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ties and age precluded them from he would give his directions to carry farther exertions.

it into execution. This regulation was followed by

The commons proceed. Junc 18. a measure not less humane and li- ing in the national affairs, beral. Lord Mulgrave stated the lord John Cavendish brought formiserable condition of the widows ward. " A bill for taking away from of the officers of the navy, and the commissioners of Excise in Engftrenuously contended that a pro- land and Scotland the power of comper relief should be administered to pounding with persons making malt them. An attempt fo reasonable was not to sell, but to be consumed in feconded and applauded froin every their private families.” quarter. It was accordingly re- To this bill it was objected by Mr. Colved by the house, “ That an Hill, that it would infringe upon the humble address thould be presented liberty of the subject. To allow exto his majesty, humbly to beseech cilemen to enter into private houses bis majefty, that he will be gra- at their pleasure was an act of tycioully pleased to take the case of rannic power. Against the bill therethe poor widows' of captains, lieu- fore there was in full force all the ar. tenants and masters of his majesty's guments which had been applied, a. navy into his confideration, and to gainst the cyder-tax; and what had make such farther and certain pro- been faid on that occation by the vision for their support, in addition great lord Chatham, might now be to the proportion which they are at repeated with the greatest propriety, present intitled to, of the three. It was observed by that consumpence in the pound on the pay of mate politician,

“ That every Eng. commission and warrant officers, and lifhman's house, however mean it of the wages and victuals of the wi. might be, was his castle. If it dows men, when such proportion were a wretched dod hovel without Thall not amount to forty-five pounds either door or window; if it were per annum for a captain's widow, even such a one as the rain and the and thirty pounds per annum for a wind could enter, still the king could lieutenant's and master's widow, as not enter. Thus the poor man's his majesty in his great wisdom thall hut was his afylum, and place of think fit, so as that the said annuis fecurity; not because it was garry, including the aforesaid propor. risoned by walls and bulwarks, but tion of the three-pence in the pound, because it had no need of such proand of the wages and victuals of the tectors; fince the laws of a free widows men to each captain's widow country were his defence and proshall not execed forty five pounds tection against the visits of arbitrary per annum, and to each lieutenant's invaders." and master's widow thirty pounds It was contended that as the perper annum; and to assure his ma- sons compounding for the malt dujesty that this house will make good ty committed fo many frauds, the such expence as shall be incurred on right should be taken from them., that account."

To hold out this fact and concluThis address was received most fion as an argument, did not appear graciously by his majesty ; and the to him to be proper. He would be earl Ludlow was commanded by equally just in affirming, that all him to report to the commons that honest men should be banged from

the fear that any rogue hould es- to discover and to prevent them? cape. Because some frauds were The neglect of government was not committed, was it right to involve the fault of the nation; and it was the innocent with the guilty? Was infinitely cruel, that its negligence it not a violation of justice to de- should be a foundation for heavy prive an honest man of the privi- taxation. ledge of compounding for his malt, Mr. Kenion opposed the bill, on because his roguish neighbour fold the principle that it introduced a the malt for which he compounded?. new system of revenue laws. It This method of proceeding was as went to the establishment of

ge. inhuman as that of Herod, who neral excile. Now the wit of the commanded that all the young chil- most ingenious man could not prove dren throughout Bethlehem Thould that any other argument of weight be put to death, in order that the had been employed against the cyder facred infant fhould not escape. tax, but that it was in effcer a geThe expedient was dreadful ; yet neral excise. The bill, according. the merciless tyrant failed of biş ly, ought to be cousidered with ihe purpose. It was his wish that every greatest attention. If a tax on cyfimilar expedient should be inef- der was an oppreflive tax, the opefe&ual. The bill in its spirit was ration of the present bill would not totally opposite to the temper and be less fo. The fame reasonings genius of the English constitution; were applicable against both. The and he could not think of it for one precedent too, was to the highest moment without horror and indig. degree hazardous. For if the bill nation.

passed, a cyder-tax would soon fol. Mr. Hafiey pronounced the bill low; and extensions of the excise to be just and necessary. No real laws take place, to the most cruel inor folid argument could be stated jury of the country. againg it. The point it held in view Lord Surrey could not conceive was the security of the revenue ; and, that there was any thing in the hill under our present circumstances, if which ought to raise an alarm. To its collection was not rendered effi- a tax on cyder, he considered it not cacious, the decline of the nation as the chief objection that it threw must ensue.

