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after having been a mixed monarchy when in his letter to the lord mayor for three generations of your farni- he had given to the colonies the ly; we find we can do better as a name of “ the United States." republic: we mean in future to save Other persons in the cabinet had also the expence of the monarchical ef. expresied their sentiments definitivetablishinent, and so good bye to ly concerning the treaty. Of all you: we with you .well.” Lord such men was it to be understood Townthend and lord Duty sup- that they were perjured and had beported earl Fitzwilliam. They re- trayed their trust? To have reminded lord Shelburne that he ought course to his conscience and his oath to adhere to doctrines which he had was doubtless a prudent fubterfuge himself inculcated with warmth and in the noble lord; and so pious a pertinacity. His usual practice had fraud: might be fanctified by a conbeen to demand explanations from venient caluift. But while' it was ministers. How often had he said certain that the ministry had been to thein, “ Be explicit ; tell us unanimous in consenting to the trea. what your system is : this house has ty, he could not but remark it as a right to information." His appeal singular, that they should underto the monarchical part of the con- ftand it differently. This fingularity fticusion, and his clamour about fe- had even something in it chat was crecy was nothing but affectation. criminal; nor was it easy to supThere must be other reasons for his press indignation when statesmen, filence; and there were cafes so pe: unanimously concurring in a mea. culiar and important that they ought furè, were yet fo absurd as to differ to be inquired into with the utmost in the interpretation of it. What expedition. Parliament had a right confidence could be reposed in such to make this enquiry; for there ministers ? At home they were not were objects fo consequential that surely entitled to any trust; and their loss could not be compensated abroad they must be objects of conby the punishment of ministers. It tempt. In order to have a full ewas in vain that these arguments, claircissement on the subject he wishwere presled upon the earl of Shel- ed for the production of the treaty; burne. He peremptorily avoided yet he acknowledged, that if mito enter into the question.

nifters would stand forward and sav. In the house of commons the sub- that there were parts of the treaty ject of the povisional treaty was not ripe, for exhibition he, would taken up with no less warmth. Mr. withdraw the motion he intended. Fox, after itaring the different and His desire was to know whether the opposite conitructions which had independency of America was conbeen put upon it, reprobared the. ditional or irrevocable; and he inconduct of ministers with all that quired not after articles which were force of eloquence for which he is not fit to be seen at the present hour. so remarkable. He treated with in-. Under these expreslions of candour, finite ridicole the idea of lord Shel-, he moved, “ That an humble ada burne, that he should violate his deels be presented to his majesty, oath as a privy counsellor by ant that he would be graciously pleased wering any question concerning a to give directions that there be laid treaty which had been concluded. before the commons copies of such The secretary of state had expressed parts of the provilional articles aer a decided opinion on this subject, greed upon between his majett's

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commiffioners and the commiffioners ministers were responsible for their of the United States of America, as actions; and he trusted that they relate to the negociation of the in- would not be interrupted in tranfdependency of the said states." actions which they had begun with

Mr. Pitt opposed himself to Mr. success, and which were about to Fox, and displayed the precision and terminate so advantageously for elegance for which he is remarkable. Great Britain. It was his belief It was impoffible that he could con- that both nations would still be conceive the propriety of producing the nected in intereft as well as friend. provilional treaty; and it was an fhip; and factious motives alone he extreme forrow to him that mini. conceived could raise up an oppofisters had been fo much off their tion to measures from which the guard as to have thrown out any happiest consequences were to be information respecting it. He would wished for and expected. Dot go so far as to pronounce this Lord North having diverted conduct to be a breach of their oath himselt with the different conitrucas counsellors of the crown; but tions which had been put upon the he was sure that it was a very high provisional treaty, in consequence of breach of discretion. We were in a' the indiscretion of ministers, gave it situation when much depended up. as his opinion, that it became them on caution and filence. To reveal to be secret. Great difficulties might any part of the depending negocia arise from their communicating the tions might affect them. Every articles of the treaty, or their opinions thing depended upon fecrecy. He of it, before the final conclufion of therefore conjured the house to sup- the negociations. If the house of port government; and by their una. commons (hould disapprove the pronimity and firmness to advance and visional creaty, the negociations now promete the measures carrying on depending might be protracted to a by ministers. It was by this me. great length, or suspended altogether. thod that our enemies would be most îf, on the contrary, they expressed decidedly inclined to conclude final their approbation of it, confequences ly upon that sort of peace which no less ominous and fatal might en. this country had a right to expect fue. The ministers of France, from and to inlift upon. No argument the easiness with which the recognicould possibly be employed that tion of American independence was could justify the production of the received, might alter their tone, and provisional treaty at this hour. No. rise in their demands. After some advantage could result from laying farther debate the motion of Mr. the treaty or any part of it before Fox was lost; the numbers being the house previously to the conclu- 219 against 46. fion of the present negociacions. It The calamities of the American did not become that house to le war being still recent in the minds more attached to Ainerica than the of men; and the spirit of party proAmericans themselves. It was a duced by it still operating with vimatter of joy to him that America gour, a motion of a singular kind had accepted the recognition of her was now made in the house of coinindependence as the price of peace. mons by Mr. David Hartley. He des It was a solid foundation on which clared it to be his opinion that the a future union with that country negociations in dependence would might be framed. His majesty's be broken off, and that the American

