« 上一頁繼續 »
think it is the wind straining the pulleys into a Breton as the leek to a Welshman, or the neighboring pits, or the wings of a the music of the Ranz des Vaches to a windmill creaking on their axis, or the Swiss. It is the key to the whole system twirling post placed on the great apple-tree of national mnemonics. We remember a to frighten off the birds; but the old peo- young Breton lady, who, after an absence ple shake their heads, and declare that of two or thee years, ran out into the fields these shrieking noises are the cries of the immediately upon her return to her native poulpicans calling to each other to run province, and flinging herself down amongst round the cromlechs on the hill side. the wheat, burst into a flood of tears at seeThose who are wise will never stir out on ing it once more. A stranger can tho. such occasions, but place a vase full of roughly comprehend the nature of this millet at the foot of their beds. The ob- feeling, although, stepping for the first ject of this precaution is to catch the poul- time into the wheat-ground, steaming with picans in a trap should they venture to that peculiar odor by which it is distincome into the house; for they are sure to guished, it is quite impossible to compreoverturn the vase in their tricksy fashion, hend how even the most patriotic ardor and they are then compelled, by a strange can overcome the disagreeable olfactory necessity of their nature, to pick it all up sensation it provokes. This wheat, howagain, grain by grain, an occupation which ever, is converted into the main article of will fully occupy them till daylight, when consumption by the peasantry; the most they are obliged to abscond.
substantial reason that can be assigned for The Evil-Eye, familiar to us in Scotch their inordinate admiration of it; and the and Irish traditions, is universal in Brittany, black bread thus produced becomes an where its influence is supposed to extend active minister in a variety of conjurations. to the communication of infectious dis. Whether the virtue is supposed to reside eases. They give to this malevolent fasci- originally in the wheat, or is only reflected nation the name of the Evil-Wind, under back upon it by the influence attributed to the impression that the pestilential effluvi- the bread itself, we have no means of deum, which streams from the eyes of such termining; but it is certain that on many persons, is carried by the air to the indivi- occasions of difficulty the bread is resorted duals who are struck by the contagion. to, not merely as a sort of sanctified agent, In the enumeration of these fanciful ter- but as a vehicle of divination.
When a rors, the hobgoblin, a venerable sprite, must first-born child is taken to the church to not be overlooked. The Breton hobgoblin be baptized, the mother hangs a piece of is a sort of harlequin among the fiends. black bread round its neck to indicate He takes the shape of different animals, the poverty of her circumstances; seeing and also answers for the demoniacal which, the evil spirits do not consider it pranks of the night-mare. The loup-worth their while to shower misfortunes garou is another formidable monster, on the infant, and so they are cheated of whose business consists in all sorts of de-their victim with their eyes open. When predations in the vicinity of towns and vil. a person is drowned, the family assemble lages. The word garou belongs to the dia-in mourning, and throw a piece of black lect of Morbihan, and signifies a cruel or bread, with a wax-light on it, into the wasavage wolf._The loup-garou is the lycan- ter; it is sure to float to the spot where thrope of the French, a lineal descendant of the body lies. When any thing is stolen, the prowling ware-wolf of the Greeks and they have a certain method of detecting Romans.
the thief by flinging pieces of black bread, A people who indulge so largely in su. of equal size, into the water, pronouncing pernatural luxuries, may fairly be allowed at each cast the name of a suspected perto pamper their imaginations with charms son ; when the real robber is named, the and exorcisms; although it must be frank- piece representing him is sure to sink. It ly conceded to the Bretons, that, except might be supposed that the certainty of where their religion seems to suggest or failure in a multitude of instances, would foster such operations, they do not often re- at last have the inevitable effect of exposing sort to them. Every body who knows the fallaciousness of the test; but the exBrittany, knows that the buckwheat which perience of all human nature proves, that is cultivated in such vast quantities over the frustration of such experiments is at. the surface, and which gives such a sickly tended by no other result than that of fixuniformity to the aspect of the country, is ing the delusion still more deeply. Such regarded by the natives with feelings of articles of belief do not depend upon the enthusiasm. Buckwheat is much the same efficacy of trial, but upon the strength of
faith ; and failure, instead of endangering out the night, digging the sands with their their credit, deepens the halo of supersti- naked feet, and stripping off between their tion by which they are invested. A be. fingers the leaves of rosemary flowers cull. liever will believe any thing rather than ed upon the beach. These women, accordthat “bis faith is in the wrong ;” and it is ing to the tradition, are natives of the so easy to shift the responsibility of disap- island who, marrying strangers, and dying pointment upon the blunders of manipula. in their sins, have returned home to their tion, that he always has a convenient ex. beloved birth-place to beg the prayers of cuse at hand which will cover any imagi- their friends. A great number of their sunable dilemma, and even transform the perstitions turn upon this clinging love for most palpable defeat into a victory. ihe scenes of their youth.
