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CHA P. XXI,

Affair of the Crimea. Alliance of the Courts of Petersburgh and Vienna. A

Compromise effected by the Mediation of France. Resignation of the Khan. Preparations for war. Measures of the Emperor and the King of Prufia. Diffenfions in Holland.

TH
HE enterprising character of khan was expelled; and a new fo-

the empress of Russia, and vereign placed upon the throne, with the steps she is continually taking the approbation, as it should seem, for the melioration of her domini of the majority of his countrymen. ons and the extenfion of hèr com- This irregularity however was merce, are well understood. We speedily rectified by the express in ourselves have been the witnesses of tervention of the Russian arms; and this unquestionable truth, and have the Turks, disgusted with their late felt in our turn, that the prepoffef- miscarriages, and conscious, it may fions of amity and alliance have lito be, of inteftine imbecility, confeni. tle weight in her deliberations; ed by an explanatory convention to when opposed to the aggrandisement restore every thing to its former of her crown, and the interest of her condition. kingdoms. It is not therefore to be In the year 1782; this very scene wondered at, if the year, whose was acted once again. The new events we are relating, should have khan, it was said; under the protec. added one fresh example to the many tion of Ruffia, had uscirped upon instances in which Me has proved the privileges of his fubje&ts, and herself a spirited princess and a cone attempted io render himself more fummate politician.

despotic than any of his predecessors. One of the principal advantages Exasperated by a series of vexathat accrued to her from the peace tions, his tribe combined in the the concluded in the year 1774 project of a general rebellion, and with the Ottoman Porte, contifted the consequence was his being dein its declaring independent the khan posed from the sovereignty. These of the Crimean Tartars, who had disturbances, as well as the former, hitherto been always subordinate to were said to be fomented by cmisla. the court of Constantinople. As at ries from the Porte; and, if the evi. the same time the czarina placed dence of her imperial majefty is to upon the Tartar throne a prince, be admitted in this case, a detachwho was understood to be in ment of Turkish troops actually her interests, it was commonly took up their quarters in Taman, an supposed that this nominal indepen. ifland in the straits of Kaffa, and dency was little less than a subjec. even beheaded an officer, sent by the tion to the crown of Petersburgh. khan to enquire into the motives of It was not long however after this their arrival in his territories. peace, which was to give tranquillity The difficulties under which we to fo extensive dominions, beforo labour, in professing to record the a rebellion broke out in the Crímea, events of each year a few months which the czarina ascribed to the after its expiration, are obvious. We machinations of the Turks. The are not indeed vain enough under these circumstances to rank ourselves peror against the Turks, the object in the class of regular historians ; . of which was magnified by fome. and we aspire to no more than to fa politicians into a design of expelling tisfy one of the most natural of all them from all their dominions in paflions, a curiosity after recent Europe. They certainly intended events, in a manner, more connect. to render Walachia and Moldavia ed, more amusing, and somewhat independent on the fide of Hungary, lesá liable to the groflest deceptions, and to obtain for the Ruffians the than can be expected from the news undisturbed navigation of the Euxof the day. In the present case, the ine, together perhaps with that of the conduct we are taught to ascribe to Danube for the Austrians, and from the Turks Mould seem very incon- thence through the Hellespont into fiftent with that wisdom by which the Mediterranean. If they had their councils are said to have been attained these objects with facility, guided in recent instances. One of it is probable they would not easily the first objects of policy to a good have been persuaded to stop in their administration is to decide between career, and the present league was the system of war and the system of compared to that for the partition of peace. If the Porte were inclined Poland, which had in the same manto retrieve their reputation by the ner been formed, when Europe in way of arms, undoubtedly the diffa- general was exhausted by a long and tisfaction of the Crim Tartars with ruinous war. In the mean time the the changes in their fituation afford. warlike preparations of the Ruflians, ed them a very advantageous open the Turks, the emperor of Gering; but then the underhand as- many, and even tlie king of Prussia, fistance administered to their late were carried on with inuch diligence subjects ought to be supported with on all fides. a clear and dignified line of conduct. The first regular proceeding which If they wished; as is more probable, the allied powers made in concert, by a continuance of tranquillity to was in the delivery of two memorecover from their losses, they should rials, in the close of the year 1782, furely have avoided giving the small to the Ottoman Porte, infifting that eft umbrage to their powerful neigh- that court must not henceforth interbours. On the other hand, the all- fere with the affairs of the Crimea, grasping ambition of the court of nor encroach upon the prerogatives Petersburgh is well known, and it is of the princes of Moldavia and Wanot expected that they would in all lachia, nor oppose the free navigacases be careful to cover their usur- tion of the Euxine. The style of pations with the semblance of juf- these memorials was doubtless sometice. The internal evidence would what peremptory, and could not lead to decide without hesitation that easily be digested by the Turkish the Ruffians were the aggressors; but hauteur. At this time the Ottoman it must be acknowledged the contrary court was divided into two factions, idea is supported with so much pre- one whose views were directed to. cision of circumstance, that it is im- wards peace, at the head of which possible for us at this distance to re- was the grand vizier; the other de. fute it.

