke of Brunt. Whatever be the personal faults wick, field-marthal of the repúblic, of this sovereign, and however has already been detailed in the former volumes of this work; and ceffant. They did not confine the discovery, that his errors and themselves to the public mealurcs misconduct found shelter under the that were calculated to tarnish his wings of the stadt holder was not at reputation ; private and anonymous all calculated to compose their angry libels were also industriously dissemipaflions, and footh their fufpicions nated, containing the most injurious into filence.

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reflections upon the stadıholder, and From the first institution of the the princess his confort, and destined States General there have sublitted to undermine their influence and two parties in the confederated pro. authority. In the mean time the vinces, the aristocratical, and that immediate project of the states seemed of the stadtholder; and, as the one to point at nothing less than stripor the other have prevailed, this ping the prince of Orange of his prince has become nearly absolute, prerogatives, as hereditary captain or been wholly expelled from his and admiral general of the United dominions. Human events do not Provinces. An occasion was prealways follow the predictions of syf- fently furnished for them to bring tem or the dreams of philosophy; forward their pretenfions. and accordingly the aristocratical In the course of the campaign party in Holland has uniformly been 1782, a man of low rank, a garfavoured by the defpot of France, dener, applied to ensign de Witte, while the power of the stadtholder a young officer, Itationed to guard has been abetted by the free sons of an out-post on the island of Shocen, Britain. The vulgar could not more in the province of Zealand, to fareadily account for the feeble and vour a descent of the English upon unfortunate conduct of the war, the island in which he commanded. than by imagining there was foul For some time they concerted togeplay at the bottom. The states, ther the most effectual measures to who had lost some ground by involve promote the success of the expediing their country in an unpopular tion; but a short time before the pccontest

, eagerly laid hold of this riod proposed for its execution, the idea; endeavoured to lead the cry gardener repaired to the grand penand it was now generally whispered, tionary of Holland, and discovered that the stadtholder was under the to him every particular of the coninfluence of improper partialities, spiracy. Upon this intelligence, and that the duke of Brunswick was de Witte was arrested, conveyed an actual pensioner of the court of prisoner to the Hague, and cried for Britain.

i his crime by the high court of war, The very disposition to engage in the first military tribunal in the measures of hoftility was a sure indi. United Netherlands cation of the preponderance of the. There was little room to doubt of aristocracy; and the court of Lon- the guilt of the prisoner, and in don by a declaration of war, before the course of the proceedings he the step was actually determined, confessed every circumstance of his probably threw new weight into the criminality. He informed the court scale of the states. They felt their that he had promised his feducer, fi: uation, and were resolved to make that, on an appointed day in the use of it. Their atracks upon the month of October, he would eu. prince of Orange and his minister deavour to have the sole command were regular, well conducted and in- at Browers-Shoven and the adjoin

ing battery; that he had informed guilt of a traitor to his country in per. him verbally and in writing, of the feet impotency and inconsequence. number of batteries in the island, The transactions of Holland were their guns, their weight of metal, not beheld with an eye of indifferand by how many officers and men ence by the neighbouring powers. they were guarded; that he had gi- The king of Pruffia in particular ven him a linall chart of the island, repeatedly interfered in behalf of in which the fand-banks, flats and his nephew the stadtholder, and was depth of water were incorreétly desirous, by the weight of his aupointed out, and had promised to thority, perhaps by the terror of his furnish him with one more accu. arms, to mollify the apparent deter. sate : at the same time he strenu- mination which the assemblies ex. oufly denied his having any accom- hibited to diminith the prerogatives plices. In consequence of this con- of their forereign. A riot had hap. feflion, the court found him guilty, pened in November 1782, in favour and proceeded to pass sentence on of the prince of Orange: for the their prisoner.

populace were still attached to that In this stage of the business the illustrious house, who had been such matter was taken up by the states of eminent benefactors to their coun. Holland and West Friesland. In the try; and some of the delinquents night of the 26th of December, having taken refuge in the duchy 1782, the unfortunate officer was of Cleves, the states complained to secretly removed from the prison of the king of Pruttia of the protection the court of war to the prison of the extended to them. But that mocivil department. And on the 4th narch, far from vouchsafing them of May following, after that tedi. the answer they desired, embraced ousness of deliberation, which chathis new opportunity, to exhort racterises the government of this them" not to suffer themselves by country, they abrogated the sentence, groundless jealousies to be precipi. and suspended the high court of war, tated into hasty resolutions, but on in conlideration of various instances the contrary, to exert theinselves to in which they had intrenched upon oppose a dangerous and factious [pithe civil jurisdiction, from the ex- rit of innovation. ercise of their functions, till the In the midst of these convulsions pleasure of the states general thould of two old and rooted parties in the be known upon the subject. This republic, a third party has arisen, determination was particularly of- snimated by the example of North fentive to the Itadihoider, who pre- America, and by that spirit of lie fented a very pointed remonftrance 'berty and independence, which has upon the subject. In the mean time lately diffused itself in the world, it is not a little fingular, that this in favour of democracy. The lanconspiracy, which gave occasion to guage of pure republicanism has such important proceedings, has at been held by its citizens. They length appeared by the confession of have publicly talked of chusing dethe informer, to be purely his own legates, and afferting the rights of invention; he having inveigled the nature. Their merchants and manuyoung officer in hopes of the reward facturers have taken tothe use of arins, promised to the discovery of treas and are daily improving theintelves iun, who on his lide incurred all the in military discipline. To judge froin

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the auspicious contagion that has to fav, one more fuch revolution been caught from the revolution in would give freedom to the world. America, we Mhould be almost ready

CHAP. XXII.