lo che districts that lie upon the sea. It is a general opinion amongst them shore, many of the popular superstitions that a hurricane can never be appeased unare full of poetical beauty, and appeal forc- til the waves have rejected and flung upon ibly to the imagination by the elegiac pa- the shore the dead bodies of heretics who thos with which they color the actual cir- perished by shipwreck, and all other uncumstances of the people. Here the popu- clean bodies. This is a fragment of the lation consists chiefly of poor fishermen old Druidical worship: a dim recollection and their families, engaged incessantly in of that association of ideas held by the the most precarious of livelihoods, and liv. Celts as existing between the purity of the ing upon an iron-bound coast, where their waters and the soul of man. The idea was perilous craft is constantly prosecuted at originally derived, probably, from observathe risk of life itself. The solitade of these tion of the natural purifying process of the scenes is intense; and the tempests which Alpine glaciers, which have a constant ten. brood over the waters, strewing the shore dency to throw up to the sides the heaps of with wrecks through all seasons of the stones and mud they accumulate in their year, help to increase the gloom that acts course. so strongly even upon those who are ac- There is a special day set apart for the castomed to contemplate the sea under all anniversary of the shipwrecked dead, callits aspects. The frequent loss of husbands ed the Jour des Morts. On this occasion and sons, the roar of the waves, and the the winds and waters are brought into acatmospheric effects which in such situa- tive requisition to supply materials for the tions present so many strange illusions spectral drama. When the wind ripples to the eye, are well calculated to work the sea into wreaths of foam, the fishermen upon the terrors of the people, and supply fancy they hear melancholy murmurs stealthem with melancholy fancies when they ing over the waves, and behold the souls of sit watching at midnight to catch the voices the poor creatures who were wrecked rise of their friends through the intervals of the upon the summits of the billows, and then storm. Their superstitions are generally in ghostly grief, pale and fugitive, melt shaped to this end; and phantoms and away like froth. If one of these sad spirits deaib-warnings are familiar io them all. happens to encounter the soul of some well
In the long winter nights when the fish beloved friend, the air is filled with cries of ermen's wives, whose husbands are out at despair at the first glance of recognition. sea, are scared from their uneasy sleep by Sometimes the fishermen, sitting in their the rising of the tempest, they listen huts at night, hear a strange and mysteribreathlessly for certain sounds to which ous melange of sounds over the bay, now they attach a fatal meaning. If they hear low and sweet, now loud and turbulent, now a low and monotonous noise of waters, trembling, groaning, and whistling with falling drop by drop at the foot of their the rising of the surge. These mixed bed, and find that it has not been caused clamors of cries and voices indicate the by natural means, and that the floor is dry, general meeting of the poor ghosts, at it is the uperring token of shipwreck. The which it appears they hold a sort of marine sea has made them widows! This fearful conversazione, and diligently relate their superstition, we believe, is confined to the histories to each other. isle of Artz, where a still more striking At the seaside village of St. Gildas, the phenomenon is said to take place. Some fishermen who lead evil lives are often distimes in the twilight, they say, large white turbed at midnight by three knocks at their women may be seen moving slowly from door from an invisible hand. They immethe neighboring islands, or the continent, diately get up, and impelled by some suover the sea, and seating themselves upon pernatural power, which they cannot resist its borders. There they remain through and dare not question, go down to the
"HONOR TO WOMEN.” beach, where they find long black boats, apparently empty, yet sunk so deeply in the water as to be nearly level with it. Honor to women! entwining and braiding, The moment they enter, a large white sail Life's garland with roses for ever unfading, streams out from the top of the mart, and
In the veil of the Graces all modestly kneeling,
Love's band with sweet spells have they wreathed, the barque is carried out to sea with irre.
