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and on paying the debts they might of the world. His Catholic ma. have contracted during their capti- jesty was to keep the island of Mivity. Each crown was respectively norca; and was to retain West Floto reimburse the syns which had rida. East Florida was to be ceded been advanced for the maintenance him by the king of Great of their prisoners by the country Britain. Eighteen months from where they had been detained, ac- the date of the ratification of the cording to attested and authentic definitive treaty were be al vouchers. With a view to prevent lowed to the subjects of the lat. every dispute and complaint on ac- ter who had settled in the island count of prizes which might be of Minorca and in the two Flomade at sea after the signing of the ridas, to sell their estates, to recover preliminary articles, it was mutu- their debts and to transport their ally settled and understood that the persons and effects without being vessels and effects which might be restrained on account of their retaken in the Channel, and in the ligion, or on any other pretence North seas after the space of whatsoever, except that of debts, twelve days, to be computed froin and prosecutions for crimes. His the ratification of the present preli. Britannic majesty was, at the same minary articles, were to be restored time, to have the power to cause all upon each side; that the term the effects that might beiong to him fhould be one month from the Chan- in East Florida, whether artillery nel and the North Seas, as far as or others, to be carried away. The the Canary Iflands inclusively, whe- liberty of cutting logwood in a difther in the Ocean or the Miditer- trict, of which the boundaries were ranean; two months from the Ca. to be ascertained, without moleftanary Illands as far as the equinoc. tion or disturbance of any kind tial line or equator; and lastly, five whatsoever, was permitted to Great months, without exception, in all Britain. The king of Spain was other parts of the world.

to restore the islands of Providence, These preliminary articles of and the Bahamas, without exceppeace were concluded at Versailles, tion, in the condition in which they Jan. 20.

between Mr. Alleyne Fitz- wire when they were conquered by

herbert, minister plenipo. his arms. All other conquests of tentiary on the part of his Britan- territories and countries upon either nic majesty, and Charles Gravier, Side, not included in the present ar. comte de Vergennes, the minister ticles, were to be mutually restored plenipotentiary on the part of the without difficulty or compensation. king of France. At the same time the The epoch for the restitutions to be preliminary articles of peace between made, and for the evacuations to Great Britain and Spain were also take place, the regulations for the concluded at Versailles, between release of prisoners, and for the cesMr. Fitzherbert and the comte fation of captures were exactly the D'Aranda, the minister plenipoten- same as those which have already tiary for the Spanish monarch. It was been related, as ftipulated in the preagreed that a sincere friendlip liminary articles with France. hould be re-established between his It is now proper to reBritannic majesty and his Catholic count the provisional ar

1782. majesty, their kingdoms, itates, and ticles which had been subjects by sea and land in all parts framed and adjusted at Paris, between 3

Richard

Nov. 30.

Richard Oswald, esq. the commiffion- dle of that river to the forty-fifth er of his Britannic majesty, and John degree of north latitude ; from Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John thence by a line due west on that Jay, and Henry Lawrence, the com- latitude until it strikes the river Iromiffioners of the United States of quois or Cateraquy; thence along America. Upon the tenet that reci. the middle of the said river into procal advantages and mutual con- lake Ontario, through the middle of venience are found by experience to that lake until it strikes the comform the only permanent foundation munication between the said lake, of peace and friendfhip between and lake Erie; thence along the ftates, it was agreed to build the middle of that communication into articles of the proposed treaty on lake Erie, through the middle of such principles of liberal equity and the said lake, until it arrives at the reciprocity, as the partial advan. water-communication between that tages (those seeds of discord) being lake and lake Huron; thence along excluded, such a beneficial and fa- the middle of the said water-commutisfactory intercourse between the nication to the ļake Huron; thence two countries might be established, through the middle of the said lake as to promise and secure to both per- to the water-communication between petual peace and harmony. His that lake and lake Superior; thence Britannic majesty acknowledged the through lake Superior northward of United States, viz. New Hamp- the ifles Royal and Phillipeaux, to thire, Massachusets Bay, Rhode the Long Lake; thence through the Irland and Providence Plantations, middle of the faid Long Lake, and Connecticut, New York, New Jer the water-communication between it sey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Mary- and the lake of the Woods, to the land, Virginia, North Carolina, said lake of the Woods ; thence South Carolina : and Georgia, tó through the said lake to the most be free, sovereign, and indepen. north-western point thereof, and dent ftatcs. He consented to treat from thence on a due west course with them in that capacity; and for to the river Miffislippi ; thence by a himself, his heirs, and his suc- line to be drawn along the middle of ceffors, he relinquished all claims the said river Misfillippi, until it to the government of them to their shall intersect the northernmost part propriety and territorial rights. of the thirty-first degree of north laThat no disputes might arise in futitude: south, by a line to be drawn ture on the subject of the boundaries due cast from the determination of of these United States, it was de- the line last mentioned, in the laticlared that they should be “ From tude of thirty-one degrees north of the north-west angle of Nova the equator, to the middle of the Scotia, that angle which is formed river Apalachicola, or Catahouche ; by a line drawn due north, from thence along the iniddle thereof, to the source of St. Croix river to the its junction with the Flint River; highlands, along the said highlands, thence ftřait to the head of St. which divide those rivers that empty Mary's River, and thence down themselves into the river St. Law. along the middle of St. Mary's rence, from those which fall into River to the Atlantic Ocean ; east, the Atlantic ocean, to the north by a line to be drawn along the midwesternmost head of Connecticut dic of theʼriver St. Croix, from its rer; thence down along the mid- mouth to the bay of Fundy, to its