open private houses to the officers of Mr. Pultney could not cousider the cxcise. There were against it the bill as the regulation of a tax, arguments far more forcible. Cyder, but as the imposition of a new tax in the counties where it was comon the subject. The law enacted mon, ought invariably to be condthat gentlemen should have a power dered as on the same footing with of compounding for the malt-tax. milk in other countries. It was by Now the tendency of the present bill no means a proper article of excise: was to abrogate one tax, and to im. As to the composition which the bill pose in its place a new and an odi- under deliberation was to take away, ous one. The țhing was in itself it was destructive to the revenue. unjustifiable: and the pretence for The annual amount of the tax on it was most fallacious. It was faid malt extended to one million and that various frauds were committed. four. hundred thouland pounds. The affertion might be true ; but Now of this tax the compofition pas it not the duty of government produced no more than five thou:


fand pounds. Of confequence, it dential servant, calling upon the
must be a foundation for ruinous loyalists to allint in suppressing the
frauds; and it was the height of rebellion, and offering the must fo.
wildness to object to a bill, of which leinn assurances of his majesty's pa-
it was 'the object to prevent these ternal affection and regard. Repor-

ing the most unlimited confidence in
After some farther debate the bill royal and national acts and invita-
was agreed to by the house, and or, tions, many thousands, attached to
dered to be ingrossed. Lord John the British government, joined
June 20.

Cavendish now brought themselves to the English army ;

up to the commons, by and many made open and decided the command of his majeity, a pé- avowals of their fidelity to the tition from the American loyalists. crown. The consequence was inIt itated, that at the commence- evitable. The loyalists were ex. ment of the war with the Ameri- posed to the hostility of the Americans, great numbers of the inhabi. cans. By the evacuation of Burs tants, and among them some of the ton, Philadelphia, Rhode Iiland, first characters, fortunes, and con. New Jersey, Virginia, Georgia, fequence, u ere actuated by the pur- South Carolina, and North Caroest principles of lovalty to their fo- lina, they were obliged in great vereign, by a grateful sense of the numbers to abandon their families happiness they enjoyed under the and estates, and to seek an asylum British government, and by an ab. in the king's garrisons, or some horrence against every measure that other part of his dominions. Nor tended to detroy the union between did their misfortunes end here. Great Britain and her colonies. Im: They have been attainted as traiprelled with a strong sense of their tors, and their effects have been dury, they had openly opposed or confiscated by laws passed by the lefeadily refused, during the progress gislatures of the several American of the contest, to join in the mea. states. Of those attached to the fures which have to unfortunately crown many also have suffered an terminated in the dismemberinent of ignominious death under the authothe empire. It was in vain that rity of laws founded in rebellion many allurements were held out to and tyranny; and many fell nobly, tempt them from their allegiance ; fighting for their country: Many and though their loyalty exposed widows and orphans have thus been them to a variety of losses and dif- left destitute of every means of fuptress, it remained not only undimi. 'port. A very respectable number nished, but even grew under the of military and civil officers, clergy, hope of protection and relief, found- and profesfional men, being at preed upon a series of acts and relolu- sent in a situation of the greatest tions of the British parliament, on distress, conceive that as a presera proclamation published at St. vation of a portion of the empire has James's in his majesty's name, on been rendered impossible by the declarations issued in America by events of war, the losses sustained his majesty's commissioners and geo ought to be equally distributed anerals, acting under the authority mong, and borne by the whole foof the parliament, and on a variety ciety. The loyalists, accordingly, of letters from his majesty's confi- closed their petition by praying the

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commons to take their case into con- and be sensible, that by a close confideration, to grant them such relief nection with it, they would be it proas their peculiarly hard and distreff-mote and eitablimh their interest and ing tiruation might appear to merit, ftrength. Their connection, howand to permit them to be heard at the ever, must be a result of some little bar of the houle by counsel, if that time. It was necessary to the mu. should be found to be an expedient tual happiness and prosperity of the mealure

two countries, that their passions and Lord John Cavendish having pre prejudices should die away, and that sented the petition from the Ameri- their good humour and confidence can loyalists, did not fail to en. Mould be fostered and brought forth. large upon its propriety. He in. He then moved for 'leave to introfifted on the obligations which this duce "a bill for appointing commiscountry owed to the unhappy de- fioners to enquire into the circumfcription of men, whose misfor- stances of such persons as are retunes had arisen