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war would again be renewed. He our European adverfaries. When was on this account folicitous to we should crush the navy of the house bind down minifters finally to aban- of Bourbon, it would happen that don all thoughts of it, whatever America would apply to us for that might be the issue of the present protection which the now finds from treaty. He therefore moved," that France. If it was true that a peace an bumble address be presented to concluded at this period would not his majefly, Itating that his faithful continue, it neceffarily followed, commons' think it their indispent that we ought not to give up inable duty not only to return their dependence to America. For that grateful thanks to his majesty for would be to give wbat was a perpehaving adopted the sense of his par- tuity for an advantage that was preliament and people, in having point. carious, and which might not last ed all his views and measures, as for ten years. It likewise appeared well in Europe as in North Ame-' to him that if America was made rica, to an entire and.cordial recon- a sovereign state, our West India' ciliation with those colonies ; but islands would be severed from us. likewise to express to his majesty, While America remained to us, these that whatever may be the result of islands were bands which united her the general negociations for peace with the mother country; bur upnow depending, our conciliatory on the grant of American indepensentiments towards America' remain dency they would be considered as unaltered, as presented in our hum. her natural and proper appendages. ble address to his majesty on that They might be termed the fatelsubject in the last session of parlia- lites of that luminary that was bement; and therefore that this house ginning to rise ove our horizon ; will consider as enemies to his ma- and if they were torn from us we jesty, and this country, all those who should be without consequence in thall endeavour to frustrate such be- · Europe. The motion of Mr. Harineficial difpofitions of his majesty, ley was not cordially received by by advising, or by any means at the commons; and upon a division tempting the farther prosecution of it was rejected by a majority of si war on the continent of America.” 10.13.

le was contended by: Mr. fecre- . Amidst more important concerns tary Townshend, that the resolutions the minister was not inattentive to which were the ground of this mo- the lefler precautions of governtion being inserted in their Journals, ment; and the two houses of parlia. . and having a full force, it was' un- menti: concurred in voting their : Decessary. Sir William Dolben pro- thanks to vice-admiral Sir Edward nounced it to be highly improper to Hughes, for the important services: admit any motion which should give performed by the iquadron under up the sovereignty of America with- his command in the East Indies on eut securing a lasting peace in re- the 17th of February, and the 12th turn for it. He professed himself an of April 1782. The two houses enemy to a continental war in Ame- also joined in conferring their thanks rica, but he was confident that Ame- on Sir. Eyre Coote, for the grcat rica might still be reduced to obe- perseverance he displayed, and the i dience. We ought to withdraw indefatigable pains he employed to our fleets and armies from that surmount the difficulties in which country, and to turn them against the affairs of the Carnatic were in...

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volved, and for the gallant and spi- and perry, for the service of the faid rited exertions he had made, from year. 3. An act to permit the imthe period of his placing himself at portation of wheat, wheat flour, rye, the head of the army in that quar. rye-flour, barley, and all sorts of ter of India.

corn, grain, and meal, upon pay. Dec. 23: 1782. About this time ment of the low duties therein inen. too, the royal assent was given to, tioned for a limited time. And, several public bills, of which it was , 4. an act to continue an act, made the object to facilitate the operations in the last session of parliament, inof Government. These were, 1. An titled, “ An act more effectually to aćt for granting an aid to his ma- prevent his majesty's enemies from jesty, by a land-tax, to be raifcd in being supplied with thips or veffels Great Britain, for the service of ihe from Great Britain.” The parliayear 1783. 2. An act for continu- ment was now adjourned till che zift ing and granting to his majefty, cer- day of the approaching month of tain duties upon malt, mum, cyder, January, 1783.

