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then, in pitched fight, after due manœuvres, into total defeat on the "Plains of Maypo,' and again, positively for the last time, on the Plains or Heights of "Chacabuco;" and completed the "deliverance of Chile," as was thought, for ever and a day.

Alas, the "deliverance" of Chile was but commenced; very far from completed. Chile, after many more deliverances, up to this hour, is always but "delivered" from one set of evil-doers to another set! San Martin's manœuvres to liberate Peru, to unite Peru and Chile, and become some Washington-Napoleon of the same, did not prosper so well. The suspicion of mankind had to rouse itself; Liberator Bolivar had to be called in; and some revolution or two to take place in the interim. San Martin sees himself peremptorily, though with courtesy, complimented over the Andes again; and in due leisure, at Mendoza, hangs his portrait between Napoleon's and Wellington's. Mr. Miers considered him a fair-spoken, obliging, if somewhat artful man. Might not the Chilenos as well have taken him for their Napoleon? They have gone farther, and, as yet, fared little better!

like see-saws: men are stationed with lassos, to gin you dexterously, and fish you up from the torrent, if you trip there. Through this kind of country did San Martin march; straight towards San Iago, to fight the Spaniards and deliver Chile. For ammunition waggons, he had sorras, sledges, canoe-shaped boxes, made of dried bull's-hide. His cannons were carried on the back of mules, each cannon on two mules judiciously harnessed: on the packsaddle of your foremost mule, there rested with firm girths a long strong pole; the other end of which (forked end, we suppose) rested, with like girths, on the packsaddle of the hindmost mule; your cannon was slung with leathern straps on this pole, and so travelled, swaying and dangling, yet moderately secure. In the knapsack of each soldier was eight days' provender, dried beef ground into snuff-powder, with a modicum of pepper, and some slight seasoning of biscuit or maize-meal; "store of onions, of garlic," was not wanting: Paraguay tea could be boiled at eventide, by fire of scrub-brushes, or almost of rocklichens, or dried mule-dung. No further baggage was permitted: each soldier lay at night, wrapt in his poncho, with his The world-famous General O'Higgins, knapsack for pillow, under the canopy of for example, he, after some revolution or heaven; lullabied by hard travail; and sank two, became Director of Chile; but so tersoon enough into steady nose-melody, into ribly hampered by "class-legislation" and the foolishest rough colt-dance of unima- the like, what could he make of it? Alginable Dreams. Had he not left much be- most nothing! O'Higgins is clearly of hind him in the Pampas,-mother, mis- Irish breed; and, though a Chileno born, tress, what not; and was like to find some- and "natural son of Don Ambrosio O'Hig what, if he ever got across to Chile living? gins, formerly the Spanish Viceroy of What an entity, one of those night-leaguers Chile," carries his Hibernianism in his very of San Martin; all steadily snoring there, face. A most cheery, jovial, buxom counin the heart of the Andes, under the eter- tenance, radiant with pepticity, good hunal stars! Wayworn sentries with diffi-mor, and manifold effectuality in peace culty keep themselves awake; tired mules and war! Of his battles and adventures chew barley rations, or doze on three legs; let some luckier epic writer sing or speak. the feeble watchfire will hardly kindle a One thing we Foreign Reviewers will alcigar; Canopus and the Southern Cross ways remember: his father's immense glitter down; and all snores steadily, be- merits towards Chile in the matter of highgirt by granite deserts, looked on by the ways. Till Don Ambrosio arrived to govconstellations in that manner! San Mar- ern Chile, some half century ago, there tin's improvident soldiers ate out their probably was not a made road of ten week's rations almost in half the time; and miles long from Panama to Cape Horn. for the last three days, had to rush on, Indeed, except his roads, we fear there is spurred by hunger: this also the knowing hardly any yet. One omits the old Inca San Martin had foreseen; and knew that causeways, as too narrow, (being only three they could bear it, these rugged Guachos of feet broad,) and altogether unfrequented in his; nay, that they would march all the the actual ages. Don Ambrosio made, faster for it. On the eighth day, hungry with incredible industry and perseverance as wolves, swift and sudden as a torrent and skill, in every direction, roads, roads from the mountains, they disembogued; From San Iago to Valparaiso, where only straight towards San Iago, to the astonish- sure-footed mules with their packsaddles ment of men ;-struck the doubly-astonish- carried goods, there can now wooden-axled ed Spaniards into dire misgivings; and cars loud-sounding, or any kind of vehicle,