have they bless'd. sistible rapidity, never to be seen by mortal And tending with hands ever pure, have caress’d, eyes again. The belief is that these boats The Same of each holy, each beautiful feeling. are freighted with condemned souls, and Ever truth's bright bounds outranges that the fishermen are doomed to pilot Man, and his wild spirit strives, them over the waste of waters until the
Ever with each thought that changes
As the storm of passion drivesday of judgment. This legend, like many
With heart appeased, contented, never others, is of Celtic origin, and is related by Grasps he at the future's gleam, Procopius.
Beyond the stars pursuing ever Such are a few of the saliept supersti- The restless phantom of his dream. tions of a people not yet embraced in the But the glances of women, enchantingly glowing, girdle of modern civilization, who have de. Their light woos the fugitive back, ever throwing
A link round the present, that binds like a spell ; rived none of their notions from books, and In the meek cottage home of the mother presiding, who realize in their living faith all those All graces, all gentleness, round them abiding, characteristics of Romance which we are As Nature's true daughters, how sweetly they
dwell. too apt to believe, in our sober England, have long since passed out of the world.
Man is ever warring, rushing
Onward through life's stormy way, To the Breton, the elements of that Ro.
Wild his fervor, fierce and crushing, mance are part and parcel of his daily ex. Knows he neither rest nor stay, istence; he breathes the very atmosphere Creating, slaying-day by day of the middle ages, which are not revived,
Urged by Passion's fury brood,
A Hydra band, whose heads, for aye but continued in him; and acts to the life the whole round of their enchantments, But women, to sweet silent praises resigning
Fall, to be for aye renewed. without being in the slightest degree con. Such hopes as affection is ever enshrining, scious of the performance. How long the Pluck the moinent's brief flowers as they wander people are destined to preserve
Than man, proudly soaring with fruitless endeavor tening towards solution. Two great rail
Through the infinite circles of science and song. roads from Paris—the one stretching to
Strong, and proud, and self-commending, Rouen, the capital of Normandy, and the Man's cold heart doth never move other to Orleans, on the banks of the Loire To a gentler spirit bending, -have just been thrown open. The rail.
To the godlike power of Love,
Knows not soul-exchange so tender, road is the giant annihilator of old customs
Tears, by others' tears confess'd, and provincial manners. The moment its
Life's dark combats steel, and render fiery chariot touches the boundary line of Harder bis obdurate breast ! Brittany, we may take our last look upon o wakened like harp, and as gently, resembling the Armorica of the ancients.
Ils murmuring chords to the night breezes tremb
power doth insolently trust;
Persia, crouching, bites the dust. English integrity and enterprise, that almost every
In their fury-fights engaging, improvement introduced amongst us is speedily
Combat spoilers wild and dread, carried farther and farther on the road to perfec
Strife, and war, and havoc raging tion. This embossed map is a useful and beautiful
Where the charities have fled. illustration of the fact-the first, it is announced, of But gently entreating, and sweetly beguiling, an intended series. What with the proportionate Woman reigns while the Graces around her are elevations of the mountains and the aid of color, smiling, the eye at once distinguishes all the principal fea- Calming down the fierce discord of Hatred and tures of the geography of the land; and we obtain at a glance as much information as it would take Teaching all whom the strife of wild passions would us days to gather from description or reading. The sever, design is excellent, and the execution most lauda- To unite in one bond, and with her, and for ever, ble.—Literary Gazette.
All hopes, each emotion, they else had denied.'
DR. FRANCIA AND SOUTH AMERICA. ma, have swallowed this brave Don Augus
tin : vate caruit sacro. Froin the Foreign Quarterly Review.