out of their loy- duced to distress by the late unhappy alty. It was incumbent upon par- dissensions in America.' liament to pay a particular atten- Sir Adam Ferguson was convintion to

them. The situation of ced that a very strict enquiry should this country and its circumstances be made into the distinctive merits would, no doubt, direct and go. of the American loyalists claiming vern the extent and proportion of relief. He objected therefore to the the relief to be administered. It word çircumftanc s in the motion. would be right at the same time to Its foundation was so broad that it be fully intormed of the peculiar was difficult to affix any precise and distinct merit of those meritori, meaning to it. The American loy. ous individuals who had incurred alists might, he thought, be divid. calamity and distress. An equal ed into three classes.

1. Those diftribution to every sufferer would who took up arms and defended the be the height of injustice. For the cause of Great Britain ; 2, Those eftates, the facrifices, and the ser who quitting America, and their vices of each were very different. families, took shelter in this counHe therefore intended to institute a try; and 3. Those who remaining commillion for the purpose of make in the provinces submitted to the ing those inquiries which were ne. American government, till the ap; ceffary for the proper dittribution of pearance of the king's troops called that relief, which the wisdom of them out to express their loyalty. parliament might beitow,

Now as it was not possible that this It was his sincere with that the country could make restitution to United States would act with libe- all, he imagined that a nice discriTality upon this occafion, and lay mination ought to be made among the 'Teeds of future confidence be- them. The greatest merits, the tween the two countries, by a ge greatest dangers, and the greatest nerous resolution to forget and for- iufferings fiould be a title to the give. That this would be their line amplest compensation. of conduct, he flattered himself; Lord Juhn Cavendith observed, because it was impoflible but that the that he had intentionally moved for Americans must comprehend the va- the bill under a general title. For que of the friendhip of Great Britain, it was obvious that the inquiry of


the commissioners should compre- provisional treaty. Now if this was hend as many descriptions of men à truth, it ought to be expressed as pollible. With regard to dif- definitively. The business ought to tinctions, he imagined that loss of be conducted in such a manner as to fortune did not make all the merit. destroy every idea of embarrassinent It was proper to take also into the or doubt. account the loss of office. A cler-. Mr. Fox entreated that the house gyman, for example, or a gentleman would recollect, that the bill moved in the customs, might be entitled to for was not a bill of relief, but of as high a compensation as many a inquiry. Instead of preventing conlanded proprietor. The bill, how- gress from tulfilling the fifth article ever, in a future stage of its pro of the provisional treaty, it would gress, might be expressed in a new be of use to his majesty's ministers language,

in negociating about it; as it would Mr. Baker cautioned the house to lead to those discriminations which proceed in the present bufiness with it required. Nothing could be more the greatest delicacy. The title of impolitic than to despair that any the bill had so wide a compass, that power would neglect its ftipulations. congress might naturally enough It would ill become the United States conceive that the parliament of to tarnish their honour upon their Great Britain meant to relieve pere outset as a free and independent fons of every denomination, who people ; and he was convinced, that had been distrefled by the American they would carry their agreements war; and under this impression it into execution with a scrupulous ex• might abstain from performing the actness. fifth article of the provisional treaty, The motion of lord John Cavenwhich had a reference to the estates difh was carried with ease; and it and property of the loyalists. It was was ordered that the bill proposed absolutely necessary to guard against should be prepared and introduced fufpicions of this kind. Discrimi- by his lordthip, lord North and Mr. nations were necessary. He under. Fox. The bill accordingly was prekood, that the attention of the house pared and introduced ; and, being was to be directed only to such loy. received with cordiality, was passed, alifts as did not come within the and carried to the house of peers, meaning of the fifth article of the who heartily concurred in it.

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Message from the King to the Commons. Efablishment of the Prince of Wales.

Bił to abolish Offices in the Exchequer. Debates about the Tellership promised to Lord Thurlow. The Bill for regulating the Exchequer paffes.

June 23.

'T was announced to the “ George R.

commons by lord John “ His majesty, reflecting on the Cavendish, that he had a message propriety of a separate establiment from his majesty. It was read by to his dearly beloved fon the prince she speaker, and was as follows. of Wales, recommends the confi


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