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She set forth, and the Duke of Victory hastened to meet her at Igualada. Christina recapitulated all the theoretic and doctrinaire reasons of her ministers for humbling the pride and independence of the great Spanish towns; the Duke of Victory replied that perhaps she was right, though it seemed ungrateful thus to repay the towns for their late sacrifices and devotion to the constitutional cause. But right or wrong, another consideration dominated: and this was the impossibility of enforcing the law without producing an insurrection of the towns. "They could be easily reduced by a few common shot and cavalry-charges." The Duke of Victory replied, "That they might be so reduced, but that he refused to be the instrument or the orderer of such measures. But he was ready to resign."
that the Duke of Victory declared, that the triple regency might be the best mode of rule during the minority of the queen, but that for himself, he was determined to make no part of it. It would, he said, be a divided, a squabbling, and a powerless triumvirate. The true patriots then saw the danger of setting aside the general and the army, the instant after both had saved the municipal liberties of the country; they saw the probable result of setting up three not very eminent persons to perform together the all-important office; and waving their objections to Espartero, they agreed to vote him sole regent.
Thus was the Duke of Victory appointed, and he ever after showed his gratitude to the thorough liberal and patriotic party, who trusted him on this occasion. To them he delivered up the ministry: to them he promised never to interfere with the government, but to live as a constitutional ruler, above the strife and struggles of parties. In this the Duke of Victory was wrong: he should have opened his palace, lived in the throng, listened to the plaints, the desires, the feelings of all parties, and made himself adherents amongst all. The Spaniards tender eminence only on the condition of its being affable, and look upon kings, as we said before, with a kind of Arabic sentiment, as summary righters of wrongs, and controllers of all that is iniquitously done by their servants administering power. Espartero thought he acted the sovereign most fully by shutting himself in a small palace, by doing business regularly, and by eschewing all the pleasurable and representative part of his functions. He understood little of the minutiæ of politics, and cared not to talk of them. He gave no dinners, no balls, no tertullias, no card tables. In short, his salary was clean lost to the courtiers and placemen, and would-be placemen. The women declared him to be a very dull Regent, and their condemnation was fatal.
The queen and ministers knew, however, that the resignation of Espartero then, would have led to a military insurrection; for the soldiers and officers had already suspected that they were about to be dismissed, and without compensation. The end of the interview was, that the Duke of Victory must keep the command, at all events; and that Christina would consult her ministry, and, at least, not promulgate the law with the royal sanction, till after further consultation and agreement with the commander-in-chief. Christina hastened to Barcelona, met two of her ministers, and forgot, in their exhortation, the advice of the general, and her promises to him. The consequence was the double insurrection, first of Barcelona, and then of Valencia, which compelled her to abdicate. Such were the events that produced the interregnum, and left the regency to be filled by the cortes. It was evident from the first, that no one could fill that post to the exclusion of the Duke of Victory; and yet it must be owned there was great repugnance to elect him, on the part of a great number of deputies. The honest patriots dreaded to see a soldier at the head of a constitutional government, and de- The most inveterate enemies of the Remanded that one or two civilians should be gent were, however, the new and bastard associated with him in a triple regency; portion of the Liberals-those whom the but the greater number were of course the French ministerial papers called Young interested, the place and power-hunters; Spain; men jealous of the old Liberals of these saw in a triple regency many more 1809 and 1821, who looked upon Arguelles chances of rising by favor, and obtaining and Calatrava as out of date, and who considoffice, than under a single regent, a military ered themselves representatives of a new man, accustomed to order his aide-de-camp practical school of liberalism, superior to about, and utterly unskilled in appreciating any yet discovered. Caballero and Oloaddress in intrigue and skill in courtiership; zaga were the chiefs of the party: but they, therefore, also demanded the triple these gentlemen, however able as orators regency, and at first there was a decided and writers, had never succeeded in atmajority for this decision. It was then taching to them more than an insignificant
VOL. III. No. IV. 33
are successful, the military abettors rise a step. Then there are court ways of rising in the army; a handsome fellow attracting the attention of the queen or of a lady in whom king or minister is interested; and all these chances were precluded by the dull, moral regency of Espartero, to whose self and family and ministers, such ways and intrigues were utterly unknown. The young officers longed for the reign of the queens, young or old, and down with Espartero' was first their wish, and then their cry.