almost no success whatever as a governor ; being hampered by class-legislation. Alas, a governor in Chile cannot succeed. A governor there has to resign himself to the want of success; and should say, in cheerful interrogative tone, like that Pope elect, who, showing himself on the balcony, was greeted with mere howls, "Non piacemmo al popolo ?"—and thereupon proceed cheerfully to the next fact. Governing is a rude business everywhere; but in South America it is of quite primitive rudeness: they have no parliamentary way of changing ministries as yet; nothing but the rude primitive way of hanging the old ministry on gibbets, that the new may be installed! Their government has altered its name, says the sturdy Mr. Miers, rendered sulky

commodiously roll. It was he that shaped Natural-son O'Higgins, he, as we said, had these passes through the Andes, for most part; hewed them out from mule-tracks into roads, certain of them. And think of his casuchas. Always on the higher inhospitable solitudes, at every few miles' distance, stands a trim brick cottage, or casucha, into which the forlorn traveller introducing himself, finds covert and grateful safety; nay, food and refection, for there are "iron boxes" of pounded beef or other provender, iron boxes of charcoal; to all which the traveller, having bargained with the Post-office authorities, carries a key. Steel and tinder are not wanting to him, nor due iron skillet, with water from the stream: there he, striking a light, cooks hoarded victual at even-tide, amid the lonely pinnacles of the world, and blesses Governor O'Higgins. With "both hands," it may be hoped,-if by what he saw there: altered its name, there is vivacity of mind in him:

Had you seen this road before it was made,
You would lift both your hands, and bless General


but its nature continues as before. Shameless peculation, malversation, that is their government: oppression formerly by Spanish officials, now by native haciendados, It affects one with real pain to hear from still at a great distance from them, says land-proprietors, the thing called justice Mr. Miers, that the War of Liberty has the sulky Mr. Miers!-Yes, but coming half ruined these O'Higgins casuchas. Patriot soldiers, in want of more warmth than of an old ineffectual ministry bringing jusalways, answer we; every new gibbeting the charcoal-box could yield, have not tice somewhat nearer! scrupled to tear down the door, door-case, himself has to admit, certain improvements Nay, as Miers or whatever wooden thing could be come are already indisputable. Trade everyat, and burn it, on the spur of the moment. where, in spite of multiplex confusions, The storm-staid traveller, who sometimes, has increased, is increasing: the days of in threatening weather, has to linger here for days, "for fifteen days together," does not lift both his hands, and bless the Patriot


Nay, it appears, the O'Higgins roads, even in the plain country, have not, of late years, been repaired, or in the least at tended to, so distressed was the finance department; and are now fast verging to wards impassability and the condition of mule-tracks again. What a set of animals are men and Chilenos! If an O'Higgins did not now and then appear among them,

what would become of the unfortunates ? Can you wonder that an O'Higgins sometimes loses temper with them; shuts the persuasive outspread hand, clutching some sharpest hide-whip, some terrible sword of justice or gallows-lasso therewith, instead,

and becomes a Dr. Francia now and then! Both the O'Higgins and the Francia, it seems probable, are phases of the same character; both, one begins to fear, are indispensable from time to time, in world inhabited by men and Chilenos!

As to O'Higgins the Second, Patriot,

* Miers.


somnolent monopoly and the old Acapulco ship are gone, quite over the horizon. Two good, or partially good measures, the brought about in those poor countries: very necessity of things has everywhere clipping of the enormous bat-wings of the clergy, and emancipating of the slaves. Bat-wings, we say; for truly the South American clergy had grown to be as a kind of bat-vampires: readers have heard of that huge South American bloodsucker, which fixes its bill in your circulating vital fluid as you lie asleep, and there sucks; waving you ble leather wings into ever deeper sleep; and so drinking, till it is satisfied, and you do not awaken any more! The South American governments, all in natural feud with the old church-dignitaries, and likewise all in great straits for cash, have everywhere confiscated the monasteries, cashiered the disobedient dignitaries, melted the superflous church-plate into piasters; and, on the whole, shorn the wings of their at least have a chance of awakening before vampyre; so that if it still suck, you will death!-Then again, the very want of

with the motion of its detesta

soldiers of liberty led to the emancipating | phere of the world, who would pretend at of blacks, yellows, and other colored per- present to decipher the real portraiture of sons: your mulatto, nay your negro, if Dr. Francia and his Life? None of us can. well drilled, will stand fire as well as another.