source; source ; and from its fource directly that creditors upon either fide should north to the said highlands, which meet with no impediment in the divide the rivers that fall into the prosecution of their claims. It was Atlantic Ocean, from those which contracted that the congress should fall into the river St. Lawrence ; carnestly recommend it to the legis. comprehending all islands within latures of the respective states, to twenty leagues of any part of the provide for the restitution of all effhores of the United States, and ly- tates and properties which had been ing between lines to be drawn due confiscated, belonging to real Brieast from the points where the faid tifh subjects, and of the estates and boundaries between Nova Scotia, properties of persons resident in dison the one part, and East Florida fricts in the possession of his majesty's on the other, shall respectively touch arms, and who had not borne arms the Bay of Fundy, and the Atlantic against the United States. It was Ocean; exceptsuch islands as resolved, that persons of any other now are, or heretofore have been description should have free liberty within the limits of the said pro- to go to any part whatsoever, of any vince of Nova Scotia."

of the thirteen United States, and It was stipulated that the people of remain in it for twelve months unthe United States should continue to molested in their endeavours to reenjoy without moleftation, the right cover such of their estates, rights, to take fish of every kind on the and properties as may not have been Grand Bank, and on all the other confiscated; and it was concerted banks of Newfoundland ; and that that the congress should earncitly rethey mould likewise exercise and commend to the several states a recontinue the same privilege in the vision of all acts or laws regarding gulf of St. Lawrence, and at every the premises, so as to render them other place in the sea, where the in- perfectly confiftent, not only with habitants used heretofore to fih, justice and equity, but with that The inhabitants of the United spirit of conciliation, which, on the States were likewise to have the li- returning of the blessings of peace, berty to take fill of every kind on should universally prevail. It was such part of the coast of Newfound understood, that no future confisca, land, as British seamen shall resort tions should be made, nor prosecuto; but not to cure or dry them on tions commenced against any person, that illand. They were also to pof- or body of men, on account of the sess the privilege of filing on the part which he or they had taken in coasts, bays, and creeks of all the the present war; and that those who other dominions of his Britannic may be in confinement on such a majesty in America ; and the Ame- charge, at the time of the ratificarican filhermen were permitted to tion of the treaty in America, should cure and dry fish in any of the un- be immediately' fet at liberty. It settled buys, harbours, and creeks was concluded that there fhould be of Nova Scotia, Magdalen Islands, a firm and perpetual peace, between and Labrador. But it was agreed, his Britannic majesty and the United that afte such places should be fet- States; that all hoftilities by fea tled, this right could not be legally and land should immediately cease ; put in practice without the consent and that prisoners on both fides of the inhabitants and proprietors should be set at liberty. It was of the ground. It was accorded, determined that his Britannic majesty

thould

tiduld expeditiously and without states, and with their respective incommitting deftru&tion of any fort, terests. They were assured that the withdraw all his armies, garrisonsking of Great Britain was willing, and fleets, from every port, place, from his moderation, to restore to and harbour of the United States. their high mightinefles, all the porThe navigation of the river Mitlis- fellions which had been taken from lippi from its fource to the ocean, them by his arms, excepting Trinwas to remain for ever free and open comale, in the island of Ceylon, to the subjects of Great Britain, and with its dependencies. With rethe citizens of the United Statës. gard to an indemnification of the In fine, it was agreed in the event, losses which the United Provinces that if any place or territory belong: had experienced during the war, ing to Great Britain, or to the, they were told that this pretension United States, Mould be conquered could not be admitted, as being by the arms of either, before the ar- equally repugnant to reason and rival, of the provincial articles in equity. But they were admonished America, it dould be restored with at the same time, that the king of out compensation or difficulty. Great Britain confented, without any