number of followers. Timid, tortuous and are at present cut off; promotion is now to time-serving, they were of that class of be had only by revolutions, since, if these politicians which can harass a ministry, but are incapable themselves of forming an administration. The Regent was sorely puzzled how to deal with them. Their speeches in the Cortes were backed at times by a large number of votes; but when he summoned them to his presence, and bade them form a ministry, they always declined. They had a majority for opposition, they said, but not for power. This might have puzzled a more experienced constitutional sovereign than Espartero. Soldier-like, he bade them go about their business. He was wrong. He ought, on the contrary, like Louis Philippe in similar circumstances, to have facilitated their formation of a ministry; he ought to have smiled upon them; he ought to have lent them a helping hand; and then, after they had been fully discredited by a six months' hold of power, he might easily have turned them adrift, as the king of the French did M. Thiers.
Indeed, from the first the Spanish officers were disinclined to Espartero as general, and much preferred Cordova, a diplomatist and a courtier; but the soldiers on the other hand preferred the Regent. With this class, then, especially with the noncommissioned officers, the efforts of the conspirators were chiefly made. Calumnies were circulated, promises lavished, the soldiers attached to the service were promised grades, the rest were promised dismissal to their homes: in fine, the army was debauched, and when the Regent wanted to make use of it as a weapon of defence, it broke in his hands, and pierced him.
Secure in the affection and support of the old stanch liberal party, the Regent never dreamed that these could be overcome by men affecting to be more liberal than they. But Spain was not left to itself. The French court became exceedingly jealous, at this time, of the Regent's intentions The condemnation on which Espartero's respecting the marriage of the young queen. enemies, the French, lay most stress, is his They sent an envoy, who was called a fam- want of skill in maintaining himself in powily ambassador, and who as such pretended er. Success with them covers every vir to immediate and uncontrolled access to tue. The want of it, exaggerates every dethe young queen. The Regent resisted, fect. There was a discussion at Prince the envoy left, France was more irritated, Talleyrand's one evening, as to who was and then determined on the Regent's down- the greatest French statesman in modern fall. Thirty journals were almost simulta- times. Each named his political hero. neously established in Madrid and different Talleyrand decided that Villèle was the parts of the peninsula, all of which set up the greatest man, on the ground that in a consame cry of the Regent's being sold to Eng-stitutional country he kept the longest hold land, and of Spain being about to be sa- of power: adding, that the best rope dancrificed in a treaty of commerce. Barce- cer was he who kept longest on the cord. lona, most likely to be affected by this bug. The great proof of political genius, acbear treaty, was of course the centre of cording to Talleyrand, was to stick longest opposition; and there, under the instiga- in place. The rule is a wretched one, and tion, and with the pay of French agents, yet Espartero would not lose by being even open resistance was organized, and insur- in that way judged: for no Spaniard has rection broke forth. The subsequent events are known; the bombardment, the reduction, the lenity of the Regent, the impunity of the Barcelonese, and their perseverance even after defeat in braving authority.
The army was then tampered with; at least some regiments. The Spanish officer though brave is unfortunately a gambler and an idler, with little prospect of making way in his profession by talent or by promotion in war; all chances of the latter
kept such prolonged command and influ-
to Spain by the Regent's government, was to be too minute in personal anecdote, too the honesty of its political and financial severe or too laudatory in judging him. measures. There was no court nor court Our materials too are but meager; though treasurer to absorb one-third or one-half of the Galerie des Cotemporains' which heads every loan and every anticipation, nor could our article is a popular and meritorious litthe leasers or farmers of the public reve- tle work. Our present task is, however, nue obtain easy bargains by means of a sufficiently discharged. Sen or Flores probribe. Such things were disposed of by mises at Madrid a life of Espartero in three public competition; and Calatrava in this volumes; and the Duke of Victory and respect left behind him an example, which Spain are subjects that we shall have ample will render a recurrence to the old habit of occasion and necessity to recur to. proceeding too scandalous and intolerable. So, morality and simplicity of life, though a cause of dislike with courtiers, with place and money-hunters, was, on the contrary, a rare and highly-appreciated merit in the eyes of the citizens. No one cause occasioned more disgusts and revolts in Madrid than the scandals of the court of Madrid. Its removal was a great bond of peace, whatever people may say of the salutary influence of royalty!