these

firous of war, under the controul of In this situation, the czarina, hav. the capitan pacha. This last seems ing first restored her tributary khan, for some time to have been predomi. catered into an alliance with the em- nant.

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In this fituation the court of had already covered the Caspian Sea, Versailles, faithful to the connexion and the expected soon to penetrate that has sublisted for time immemo- into the larger and more conspicurial between her and the Porte, ous scene afforded by the Mediterthought it necessary to interfere ; rancan. and as they had to do in the present In this ftuation an unexpected instance with enemies fainous for incident called her attention anew to their inflexibility, the applied her. the subject of war. Sahim Gherai, self to persuade the Turks to fub- khan of Crimea, disgusted at his mit, and endeavour to obtain the fituation between two rival empires, beft terins they could, apprehensive moriified at the alienation of his left a longer contest under such evi- subjects, naturally of a feeble mind, dent difadvantages, might only in- and now debilitated with disease, duce the new allies to infift upon tignified his desire of religning his feverer terms. The acquiescence of crown into the hands of the czathe grand tignior was accordingly riva. For some time the Ruffian refognified to the imperial crowns, and tident in the Crimea did every thing letters of acknowledgment were soon in his power to diffuade him from after addreffed by them to the count his purpose. The determination of de Vergennes, the French minister, Sahim was unalterable, and Catheprincipally concerned in this trant- rine resolved once for all to take the action, in which among other ex- peninsula, together with the island preffion's of gratitude, the czarina of Taman, and the province of Cu. bestowed upon him the appellation ban Tartary on the other lide the of the Pacificator of Europe. straits, under her own immediate ad.

For some time it is probable the ministration. The manifesto decla. empress of Russia was contented with ratory of this resolution is dated on this advantageous conclusion of so the eighth day of April. arduous a business

She had gain- From this moment affairs afTumed ed very important conceffions, and a more hostile appearance than ever. conceflions of which the had enter- The court of Constantinople, far rained but little expectation, with. fron tamely digesting this new atout their having cost her one drop tack, by which all her recent wounds of blood. But if in one view the were wantonly laid open, replied to case with which they were obtained, the Ruflian nianifefto with an anienhanced the value of these advan- mation and energy that would have tages, in another it only served to done honour to any court in the awaken a more comprehentive am- world. What pretensions of right, bition. She could not decently hold say they, “can her imperial majetty furth larger pretenfions at the com. have to territories, annexed for ages mencement of a war, but it is pro- to the dominion of the Porte ? bable her views were not limited to Would such claims on any part of the claims specified in her memorie the Ruffian empire not be instantly al. She was willing however to fit refifted ? And can it be presumed down for a moment to suffer the new that the sublime Porte, however defituation the had gained to unfold it. firous of peace, will acquiesce in self, and to cultivate that extenfive what ambition may term policy, plan of commerce to which the was but justice and equity would deem to passionately attached. Her ficers usurpation? What northern power

Í GN HISTORY

Y. ibt has the Porte offended? Whose ter. tween the courts of Madrid and Cono fitories have the Ottoman troops ftantinople, in which it was expreff. invaded ? In the country of what ly stipulated, that the former power prince is the Turkish ftandard dif- should not suffer any Ruffian thips to played? Content with the bounda- enter the Mediterranean, in cate of ries of empire assigned her by God a war, between the Porte and the and his prophet, the wishes of the czarina. Porte are for peace; but, if the Nor was this a mode of proceedcourt of Ruffia be determined in her ing that ought to surprise that po. claims, and will not recede without tentate. In the instruinent of the an acquisition of territory which armed neutrality, fabricated by the does niit belong to her, the sublime court of Petersburgh; it was laid Porte, appealing to the world for down as a principle, “that without the justice of her proceedings, muit the consent of the northern powers prepare for war, relying on the de- a single cannon should not be crees of heaven, and consident of fired in the Baltic. It was natural the interpofition of the prophet of enough for the southern powers, prophets, who will protect his faith. whose dominions bordet upon the ful servants in the hour of every Mediterranean; to conclude, that difficulty."