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A few credible features, wonderful enough, original enough in our constitutional time, will perhaps to the impartial eye disclose themselves: these, with some endeavor to interpret these, may lead certain readers into various reflections, constitutional and other, not entirely without benefit.

Poor South American emancipators; they began with Volney, Raynal and Company, at that gospel of Social Contract and the Rights of Man; under the most unpropitious circumstances; and have hitherto got only to the length we see! Nay now, Certainly, as we say, nothing could well it seems, they do possess "universities," shock the constitutional feeling of mankind, which are at least schools with other than as Dr. Francia has done. Dionysius the monk teachers: they have got libraries, tyrant of Syracuse, and indeed the whole though as yet almost nobody reads them, breed of tyrants, one hoped, had gone many and our friend Miers, repeatedly knocking hundred years ago, with their reward; and at all doors of the Grand Chile National here, under our very nose, rises a new "tyLibrary, could never to this hour discover rant," claiming also his reward from us! where the key lay, and had to content him- Precisely when constitutional liberty was self with looking in through the windows. beginning to be understood a little, and we Miers, as already hinted, desiderates un- flattered ourselves that by due ballot-boxes, speakable improvements in Chile ;-desid- by due registration-courts, and bursts of erates, indeed, as the basis of all, an im- parliamentary eloquence, something like a mense increase of soap-and-water. Yes, real National Palaver would be got up in thou sturdy Miers, dirt is decidedly to be those countries, arises this tawny-visaged, removed, whatever improvements, temporal lean, inexorable Dr. Francia; claps you an or spiritual, may be intended next! Ac- embargo on all that; says to constitutional cording to Miers, the open, still more the liberty, in the most tyrannous manner, secret personal nastiness of those remote Hitherto, and no farther! It is an undeniable, populations, rises almost towards the sub- though an almost incredible fact, that Franlime. Finest silks, gold brocades, pearl cia, a lean private individual, Practitioner necklaces, and diamond ear-drops, are no of Law, and Doctor of Divinity, did, for security against it: alas, all is not gold that twenty or near thirty years, stretch out his glitters; somewhat that glitters is mere rod over the foreign commerce of Paraputrid fish-skin! Decided, enormously in-guay, saying to it, Cease! The ships lay creased appliance of soap-and-water, in all its branches, with all its adjuncts; this, according to Miers, would be an improvement. He says also ("in his haste," as is probable, like the Hebrew Psalmist), that all Chileno men are liars; all, or to appearance, all! A people that uses almost no soap, and speaks almost no truth, but goes about in that fashion, in a state of personal nastiness, and also of spiritual nastiness, approaching the sublime; such people is not easy to govern well!—

high and dry, their pitchless seams all yawning on the clay banks of the Parana; and no man could trade but by Francia's license. If any person entered Paraguay, and the Doctor did not like his papers, his talk, conduct, or even the cut of his face,it might be the worse for such person! Nobody could leave Paraguay on any pretext whatever. It mattered not that you were a man of science, astronomer, geologer, astrologer, wizard of the north; Francia heeded none of these things. But undoubtedly by far the notablest of The whole world knows of M. Aimé all these South American phenomena is Dr. Bonpland; how Francia seized him, deFrancia and his Dictatorship in Paraguay; scending on his tea-establishment in Entre concerning whom and which we have now Rios, like an obscene vulture, and carried more particularly to speak. Francia and him into the interior, contrary even to the his "reign of terror" have excited some in-law of nations; how the great Humboldt terest, much vague wonder in this country; and other high persons expressly applied to and especially given a great shock to con- Doctor Francia, calling on him, in the name stitutional feeling. One would rather wish of human science, and as it were under to know Dr. Francia;-but unhappily one penalty of reprobation, to liberate M. Boncannot! Out of such a murk of distracted pland; and how Dr. Francia made no anshadows and rumors, in the other hemis-swer, and M. Bonpland did not return to

* Travels in Chile.

