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company at Bengal, he did not fee in swallowing the calumnies which any danger from the article in quel- were propagated against him, it was tion as it now stood. With reipect a matter of indifference to him. It to the ditch with which Chandena- was triumphantly urged against gor was to be surrounded, it was un- him, that he had expressed an inderstood to be a drain ; that it would clination for peace. He had so; surely be a strange oversight if that but his inclination was never difhould be permitted to grow into a rected to a peace like the present. fortification

The ministry had the audacity to As to the free and independent boast of their negociations; and yet trade given to the French in India, the peace they had produced was Sir Henry Fletcher did not perceive more calamitous, more dreadful, that any danger could arise from che and more ruinous than even war indefinite language in which it was could be. It gave a fatal wound to bestowed. For it certainly ought the strength, the credit, and the to be interpreted to be such as the commerce of the nation. If this French had carried on during the was the intention of the noble lord last peace; and what that was could at the head of the treasury, he had be ascertained without any difficulty succeeded to a miracle. But he by the records of the company. could not possibly impute to him so

Neither did he object to the re. much wickedness. He had other storation of Pondicherry and Kari- views. He might think that his fical; and as to the additional dif- tuation depended upon peace; and tricts to be ceded with them, they that this was the best method to fix belonged not to the company, but himself in a station which he had to native princes of India. The not obtained by the fairest means, cession of these places was not con.

and in which he was not supported fiderable, and would be easily pro. by the firmest bottom. In these cured by the good offices of the expectations, however, his lordship kompany. As to Mahé and the had deceived himself. He had purcomptoir at Surat, they were resto. lued his object with a narrow porations of still inferior consequence; licy; and the peace he had conthe former being a garrison in the cluded, instead of being prosperous territories of Hyder Ally; and the to him, would haften his degradalatter a mere trading house in the tion. city of Surat.

To the objection against Mr. Fox Mr. Fox now rose, and pointed by the lord advocate, that he had out the peculiar delicacy of his dicue talked of having a peace in his ation. He was suppoled to be ac- pocket, it was answered by him extuated by motives of personal animo- plicitly, that he had never used such fity, and to be hostile to the peace language. He acknowledged that from principles of envy, of jea. he had averred that there were per. lousy, and of ambition. These ob- fons in this country who were emjections, however, did not apply powered by congress to treat of to him; and those who knew him peace with America; and he could beft would be ever ready to contra. prove his affertion. The fact was dict them. As for the opinion of not known to him alone. The permen who greedily embraced every fons he alluded to had actually made prejudice that was circulated to his applications to the duke of Richdisadvantage, and who were happy mond, to lord Keppel, and to lord

John

John Cavendish. The authority of 'fidence; but paltry maneuvres and such men was not to be trified with; endless habits of suípicion lead 10 and while the learned lord sported distraction and variance, and dea wantonly with a fact which could grade alike the politician and the not be confuted, he had given way man. to the audacity of calling upon him The learned lord who had imto produce the peace he had project. prudently been so lavith of his ed. His clamour was loud and fri- charges, had once been the obedivolous. The peace he had alluded ent friend of the noble person in the to so injudicioully was in office, and blue ribband; and with what view at the command of the cabinet mi. had he deserted him? He had fornistry of the crown. It was ready merly approved his system when it for production ; and a very flight was calamitous and unjust; and observation would demonstrate that did he now, from a spirit of system, it was framed on principles effen- avoid hiin when his line of conduct tially different from those of the pre- was more meritorious ? The maxfent negociation. He was not capa- ims adopted by the learned lord were ble of advising his sovereign to sub- not unknown; and no virtuous mit to articles so disgraceful and hu- statesman.could possibly approve of miliating