they had an equal right to make The ipirit displayed by the court laws, and create exclusive priviliges of Conftantinople upon this occafion, for the fea that washes their respecwas probably in a great measure orv- tive dominions. It must be acknowing to the decided part the court of ledged however to be galling enough France seemed now ready to take in for the czarina, to behold the cause the controversy. A fleet of twelve of England revenged by her most fail of the line were preparing avowed enemy,

and ihe power with great affiduity in the port of which had benefited moft by that Toulon, whole destination was re. celebrated measure, the first to turn ported to be the protection of the its maxims against their author. Levane trade, at the same time that It being now fufficiently apparent a confiderable body of troops were that the Ottoman Porte was not in to take poffeffion of the island of a condition absolutely helpless and Candia, of which the Turks were to destitute of all resource, the court make a temporary cession during the of Versailles once more offered its war. The Ruffian ambassador hav. mediation to the czarina, to settle ing formally demanded, for what the new misunderstanding that had purpose, immediately after the con- arisen berween her and the Porte. clufion of peace with Great Britain, But the language of the Ruffians was his majesty was preparing fo confié not less decifive upon this occation, derable an armament at Toulon, re. than that of the Turks had been a ceived for answer, " that the most little before. “ They had not Chriftian king was resolved not to given the Porte any cause of compermit any foreign power to send its plains; wherefore then should they {quadrons into the Mediterranean to fear a rupture ? Crimea, the Cuban, interrupt che commerce of his fub- &c. which her majesty' has united je&ts." This was not a sudden or to her empire, were free and inde. indigested incarure, fiace so long pendent countries; therefore all ago as the month of December 1782, mediation upon that fubject is sua treaty bad been entered into be. perfluous. If her iinperial majesty 1783.

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should by any unjust aggression be In the mean time this new object obliged to maintain her right by at- of the Austrian exertions did not din tacking the grand fignior in his own vert the attention of his imperial madominions, she would then gladly jest: from his favourite objart of reaccept the mediation of France, as ligious reformation, and the converthe most effectual method to prevent fion of the exorbitant revenues of the effusion of blood, and conciliate the church to supply the disbursethe interests of the two empires." ments of the state. Seventeen ad

Such was the resolute face put ditional monasteries were supprefied by all the powers concerned upon in the lower Auttria, and the numthis new lubject of discullion. But ber of these establishments abolified notwithstanding the threatening ap, in the Netherlands have been stated pearanccs, which were caiculated at the incredible amount of one to strike the superficial obferver, the hundred. At the same time an epolitician, who regarded the state of dict was printed against the order of chings with an attentive eye, was hermirs, and by another the righes able to discern various symptoms of sepulture were extended to every which seemed to indicate an ap- . branch of religionists. The king proaching settlement. The Turks of Prussia and the czarina, ever atb.:d felt too severely the scourge of tentive to the proceedings of their war to be in haste to renew a scene neighbouring princes, and eager it which might bring on the most tra- may be to seize thole advantages, gical cataltrophe; and the Ruflians which in fome kind or other, every hoped to secure that by the milder fpecies of decisive policy, however process of negociation, which they mature and judicious, must be conwere less willing to commit to the tented to sacrifice, have taken the uncertain chance of war. Month catholic religion under their partiafter month rolled on in the same cular protection. By the former a state of dubious fufpence, and the circular levier was addrefied to his feason of action closed, without any prelates, aliuring them that the definite itep having been taken to privileges of their communities wards the establishment of peace, but ihould remain in violate so long without either parties having pro. as their conduct was inoffensive; ceeded to actual hostilities.

and the latter entered into a neWhile the court of Petersburgh gociation with the Pope in the was engaged in these advantageous spring of this year, for the more re. transactions, that of Vienna kept gular fettlement of the unfortunate pace with her ally in recruiting her order of Jefuits in the various proinilitary force, and in those move. vinces of her empire. ments upon her frontiers, which But the enterpries of the empe. were calculated to inspire the ap- ror upon the subject of reform have prehenfion of impending hi ftility. not been restricted to the object It was still doubtful however, whe- of religion, or the views of inthér the emperor was determined terest. In the cowmencement of to attack the Ottomans in concert the year an edict was published with Ruflia, or whether his princi. abulishing the remains of servitude pal design was 'not, ty alming and villanage in the imperial do. a hostile appearance in lo cri cal a minions, by which it was exprefily juncture, to cmpel the luiks to providel, chat every fubject of Au. purchase his neutrality by sumc im. itria sivuld be at liberty to quit the portant concetlions.

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