And Bolivar, "the Washington of Colum. 1. Funeral Discourse delivered on occa- bia,” Liberator Bolivar, he too is gone with
sion of celebrating the Obsequies of his out his fame. Melancholy lithographs relate Excellency the Perpetual Dictator of present to us a long-faced, square-browed the Republic of Paraguay, the Citizen Dr. man; of stern, considerate, consciously conJosé Gaspar Francia, by Citizen the Rev. siderate aspect, mildly aquiline form of Manuel Antonio Perez, of the Church of nose; with terrible angularity of jaw; and the Incarnation, on the 20th of October, dark deep eyes, somewhat too close to1810. (In the “British Packet and Ar-gether (for which latter circumstance we gentine News," No. 813. Buenos Ayres: earnestly hope the lithograph alone is to March 19, 1842.)
blame): this is Liberator Bolivar :-a man 2. Essai Historique sur la Révolution de of much hard fighting, hard riding, of mani
Paraguay, et le Gouvernement Dictatorial fold achievements, distresses, heroisms, and du Docteur Francia. Par MM. Rengger histrionisms in this world ; a many.coun.
et LONGCHAMP. 2de édition. Paris. 1827. selled, much-enduring man; now dead and 3. Letters on Paraguay. By J. P. and W. gone ,-of whom, except that melancholy
P. Robertson. 2 vols. Second Edition. lithograph, the cultivated European public London. 1839.
knows as good as nothing. Yet did he not 4. Prancia's Reign of Terror. (By the same.) fly hither and thither, often in the most London. 1839.
desperate manner, with wild cavalry clad 5. Letters on South America. (By the same.) in blankets, with War of Liberation to 3 vols. London. 1813.
the death ?" Clad in blankets, ponchos the 6. Travels in Chile and La Plata. By John South Americans call them : it is a square
Miers. 2 vols. London. 1826. blanket, with a short slit in the centre, 7. Memoirs of General Miller, in the Service which you draw over your head, and so
of the Republic of Peru. 2 vols. 2nd leave hanging: many a liberative cavalier Édition. London. 1829.
has ridden, in those hot climates, without The confused South American revolution, further dress at all; and fought handsomely and set of revolutions, like the South Ame too, wrapping the blanket round his arm, rican continent itself, is doubtless a great
when it came to the charge. confused phenomenon ; worthy of better
With such cavalry, and artillery and inknowledge than men yet have of it. Seve fantry to match, Bolivar has ridden, fightral books, of which we here name a few ing all the way, through torrid deserts, hot known to us, have been written on the sub mud-swamps, through ice-chasms beyond ject: but bad books mostly, and productive the curve of perpetual frost ---more miles of almost no effect. The heroes of South than Ulysses ever sailed: let the coming America have not yet succeeded in pictur- Homers take note of it. He has marched ing any image of themselves, much less over the Andes, more than once; à feat any true inage of themselves in the Cis- analogous to Hannibal's; and seemed to Atlantic mind or memory.
think little of it. Often beaten, banished Iturbide, “the Napoleon of Mexico," a from the firm land, he always returned great man in that narrow country, who was again, truculently fought again. He gainhe? He made the thrice-celebrated “ Plan ed in the Cumana regions the “immortal of Iguala ;" a constitution of no continu- victory" of Carababo and several others; ance. He became Emperor of Mexico, under him was gained the finishing "immost serene “Augustin I. ;" was deposed, mortal victory” of Ayacucho in Peru, where banished to Leghorn, to London; decided Old Spain, for the last time, burnt powder on returning ;-landed on the shore of in those latitudes, and then fled without reTampico, and was there met, and shot : turn. He was Dictator, Liberator, almost this, in a vague sort, is what the world emperor, if he had lived. Some three times knows of the Napoleon of Mexico, most
over did he, in solemn Columbian parliaserene Augustin the First, most unfortunate ment, lay down bis Dictatorship with WashAugustin the Last. He did himself publish ington eloquence; and as often, on pressmemoirs or memorials,* but few can read ing request, take it up again, being a man them. Oblivion, and the deserts of Pana- indispensable. Thrice, or at least twice,
did he, in different places, painfully con"A Statement of some of the principal events
struct a Free Constitution ; consisting of in the Public Life of Augustin de Iturbide : write for life, with liberty to name his successor,"
two chambers, and a supreme governor ten by Himself." London. 1843,