From the Literary Gazette.
In new Spain, as is well known, the spirit of gaming is widely spread; and all ranks indulge in that excitement to a perilous degree. The Spanish officers partook of the common passion. On one occasion, Espartero was so much the favorite of fortune, that after a long sederunt, he rose the winner of 30,000 dollars from the General Canterac mentioned above. On retiring from the gaming-table, the latter, feeling the heavy extent of his imprudence, said in a depressed manner, to his companion, "Espartero, I owe you 30,000 dollars!" "No," replied the other, laying his hand on his arm," in that room which we have left, you owed me 30,000 dollars, but here, now, you owe me nothing!!" The generosity evinced by this anecdote, needs no comment.
The party attached to the regency of the Duke of Victory as the best symbol and guard of the constitution, lay chiefly in the well informed and industrious class of citizens, such as exist in great majority in Madrid, Saragossa, Cadiz. In Catalonia the manufacturers and their workmen were against him, from a belief that he wished to admit English cotton. Seville is an old archiepiscopal seat, where the clergy have great influence; and the clergy there, as When, by the votes of the Cortes, Esparwell as rivalry of Cadiz, occasioned its re- tero became Regent, multitudes flocked sistance. There is, one may say, no rus- towards him for places, crosses, pensions, tic population in the south. All the poor provisions, and distinctions. Among congregate in towns, or belong to them, others, a very near relative came from and form a mass of ignorant, excitable, the country, of whom, after receiving a changeable opinion, that is not to be de- few visits from him, he inquired what had pended upon for twenty-four hours. There brought him to Madrid. With some hesiis throughout a strong vein of republican- tation, he stated that he had come to look ism, and a contempt for all things and per- for a maintenance for himself and his famisons north of the Sierra Morena: so that ly, now that things had changed so favornothing is more easy than to get up an al- ably for their prospects." "How much borato against the government of the time will do for that purpose?" asked the Rebeing. The north of Spain, on the contra- gent. So much, he replied, fancying the ry, depends upon its rural population; and office already conferred; but judge his suris slower to move, but much more formid- prise, when his (we were going to say) able and steady when once made to em- brother addressed him, "Return to your brace or declare an opinion. Throughout home, and whilst I live I will allow you the north, neither citizens nor servants de- that sum; but if you suppose that I, who clared against the regent. It was merely have elevated myself so high, from so low the garrisons and troops of the line. Such a station, by warring against corruption, being the force and support of the different am going to saddle you on the country, parties, one is surprised to find that Espar- you never in your life committed so gross tero so easily succumbed, and we cannot a mistake. The only way for you to rebut expect that his recall, either as regent ceive this allowance from my private purse, or general, is sooner or later inevitable. is by quitting Madrid within twenty-four hours."
The career of the Duke of Victory being thus far from closed, it would be premature to carve out his full-length statue:
Espartero's proceedings, after his march to Albacete, have never been accounted for
A TOMB IN POMPEII.
or explained. We are informed, that when he reached that place, he found that all the officers of the army had been bought over by a rich allotment of the million and a half of money which had been sent into Spain to purchase his downfall. The army, but too ill paid, was easily seduced by gold and intrigue; and the ill-fed troops, like a hungry horse, took their food wherever it was offered to them, without troubling to ask the question whether their officers were traitors or not.