Europe, and indeed has never yet returned.
It is also admitted that Dr. Francia had a

gallows, had jailers, law-fiscals, officials ;| years ago, by the Messrs. Rengger and and executed, in his time," upwards of forty Longchamp. Translations into various lanpersons," some of them in a very summary guages were executed :-of that into Engmanner. Liberty of private judgment, unless it kept its mouth shut, was at an end in Paraguay. Paraguay lay under interdict, cut off for above twenty years from the rest of the world, by a new Dionysius of Paraguay. All foreign commerce had ceased; how much more all domestic constitutionbuilding! These are strange facts. Dr. Francia, we may conclude at least, was not a common man but an uncommon.

lish, it is our painful duty to say that no man, except in case of extreme necessity, shall use it as reading. The translator, having little fear of human detection, and seemingly none at all of divine or diabolic, has done his work even unusually ill; with ignorance, with carelessness, with dishonesty prepense; coolly omitting whatsoever he saw that he did not understand :-poor man, if he yet survive, let him reform in time! He has made a French book, which was itself but lean and dry, into the most wooden of English false books; doing evil as he could in that matter;-and claimed wages for it, as if the feat deserved wages first of all! Reformation, even on the small

How unfortunate that there is almost no knowledge of him procurable at present! Next to none. The Paraguenos can in many cases spell and read, but they are not a literary people; and, indeed, this Doctor was, perhaps, too awful a practical phenomenon to be calmly treated of in the lite-scale, is highly necessary. rary way. Your Breughel paints his seastorm, not while the ship is laboring and cracking, but after he has got to shore, and is safe under cover! Our Buenos-Ayres friends, again, who are not without habits of printing, lay at a great distance from Francia, under great obscurations of quarrel and controversy with him; their constitutional feeling shocked to an extreme degree by the things he did. To them, there could little intelligence float down, on those long muddy waters, through those vast distracted countries, that was not more or less of a distracted nature; and then from Buenos-Ayres over into Europe, there is another long tract of distance, liable to new distractions. Francia, Dictator of Paraguay, is, at present, to the European mind, little other than a chimera; at best, the statement of a puzzle, to which the solution is still to seek. As the Paraguenos, though not a literary people, can many of them spell and write, and are not without a discriminating sense of true and untrue, why should not some real "Life of Francia," from those parts, be still possible? If a writer of genius arise there, he is hereby invited to the enterprise. Surely in all places your writing genius ought to rejoice over an acting genius, when he falls in with such; and say to himself: "Here or nowhere is the thing for me to write of! Why do I keep pen and ink at all, if not to apprise men of this singular acting genius and the like of him? My fine-arts and æsthetics, my epics, literatures, poetics, if I will think of it, do all at bottom mean either that or else nothing whatever!"

Hitherto our chief source of information as to Francia is a little book, the second on our list, set forth in French some sixteen

The Messrs. Rengger and Longchamp were, and we hope still are, two Swiss Surgeons; who in the year 1819 resolved on carrying their talents into South America, into Paraguay, with views towards "natural history," among other things. After long towing and struggling in those Parana floods, and distracted provinces, after much detention by stress of weather and of war, they arrived accordingly in Francia's country; but found that, without Francia's leave, they could not quit it again. Francia was now a Dionysius of Paraguay. Paraguay had grown to be, like some mousetraps and other contrivances of art and nature, easy to enter, impossible to get out of. Our brave surgeons, our brave Rengger (for it is he alone of the two that speaks and writes) reconciled themselves; were set to doctoring of Francia's soldiery, of Francia's self; collected plants and beetles; and, for six years, endured their lot rather handsomely: at length, in 1825, the embargo was for a time lifted, and they got home. This book was the consequence. It is not a good book, but at that date there was, on the subject, no other book at all; nor is there yet any other better, or as good. We consider it to be authentic, veracious, moderately accurate; though lean and dry, it is intelligible, rational; in the French original, not unreadable. We may say it embraces up to this date, the present date, all of importance that is yet known in Europe about the Doctor Despot; add to this its indisputable brevity; the fact that it can be read sooner by several hours than any other Dr. Francia: these are its excellencies,― considerable, though wholly of a comparative sort.

After all, brevity is the soul of wit!