the reasonablest democratic constitution was appointed to do it. By way of prepayou could well construct; and twice, or ration, for he began from afar, San Martin, at least once, did the people on trial, de. while an army is getting ready at Mendoza, clare it disagreeable. He was, of old, well assembles “at the Fort of San Carlos by the known in Paris; in the dissolute, the phi- Aguanda river," some days' journey to the losophico-political and other circles there. south, all attainable tribes of the Pehuenche He has shone in many a gay Parisian soirée, Indians, to a solemn Palaver, so they name this Simon Bolivar; and he, in his later it, and civic entertainment, on the esplanade years, in autumn 1825, rode triumphant into there. The ceremonies and deliberations, Potosi and the fabulous Inca Cities, with as described by General Miller, are some. clouds of feathered Indians somersetting what surprising ; still more the concluding and war-whooping round him, *--and "as civic feast, which lasts for three days, which the famed Cerro, metalliferous Mountain, consists of horses' flesh for the solid part, came in sight, the bells all peeled out, and and horses' blood, with ardent spirits ad lithere was a thunder of artillery,” says Ge- bitum, for the liquid, consumed with such neral Miller! If this is not a Ulysses, Po- alacrity, with such results as one may fanlytlas and Polymetis, a much-enduring and cy. However, the women had prudently many-counselied man; where was there removed all the arms beforehand; nay, one? Truly a Ulysses whose history were five or six of these poor women, taking it worth its ink,-had the Homer that could by turns, were always found in a sober do it, made his appearance !
state, watching over the rest ;" so that Of General San Martin too there will be comparatively little mischief was done, and something to be said. General San Mar- only one or two” deaths by quarrel took tin, when we last saw him, twenty years place. ago or more,--through the organs of the The Pehuenches, having drunk their arauthentic steadfast Mr. Miers-had a hand-dent-water and horses' blood in this man. some house in Mendoza, and “his own por- ner, and sworn eternal friendship to San trait, as I remarked, hung up between those Martin, went home, and-communicated to of Napoleon and the Duke of Wellington." his enemies, across the Andes, the road he In Mendoza, cheerful, mudbuilt, white meant to take. This was what San Martin washed town, seated at the eastern base of had foreseen and meant, the knowing man! the Andes,“ with its shady public.walk, He hastened his preparations, got his artilwell paved and swept;" looking out plea- lery slung on poles, his men equipt with santly, on this hand, over wide horizons of knapsacks and haversacks, his mules in Pampa wilderness; pleasantly on that, to readiness; and, in all stillness, set forth the Rock-chain, Cordillera they call it, of from Mendoza by another road. Few things the sky-piercing Mountains, capt in snow, in late war, according to General Miller, or with volcanic fumes issuing from them: have been more note-worthy than this there dwelt General Ex-Generalissimo San march. The long straggling line of solMartin, ruminating past adventures over diers, six thousand and odd, with their half the world; and had his portrait hung quadrupeds and baggage, winding through up between Napoleon's and the Duke of the heart of the Andes, breaking for a brief Wellington's.
moment the old abysmal solitudes !-For Did the reader ever hear of San Martin's you farre along, on some narrow roadway, march over the Andes into Chile? It is a through stony labyrinths: huge rock-moun. feat worth looking at; comparable, most tains hanging over your head, on this band; likely, to Hannibal's march over the Alps, and under your feet, on that, the roar of while there was yet no Simplon or Mont- mountain-cataracts, horror of bottomless Cénis highway; and it transacted itself in chasms;—the very winds and echoes howl. the year 1817. South American armies ing on you in an almost preternatural manthink little of picking their way through ner. Towering rock-barriers rise sky-high the gullies of the Andes : so the Buenos- before you, and behind you, and around Ayres people, having driven out their own you; intricate the outgate! The roadway Spaniards, and established the reign of is narrow; footing none of the best. Sharp freedom, though in a precarious manner, turns there are, where it will behove you thought it were now good to drive the to mind your paces; one false step, and Spaniards out of Chile, and establish the you will need no second; in the gloomy reign of freedom there also instead : where- jaws of the abyss you vanish, and the upon San Martin, commander at Mendoza, spectral winds howl requiem. Somewhat
better are the suspension-bridges, made of * Memoirs of General Miller.
bamboo and leather, though they swing