Accused by his enemies, and some of them most ungrateful ones, of avarice or sordidness, it may be stated that the quarter part of Espartero's allowance as Regent has not been paid to him. His resources are the fortune brought him by his loved and affectionate lady. Why he did not throw himself on Madrid, and the fervent attachment to him and his cause of its 12,000 national guards, and other respectable citizens, we have no ground to know; but we think that what we have told, sufficiently accounts for his wavering at Albacete, where his whole plans were deranged by unexpected treachery, and he was taught to feel that his dependence on imagined friends and supporters, was most insecure and dangerous. The Spanish people, we believe, have been quite passive during the late revolution; and it is most probable that a re-action, founded on a just appreciation of his sound constitutional and commercial policy, will lead to his being invited to return to Spain. Whether, more happy in a private station, he would accept the call or not, is a question we cannot solve our opinion is, that nothing short of a national demonstration would tempt his patriotism to sacrifice his domestic repose and felicity.
THE KOWDY GUM.-Whenthe soil is washed up in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand, large quantities of gum are discovered in the soil, when and how deposited are unknown. It seems to be pure and resinous, as if the remains of primeval and extinct pine-forests, whose consistency precluded decay, while the wood itself perished. What may be its commercial value has not yet been fully ascertained. Experiments will be tried on the samples brought home in the Erebus and Terror.-Literary
DR. CHALMERS.-The Rev. Doctor preached in the open air to a congregation of several thousand persons, on Sunday week, at Banchory, near Aberdeen. A tent had been provided, but the congregation was five times as numerous as could have been accommodated within it. The scene recalled the early times of Scotch Presbyterianism.-Court Journal.
liero on one of the slabs, emblematic of death; it represents a
There is at Pompeii a square monument with a beautiful re
Oft thundering now upon the calm of night,
Since Time roll'd back the darkness of his wave,
Rich gifts are thine :- -on many a pictured wall
Here, wandering thoughtful down thy streets of wo,
Roam'd he a stormy chieftain of the wave?
Unknown that ancient sleeper's power and race,
Or his gray father wept upon his bier!
If bathed in all the sparkling dews of youth,
Enwreathed his forehead with the flowers of
The voice of history tells not; dark and cold,
Or, sage-like, watched life's torrents rushing by.
Of autumn eves, through village tombs to roam, Where many a holy text and rugged rhyme Welcome the weary traveller to his home:
So in the wondrous city of the dead
This pictured text our fainting heart sustains,
No longer driven by tempestuous blast,
Sweet emblem of the Christian "bound for home,"
"On our return through the streets, among the objects of rich, and his house is uncommonly handsome. Here is his chaminterest was the house of Sallust, the historian. Sallust was ber, his inner court, his kitchen, his garden, his dining-room, his guest-chamber, all perfectly distinguishable by the symbolical frescos on the walls. In the court was a fountain of pretty construction, and opposite, in the rear, was a flower-garden, containing arrangements for dining in open air in summer."-Willis.
FRANCE AND GREECE.
From the Examiner.
far from liberal. Even the Legitimists were much embarrassed by the offer of the said brigade; for the Duke of Bordeaux has solemnly promised rather to remain an exile than obtain his restoration by foreign troops or foreign aid. The days of Swiss guards and Irish brigades are
enced by resentment, not craft. He has consequently fallen considerably in the estimation of the Parisians, who hoped to see in him a King of Ireland. But instead of effecting any thing WEAK and ailing persons are said to live long, kingly, Mr. O'Connell declares himself a Loyalbeing able to get through or avoid those violent ist and a Legitimist, and a High Churchman, and feverish maladies which prove fatal to the and would not only restore Henry the Fifth, but strong. So seems it the case with M. Guizot would also place the French system of Public and his Cabinet. Though born scarcely life- Instruction under ecclesiastical guidance, and worthy, it has lived on, in despite of the prog- thus re-Catholicize France by the power of cennostications of state-physicians, and has at last tralization. To do this, or help to do this, by reached a kind of chronic health, which sets pre-means of an Irish brigade, would, however, be sumptive heirs in despair. Opposition, which with us lives through the year, in France has died outright during the recess; and even the press, though striking hard with flint and steel, can scarcely extricate a spark. M. Thiers has turned his back upon politics altogether, most fortunately, for this will procure the world an able, if not an impartial history, of the Consulate and Empire. M. Barrot is overcome with domestic affliction, occasioned by the loss of an only child. M. Manguin has gone to Spain, to study the meaning of the word pronunciamiento. M. Ledru Rollin has not gone to Ireland, and has ceased to make a noise at home. M. Lamartine alone makes his voice heard, like that of a pelican in the wilderness, exclaiming of the wants of the people to be represented, and against the sycophancy of those who salute and flatter princes.