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с н А Р. II. Preliminary Articles with France. Preliminary Articles with Spain. The Pro

visional Articles viib the United States of America. Negociations with Holland, The Publication of the Treaties. The Examination of them in Parliament. Their Fate in the House of Peers. "HE meeting of the parliament In the treaty between Great Bri.

was expected with the great- tain and France it was agreed, that eft impatience ; and the concern of peace should take place to the fulleft the public with regard to the nego. extent, and that measures the most ciations for a peace was universal efhcacious should immediately be and anxious. At length lord Gran- i cxecuted for putting an end to hof. tham, in a letter to the lord mayor, tilities of every kind. Newfoundacquainted him that the preliminary land was to remain with England articles between Great Britain and as before the commencement of the France, and between Great Britain war; and, to prevent disputes about and Spain, were signed at Versailles. boundaries, it was accorded that the At the same time he intimated that French fishery ihould begin from the preliminaries with Holland were Cape St. John on the eastern fide, not actually subscribed; but that and going round by the north, a cessation of hoftilities with that should have for its boundary Cape republic was agreed upon. Soon Ray on the western fide. The islands after, his lordship submitted to thc of St. Pierre and Miquelon, were house of peers the treaties with ceded in full right to France. The France and Spain, and the provi. French were to continue to fill in fional articles concluded upon be- the Gulf of St. Lawrence conformtween the commissioners of the crown ably to the fifth article of the treaty and those of the United States of of Paris. The king of Great Bri. America.

tain was to restore to France the ifand of St. Lucia, and to cede and Britain renounced every claim with guaranty to her that of Tobago. respect to Dunkirk. Commitsioners The king of France was to surrender were to be appointed respectively by to Great Britain the islands of Gre- the two nation to enquire into the nada and the Grenadines, St. Vin- state of their commerce, and to concent, Dominica, St. Christopher's, cert new arrangements of trade on Nevis, and Montserrat. The river the footing of reciprocity and muof Senegal and its dependencies, tual convenience. All conquests on with the forts of St. Louis, Podor, either side, in any part of the world Galam, Arguin, and Portendic, whatsoever, not mentioned nor alwere to be given to France; and luded to in the present treaty, were the ifland of Gorce was to be restored to be restored without difficulty, and to it. Fort James and the river without requiring compensation. It Gambia were guarantied to his Bri- being necellary that there fhould be fannic majesty, and the gum trade a fixed epoch for the reftitutions and was to remain in the same condi- surrenders to be made by the contion as before the commencement tracting parties, it was determined of hoftilities. The king of Great that the king of Great Britaia Britain was to restore to his most should order the evacuation of the Christian majesty all the establishi. islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon meses, az belonged to him at the three months after the ratification breaktig out of the war on the coast of the preliminary treaty; and that, of Orixa and in Bengal, with the if possible, before the expiration of liberty of surrounding Chandenagor the same period he should relinquisa with a ditch for draining the wa- all connection with St. Lucia in the tcrs; and became engaged to secure to Weit Indies, and Goree in Africa. the subjects of France in that part It was stipulated in like manner, of India, and on the coasts of Orixa, that his Britannic majesty should, at Coromandel, and Malabar, a safe, the end of three months after the free, and independent trade, either ratification of the treaty, or sooner, as private traders, or under the di- enter into the possession of the islands rection of a company. Pondicherry, of Grenada and the Grenadines, St. as well as Karical, was to be render- Vincent, Doininica, St. Christoed back to France; and his Brican- pher's, Nevis, and Montserrat. nie majeity was to give as a depen- France was to be put in poffeflion denov round Pondicherry, the two of the towns and comptoirs which districts of Vallanour and Bahour; were to be restored to her in the East and as a dependency round Karical, Indies, and of the territories which the four contiguous Magans. The were to serve as dependencies round French were again to enter into the Pondicherry and round Karical fix poffeffion of Mahé, and of the months after the ratification of the Comptoir at Surat. The allies of definitive treaty; and at the termiFrance and Great Britain were to be nation of the same term she was to invited to accede to the present pa- reitore the towns and districts which cification; and the term of four her arms might have taken from the months was to be allowed them, for English or their allies in that quarter the purpose of making their deci- of the globe. The prisoners upon fion. In the event of their aversion cach side, were reciprocally to be from peace no affiftance from either surrendered, and without ransom, fide was to be given to them, Great upon the ratification of the treaty;

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