them. They taught him to submit He had been accused of having to perpetual variations of his sentiformed a union with a noble lord ments; and to go decidedly into the whole principles he had opposed for views of ministers whatever they several years of his life. But the might be. grounds of their opposition were re- It was remarked by Mr. Fox, moved, and he did not conceive it that he meant not to conceal the to be honourable to keep up animo- part he had acted with Holland. fities for ever. He was happy at all His letter was public; and his fentimes to have a proper opportunity timents could not be misunderstood. to bury his resentments; and it was The Dutch having been plungedi the will of his heart that his friend- into a war without a serious cause, fhip should never die. The Ame. it was his opinion, that they might rican war was the source of his dif- have been withdrawn from it by agreement with the noble lord; and liberál offers of peace. But since that cause of enmity being now no these offers were rejected, and they more, it was wise and fit to put an had behaved with haughtiness, a end to the ill will, the animofity, new situation was produced; and the rancour, and the feuds which they ought to be punished for their it engendered. It was a satisfacton infolence. They had forfeited every to him to apply the appellation of title to favour; and as we had lost friend to the noble lord. He had greatly by the war, it would have found him honourable as an enemy; been right to have provided a reand he had no doubt of his openness compence to us in the poffeffion of and fincerity as a friend. It was Trincomale and other objects. A not in an intercourse with such a ruinour had gone forth that this person that he was to discover the claim was to be abandoned ; and if tricks, the stratagems, and the fub- it was, there would nothing be terfuges which he had experienced wanting to render the present peace in others. Candour and honour the most disastrous and humiliating were principles of union and con- that had ever dilgraced any country.

Our

Our condition, of late, had been peace there was no concession fo de improved : our navy was increased: grading as the language which had we had a commanding force in the been employed in a certain letter to West Indies : the American war, the Dutch. The cry was then for the mill-Itone that bung upon our peace for a year, or for a day. Nor necks, was gone; and victories of had the state of things changed so the most brilliant kind had reco- completely as that what was delirable vered to our nation its natural high then should not now be an object of tone of thinking and acting. In the importance and acquisition. But, moment when we might indulge in indeed, the right honourable gentle fair expectation and hope, we were man, who had been so kind to the about to be ruined by the impolicy Dutch, was no longer in any high and imprudence of statesmen, who place. This was a material alterapossessed no talents for negociation. tion, and might account for his beIn the ardour to conclude pacific haviour at that time, and in the negociations, it would seem that fa- present hour. He conceived that crifices the most improper were to from the relative fituation of the be made. Every thing was to be done belligerent powers, their strength, on the principle of concession. There their resources, their wants, their were no reciprocal ftipulations. Our objects, and their prospects, it was cessions were infinite; the stab given indispensably neceffary that we to our commerce was deep and fa- should have peace; and to him it tal; and our glory was tarnished in appeared that the terms procured a manner the most disgraceful and were fair and advantageous. He 'obnoxious.

endeavoured to defend the articles Mr. chancellor Pitt defended the concerning the Canadian boundamotion for an address; and remark- ries, the fishery of Newfoundland, ed that the clamours against the the cession of the Floridas, and the peace were noisy in proportion to abandonment of the loyalists. And their injustice. "It was natural that he hoped that all unreasonable and men who complained without cause invidious scheines of opposition Thould endeavour to be considerable would be dropped in a season when by the intemperance of their lan- they might prove so destructive to guage. The resolutions of the house the nation. of commons had bound ministers to Some farther debate took place ; recognize the independency of Ame- and when the house divided the mirica; and this obligation took away niltry were defeated : there appear. from them the ground of advantage ing for the amendment a majority of in negociating. Yet in the present 224 to 208.

С НА Р. Feb. 21.

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IV.
Mery Papers. Confideration of the Peace. Resolutions with regard to it pro.

posed by Lord John Cavendish. Debates upon them. Tbe Divifon is carried

by Opposition. THE HE defeat of the minister in cer of his majesty's ships in the Bay of