You may imagine, in the dearth of political topics or excitement, to what straits the Parisian press has been put. For want of better, it has started the question of the fortifications of Paris, and denounced them once more as dangerous to the public liberties, and the security of the capital. The Legitimists support this view, looking, as they do, towards the overthrow of the present dynasty by a Parisian emeute, which the fortifications do, indeed, render impossible. The journals of the war party, however, still support the necessity of the fortifications, as the only means of national protection, should the attempt to extend the French empire to the Rhine fail, or produce a reaction and an invasion. Moreover, they object to joining in any outcry which the Legitimists were foremost to set up. Hereupon the Legitimists waxed angry, and declared that they were as liberal, as democratic, and as warlike as the Republicans.--that they came in in 1814 by the bayonets of foreigners, but that they would have much preferred doing without thein, and that to prove this they are now ready to join the men of the revolution in an outbreak upon Europe.
The Duke of Bordeaux is at Potsdam at present, where he was received at the Court of Chamberd. It is known that, a year or two back, the Emperor of Russia was willing to give his daughter in marriage to the Duke, but, from the impertinent pretensions of the old courtiers about him, the marriage failed, and the Emperor of Russia was highly offended. Since that time the Duc de Bordeaux has completely flung off the influence of the old courtiers of his uncle and aunt. He was desirous of a reconciliation with the Czar, and hoped to meet him at Berlin, but Nicholas went off to Warsaw and his grand reviews, in order to avoid the French pretender.
The Court of Berlin is full of courtesy for that in the Tuileries; and Russia, though affecting to be on distant terms with France, and to quarrel on points of diplomatic etiquette, still does not let pass any opportunity of endeavoring to estrange the French Court and Cabinets from England. The events in Greece have rendered M. Kisselef, the Russian Envoy in Paris, extremely active. The Russians represent the late insurrection at Athens as the work of Sir Edmund Lyons. Diplomatists will never admit an insurrection to be the natural result of popular discontent. The Russians say that Sir E. Lyons was jealous of Coletti's return, anxious to prevent it, and that he spared no pains to effect his purpose. The French are but too prone to listen to these calumnies; but M. Guizot, although personally interested in the success of M. Piscatory and the Ministry of Coletti, is still not the man to allow himself to be duped into even a coolness with England for supremacy on Greece. He has obtained the upper hand of England in Spain for a short time, and at no Such was the state of the controversy, when small cost, but he must be fully convinced that Mr. O'Connell's speech at the Repeal Associa-the triumphs, diplomatic or otherwise, of Engtion de rebus Gallicis, fell last Monday like a petard amongst the Parisians. Mr. O'Connell has been, till very lately, the pet of all parties in France. The ultra-Catholics upheld him as a restorer of religion, the ultra-Liberals as a successful agitator, the juste milieu, as one who kept his resistance and agitation within legal bounds. His answer to M. Ledru Rollin was considered as full of tact, and as a gentle mystification of the French Republicans. But Mr. O'Connell's speech on the 28th proves him to be the creature of impulse, not policy; influ
land over France, or of France over England, must, in the present state of the world, be nothing but an equal loss to both countries.
ELECTRO-MAGNET-A letter from Frankfort states that M. Wagner, who for many months past has been making experiments in electro-magnetism, has succeeded in moving with this agent the extraordinary weight of 70 quintals, (about three-quar[ters of a ton.)-Court Journal.