There is an endless merit in a man's know

Mountains of cow and other hides, it

ing when to have done. The stupidest would appear, quitted those countries by man, if he will be brief in proportion, may fairly claim some hearing from us: he too, the stupidest man, has seen something, heard something, which is his own, distinctly peculiar, never seen or heard by any man in this world before; let him tell us that, and if it were possible, nothing more than that, he, brief in proportion, shall be welcome!

movement of the brothers Robertson, to be worn out in Europe as tanned boots and horse-harness, with more or less satisfaction,-not without due profit to the merchants, we shall hope. About the time of Dr. Francia's beginning his "reign of ter ror," or earlier it may be, (for there are no dates in these inextricable documents,) the Messrs. Robertson were lucky enough The Messrs. Robertson, with their "Fran- to take final farewell of Paraguay, and cia's Reign of Terror," and other books on carry their commercial enterprises into South America, have been much before the other quarters of that vast continent, world of late; and failed not of a perusal where the reign was not of terror. Their from this reviewer; whose next sad duty voyagings, counter-voyagings, comings it now is to say a word about them. The and goings, seem to have been extensive, Messrs. Robertson, some thirty or five and frequent, inextricably complex; to Europe, thirty years ago, were two young Scotch- to Tucuman, to Glasgow, to Chile, to Lasmen, from the neighborhood of Edinburgh, wade, and else-whither; too complex for as would seem; who, under fair auspices, a succinct intelligence, as that of our readset out for Buenos-Ayres, thence for Para- ers has to be at present. Sufficient for guay, and other quarters of that remote us to know, that the Messrs. Robertson did continent, in the way of commercial adven- bodily, and for good, return to their own ture. Being young men of vivacity and country some few years since; with what open eyesight, they surveyed with attentive net result of cash is but dimly adumbrated view those convulsed regions of the world; in these documents; certainly with some wherein it was evident that revolution raged not a little; but also that precious metals, cow-hides, Jesuits' bark, and multiplex commodities, were nevertheless extant; and iron or brazen implements, ornaments, cotton and woollen clothing, and British man ufactures not a few, were objects of desire to mankind. The brothers Robertson, acting on these facts, appear to have prospered, to have extensively flourished in their commerce; which they gradually extended up the River Plate, to the city of the Seven We have read these "Letters" for the Streams or Currents, (Corrientes so called,) first time lately: a book of somewhat aqueand higher even to Assumpcion, metropolis ous structure immeasurably thinner than of Paraguay; in which latter place, so ex- one could have wished; otherwise not tensive did the commercial interests grow, without merit. It is written in an off-hand, it seemed at last expedient that one or both free-glowing, very artless, very incorrect of the prosperous brothers should take up style of language, of thought, and of conhis personal residence. Personal residence ception; breathes a cheerful, eupeptic, soaccordingly they did take up, one or both cial spirit, as of adventurous South-Ameriof them, and maintain, in a fluctuating way, can Britons, worthy to succeed in business; now in this city, now in that, of the De la gives one, here and there, some visible conPlata, Parana or Paraguay country, for a crete feature, some lively glimpse of those considerable space of years. How many remote sunburnt countries; and has years, in precise arithmetic, it is impossible, throughout a kind of bantering humor or from these inextricably complicated docu- quasi-humor, a joviality and healthiness of ments now before us, to ascertain. In Para- heart, which is comfortable to the reader, guay itself, in Assumpcion city itself, it is in some measure. A book not to be desvery clear, the brothers Robertson did, suc-pised in these dull times: one of that excessively or simultaneously, in a fluctuating tensive class of books which a reader can inextricable manner, live for certain years; peruse, so to speak, "with one eye shut and and occasionally saw Dr. Francia with their the other not open;" a considerable luxury eyes, though, to them or others, he for some readers. These "Letters on Parhad not yet become notable. aguay" meeting, as would seem, a unani VOL. III. No. I.



increase of knowledge-had the unfolding of it but been brief in proportion! Indis putably the Messrs. Robertson had somewhat to tell: their eyes had seen some new things, of which their hearts and understandings had taken hold more or less. In which circumstances the Messrs. Robertson decided on publishing a book. Arrangements being made, two volumes of "Letters on Paraguay" came out, with due welcome from the world, in 1839.

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