of Honduras, and the merchant the subject of the address to the traders, inhabitants, and Indian throne, was a topic of universal con chiefs, between the month of Sepversation; and was considered as a tember 1779, and the month of Ja. prognostic of his approaching fall. nuary following, as the same were It was of such a nature that it was transmitted by Sir Peter Parker to necessary to be followed up by fome the board of Admiralty." other proceeding. It was immedi- The commons, soon af. ately perceived that this measure ter this order was made, would be a public notification of the were called upon by lord JohnCavenimpropriety of the peace; and, as dish to bestow their attention upon preparatory to this step captain the spirit and tendency of the peace. Luitrell called for the production of He observed to them, that an opi. some official papers respecting the nion had been founded abroad that navy. Upon his motion it was or- the majority for the amendment on dered by the commons that there the address of thanks to the throne should be laid before them: “1. An had actually voted against the peace. account of all his majesty's ships and It was obvious, however, from the vessels of war that were in ordinary language of the amnendinent, that no or harbour service, on the zitt day idea of this kind was ever entertainof March 1782, in the ports of ed; and it was natural to conclude Portsmouth, Plymouth, Chatham, that this report had arisen from moor Sheerness. 2. An account of tives of faction. It was proper the state and condition of the ships therefore to contradict it; and with and vessels of war employed in home this view he had framed one of the service, agreeably to the last weekly resolutions which he now held in statements preceding the 21st day of his hand. It was his clear opinion, March 1782. 3. An account of that the relative situation of affairs the condition of the ships and vel. of this country, and of the bellige(els of war on foreign service, and rent powers was a foundation which on the coast of Scotland and Ire- would support him in affirming, that land, according to the latt accounts the peace was inadequate to what received at the Adıniralty from the we were entitled to expect. The commanders in chief on the several three treaties were disgraced by stations abroad, or from the senior conceffions which we could have officer of any squadron of king's refited, and to which no consent Thips on foreign stations, and on the should ever have been given. We coasts of Scotland or Ireland, ac. had the dominion of the seas in the cording to the weekly returns of the West Indies and America. The renearest date to the 2117 of March, lief of Gibraltar was a demonstra. 1782. And 4. Copies of the cor- tion that we were able not only to selpondence between the senior offi. defend our coasts and protect ous

trade,

C 3

trade, but that we could meet the have moved for papers to afford the united fee:s of France and Spain. fulleit information relative to the It is true that our finances were in treatics, and to have suggested a very a reduced state. But the finances of minute investigation into them. But, our enemies were at least in a fitua- on a reconsideration of the matter, tion equally if not more alarning: it appeared that the notoriety of our Our fuperiority in every quarter of condition, both at home and abroad, the globe ought to have induced the previously to the signing of the treaininiitry to have thewn greater pride ties, joined to the explicitness of the and spirit in their negociations. He treaties themielves, were sufficient had drawn five resolutions, which and warrantable authorities for the were of the following import. “.!.

resolutions he had ventured to pro: That in contideration of the public pose. But he acknowledged that faith, which ought to be preserved in- he would willingly postpone his re: violable, his faitatul commons will solutions if the ministers had any lupport his majetty in rendering firm defire to throw farther light upon and perinanent the peace to be cons' the treaties by the production of cluded definitively in consequence of papers, or thought that they could the provisional treaty, and the preli- by this method evince that the con: minary articles. 2. That, in concur. cessions they had made to the adverrence with his majesty's paternal re- faries of Great Britain were ungard for his people, they will employ avoidable, and strictly adequate to their best endeavours to improve the its fituation. blessings of peace to the advantage of Mr. St. John seconded his lord. his crown and subjects. 3. That his ship, and was ftrenuous in his cen, majesty, in acknowledging the inde- fures of the peace. Mr. fecretary pendence of the United States of Ame. Townshend rose to support governrica, by virtue of the powers vested in ment; and while he allowed that him by the act of the laft session of lord John Cavendish was a person parliament “ to enable his majesty of the greatest candour, he confefled to conclude a peace, or truce, with that the idea had gone abroad that certain colonies in North America,' the peace was abandoned and reprohas acted as the circumstances of af- bated by parliament. He confiderfairs indisputably required, and ined this idea as of a dangerous ten. conformity to the sense of parlia- dency; and was apprehenfive left ment. 4. That the concessions made it thould circulate in foreign coun: to the adversaries of Great Britain tries, and disturb the future pro. by the provisional treaty and preli- gress of the negociations. He was ininary articles, are greater than sorry that a noble lord, whose chathey were entitled to, either from racter he admired, had proposed the actual situation of their respective the resolutions he had heard. But potfellions, or from their comparative as it was his intention to give as lit. itrength. And 5. That they would tle trouble as possible to the house, take the case of the loyalists into he would observe, that it was not consideration, and administer fuch his meaning to oppose the first, the relief as their conduct and neceffity fecond, or the third resolutions. But should be found to merit."

he would own that he was hostile to His lordfhip observed, that instead the fourth, because it conveyed a of directly putting thefe resolutions, direct cenfure upon ministers, vili. it had been once his intention to fied the peace, and would offend the

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