It was not with equal success reluctance, that the division of that the negociations for peace were prizes taken by his subjects previCarried on with Holland. In a me- ously to the rupture, should be sube morial to Mr. Fitzherbert, presented mitted to the courts of justice of the to him at Paris, by the plenipoten- British admiralty, agreeably to the ziaries of the States-General, in- established rules of nations. timations of advantages were made To these propofitions, the plenipo. which could not be granted. In con- tentiaries of the states-general, exsequence of instructions from his prefied their dillike. They did not Britannic majesty, he replied with a' understand what the court of Lon. becoming spirit to their requisitions. don meant by “ The general princiHe informed them, that as the re- ples of the rights of mankind.". If public discovered littie inclination by this expression those principles to renew those ries in which former were signified which are drawn from times had bound them to Great Bri- the primitive rights of nations, tain, it was proper that they should which render the navigation and conduct themselves in all commercial conveyance of all kinds of merchanaffairs, which might take place be- dize without distinction entirely free, tween Great Britain and them, purely without any obstruction whatever, and fimply by the general principles excepting warlike stores, they were of the rights of mankind; and to this persuaded that their high mightie declaration be added, that as soon nefies, would have no difficulty in as the nations engaged in the pre- admitting it, as the basis of a negosent war, should begin to form those ciation ; and they expressed theme Commercial arrangements, which felves to be ready to engage in the new engagements that shall sub- founding on this the definitive treaty bit between them, will render neces- of a peace, or a treaty of private comsary, his Britannic majesty would be merce, as soon as the nations conready to contract with them such cerned in the present war mould commercial treaties as may corref- determine to cnter into commer. pond with the ftuation of the two cial arrangements. They could 1783.

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not reconcile the detention of Trin- Great Britain and America, and ef. comalè, with what was termed the tablifh tranquillity in Europe. He moderation of his Britannic majesty; therefore moved, “chat an humble and it was their opinion, that their address Mould be presented to his high mightineffes would not fub- majesty, to return him thanks for mit to authorize an article of that his condescention in laying before kind. As to an indemnification of them the preliminary articles of the lofles, they avoided finally to enter different treaties ; and to assure him upon it till it should appear that the that they have considered them with court of London was disposed to that attention which they deserve. approach to equitable heads of ac. To express to him in the most gratecominodation and alliance.

ful manner their satisfaction for his Soon after the preliminary treaties having, in consequence of the with France and Spain, and the powers trusted to him, laid the provisional articles with America, foundation by the provisional aswere presented by lord Grantham ticles with the States of North Ame. to the house of lords, they were rica, for a treaty of peace, which Submitted to the commons by Mr. they trusted would enlure perfect Secretary Townshend. Being or reconciliation and friendship between dered by both houses to be printed, the two countries. That in this they were immediately founded over contidence they presumed to convey the kingdom. Different sentiments, to his majesty their juft expectation as it was natural to expect, were en that the several states of America tertained of them; and presages were would carry into effectual and faformed of the stability or danger of tisfactory execution, those measures the minister, as they struck the ob. which the congress is so folemnly ferver with the sentiment of appro- bound by the treaty to recommend bation or demerit. But before their in favour of such personis as have ratification it was not proper that suffered for the part they have they should be formally debated in taken in the war, and that they parliament. At length it was an- consider these circumstances as the nounced that the ratification of the surest indication of a returning treaties with France and Spain had friendfhip; and to acknowledge to taken place. In this forward state his majesty their due sense of that of the negociations, motions were wise and paternal regard for the hapmade in both houses to take them piness of his fubjects, which induced into confideration ; and to examine him to relieve them from a burthenat the fame time into the treaty some and expensive war, by the with the United States of America. preliminary articles of peace con.

When the preliminary cluded between his majesty and Feb. 27. articles of peace were read the moft christian and catholic kings. in the houfe of peers, lord Pembroke To affure his majesty that they exprefled a hope that they would mould encourage and promote every merit the approbation of their lord- exertion of his subjects in Great BriChips ; and delivered it as his opi- tain and Ireland in the cultivation nion, that a general pacification and improvement of chofe resources would relieve the nation from an which might tend to the certain intolerable toad of taxes, revive augmentation of our public strength, and extend our commerce, restore and that with these views they should the mutuality of affection between most diligently turn their attention to

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