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Detail of the French Finances, and of the Caisse d'Escompte. State of the French

Court. Measures of the Court of Spain. Earthquake in Calabria.
HE principal event in the hil- M. Necker merited all the ap-

tory of France for the year plauses he received. He was ap1783 is the failure of the celebrated pointed to the fuperintendance of caisse d'escompte. This has been the finances in the close of the year generally contidered as and object of 1776, and, though the government the highest importance, and little bad then enjoyed an entire peace of less than equivalent to a national thirteen years, he did not find them bankrupty. We had heard much in a very flouriling situation. Pube of late years of the good order of the lic 'credit had received 4 severe French finances : and the praises of rock from some transactions of the Necker, the director general, had Iait years of Louis XV, and in the been founded from one end of the very year that was terminated by globe to the other. The fudden putting the administration into the and unexpected reverse has but hands of Necker, the receipts of struck mankind with so much the the treasury royal fell short of the greater force: they have imputed disburlements by one million fterito this distinguished ftatelinan the ing. - The year 1777 was in fact a arts of a mountebank, have fufpect- year of war to the treasury by the ed his most boasted improvements great preparations that were made of being visionary and unreal, and for that purpofe, and the following inferred from this event a new cen- years of adminiitration were years of fure of that pacification, upon which actual war. fo many of our countrymen haven' In this fituation, M, Necker was been solicitous to fasten an indeliable the first to apply that most respectodiun. The event we havc men- able of all maxims of finance, that rioned is of contiderable moment: '

economy is the fureit fource of a. and were it of much leis, these cir- bundance, He found in Louis XVI. cumstances would have tendered it prince ready to second his patrioextremely proper for us to go into tic views; and by operations of this somé derail upon the subject. The' and other kinds, which cannot here news of the day is commonly suco be detailed, he was able to change cessful enough in communicating to the excess of disbursements of the us unreasonable alarms and rem- year 1776 into an excess of reporary panics, without being after- venue in the year 1786, to the wards extremely alliduous to draw amount of 445,00cl. And, though aside the veil of error, or dislipate in 1776, in full peace, a four per the mist of astonishment. We will cent. stock fold at fixty, producing enter into a slight retrospect in our of course to the tockholders an inelucidation of the subject,

tereft of fix and five eighths per

cent,

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cent. upon their monev, M. Necker a prosperity of revenue altogether was able with ease to make a loan unexampled, to the verge of banko in 1780 at an advantage of only fix ruptcy. In what degree the sufper cent per annum to the fub. pension of payment in the caille fcribers.

d'escompte authorises unfavourable : Such was the fate of things, infcrences respecting the general state when this excellent financier laid of the French finances, remains for his fanious Compte Rendu au Roi us to enquire. before the public. An appeal of This celcbraced bank is of very this kind, as the venerable author late institution. The edict that au. observes, was fo memorable; of such thorised the undertaking is dated on 1 public notoriety, and.capable of de. the twentv-second of September rection by to many perions, if it 1776. The plan was originally bad involved any in itances of falle- formed by a company of private ad. hood or misreprefentation, that it. venturers, and its capital was fixed may well be ariniered for authentic. as 500,oool. Its profeiled design Since that time atfairs have not 1:9- was to discount (escompter) bills of bably buen fo well conducted. The exchange, payable at two or three facts ftared in M. Necker's publi- ' months after dare, at the rate of Cation were not controverted, but four per cent. per annum. But this the performance ittelf was extreine- : intereit

, from which it is neceffary ly utensive to his brother ministers. to deduct a confiderable expence Though it does not appear that he and some losses, could never be an cold any thing but the truth, he was equivalent for the capital fúnk by accuted of arrogating too much to the proprietors. An addicional himielf, and attributing too little to power was therefore granted them his colleagues in adminittration. In of issuing notes to the amount of a word, the piece, that will do hin their capital, which, as they were: immortal honour with posterity, capable at any time of being conprocured luis dismission from othice. verted into specie, might be often From that period our docuinents are voluntarily taken by their customers less deciuve and satisfactory in their from mere convenience. And, as nature. We only know, that, by the perfuns at the head of this efta. the usual contequence of fueh dif. blishment were chiefly the most opu. miffions, many of the reforms he lent bankers, together with some bad carried into execution were fu- receivers-general of the revenues, perseded, and many of the abuses they were able, by agreeing among be destroyed restored. We know themselves, to take these notes in that fince his resignation, the post lieu of cash, to give them a certain of comptroller-general has been suc- degree of circulation and currency. ceffively filled by three different per. The notes thus issued, added to the sons, a circumftance from which original 500,oool. doubled their ca. we are not apt to infer any great pital, and enabled them to divide regularity of system, or 'wildom of upon their ttock at the rate of about adminiftration. But it is not na. Six per cent. per annum. tural to fuppofe, however the excellent outlines of this fys. steady or injudicious we may con- tem seemed to insure its success. ceive to have been the conduct of There was always in the caisse a ministers, that the kingdom should sum of money, either in specie, or have funk in fo bort a time, from in bills of a fort date, of 300,000l.

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