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side of the aristocracy. For a Spanish the name of a constitution. They afteraristocracy does survive: an aristocracy wards compelled her to give the reality, as of historic name, great antiquity, monied well as the name. And it was they, too, wealth, and territorial possession. The who drove Don Carlos out of the country, Dukedoms of Infantado, Ossume, Mon- in despite of the tenacity and courage of tilles, &c., are not extinct; neither are the his rustic supporters. He was driven from wearers of these titles exiled or proscrib- before Bilboa, and from every town of more ed; nor have their estates been confiscated respectability than a village. He was welor curtailed. But they have no influence; comed by the peasants and their lords, but and are scarcely counted even as pawns on every collection of citizens rejected him, the chessboard of Spanish politics. The and he and absolutism were obliged to fly Spaniards respect superiority of birth, but the country. their repect is empty. It is rather the re- There is one class, which at the close of spect of an antiquary for what is curious, revolutions is apt to turn them to its own than the worldly and sensible respect for profit, and becomes arbiter of all that surwhatever is truly valuable. The greatest vives in men and things. This is the army. efforts have been made by almost all Spanish In nations however which have no external legislators and politicians, to make use of wars, it is extremely difficult for the army the aristocracy as a weight in the political or its chiefs to win and preserve that masbalance, and as a support of throne and tery over public opinion, which is needed constitution. But as Lord Eldon compared to ensure acquiescence in military usurcertain British peers to the pillars of the pations. The French revolution, as we all East London Theatre, which hung from the know, turned to a warlike struggle beroof instead of supporting it, such has been tween France and Europe; in which France the condition of all Spanish peers or proceres was represented by her generals and armies, in any and every constitution. They sup- and in which these but too naturally took ported the government of the time being; the place of civilian statesmen and reprewere infallibly of the opinions diametri- sentative assemblies. In the more isolated cally opposite to those of the deputies; countries of England and Spain, the activity and increased the odium of the ministry, and the glory of the military terminated whether moderado or exaltado, without giv- with the civil war. The career of arms ing it the least support. The rendering was closed; the officers lost their prestige; the upper chamber elective, as was done and Cromwell, though tolerated as a de by the constitution of 1837, has not re-facto ruler, was never looked up to, either medied this. When Christina fell, the up- as the founder of a military monarchy, or per chamber was to a man in her favor; so of a new dynasty. A Cromwell would have did the whole upper chamber support Es- met with more resistance in Spain; civilian partero, when he fell. In short, the attach-jealousy is there as strong as in England; ment of the peers in Spain is ominous; it and Cromwell there was none. The Duke betokens downfall. of Victory's worst enemies could not seriously accuse him of such ambition.
Baldomero Espartero was born in the year 1792, at Granatula, a village of La Mancha, not far from the towns of Almagro and Ciudad Real. In his last rapid retreat from Albacete to Seville, the regent could not have passed far from the place of his nativity. His father is said to have been a respectable artisan, a wheelwright, and a maker of carts and agricultural implements.
The crown and the clergy, in fact, had labored in unison to destroy and humble the power of the aristocracy, as well as of the middle classes. They succeeded but too well; and in succeeding, they also strengthened that democratic principle of equality which is a monkish principle. But the crown, and the monasteries, and the aristocracy, have all gone down together, whilst the middle classes survive, and have become regenerated with a second youth. It is This artisan's elder brother, Manuel, was only they who have any force in Spain. a monk in one of the Franciscan convents It is the cities, which take the initiative in of Ciudad Real, capital of the province of all changes and all revolutions. For any La Mancha. It is one of the advantages government to incur their displeasure, is at amongst the many disadvantages of mononce to fall; none has been able to strug-asticity, that it facilitates the education and gle against them. These juntas raised the war of independence, and performed the Spanish part of their self-liberation. They again it was who enabled Christina to establish at once her daughter's rights and
the rise of such of the lower classes as give signs of superior intelligence. The friar Manuel took his young nephew, Baldomero, and had him educated in his convent. Had Spain remained in its state of wonted
peace, the young disciple of the convent an engagement was not decisive. would in good time have become, in all deal of Indian force was employed, and in probability, the ecclesiastic and the monk. many respects, the Spaniards or SpanishBut about the time when Espartero attain- born came to resemble them in fighting. The ed the age of sixteen, the armies of Napo- chief feat of the action was one brilliant leon poured over the Pyrenees, and men- charge, which, if successful or unsuccessful, aced Spanish independence. It was no decided the day. For, once put to the rout, time for monkery. So at least thought all the soldiers never rallied, at least on that the young ecclesiastical students; for these day, but fled beyond the range of immediate throughout every college in the peninsula pursuit, and often with so little loss that almost unanimously threw off the black the fugitives of yesterday formed an army frock, girded on the sabre, and flung the as numerous and formidable as before their musket over their shoulder. The battalions defeat. How long such a civil war would which they formed were called sacred. Nor have lasted, is impossible to say, had not was such volunteering confined to the foreigners enlisted in the cause, and formyoung. The grizzle-bearded monk him- ed legions, which not only stood the brunt self went forth, and, used to privation, of a first onset, but retreated or advanced made an excellent guerilla. The history regularly and determinedly. The foreign of the Spanish wars of independence and legion was the Macedonian Phalanx among of freedom tells frequently of monkish gen- the Colombians. Owing to it the Spaniards erals, the insignia of whose command were lost the fatal battle of Carabobo, and thencethe cord and sandals of St. Francis. forward made few effectual struggles against the independents, except in the high country of Peru.
Young Espartero took part in most of the first battles and skirmishes in the south of Spain, and made part of the Spanish force, we believe, which was shut up and besieged by the French in Cadiz. He here, through the interest of his uncle, was received into the military school of the Isla de Leon, where he was able to engraft a useful military education on his former ecclesiastical acquirements: for to be a soldier was his vocation, and his wish was not to be an ignorant one. The war of independence was drawing to a close when Espartero had completed his military studies, and could claim the grade of officer in a regular army. But at this same time, the royal government resolved on sending an experienced general with a corps of picked troops to the Spanish main, to endeavor to reestablish the authority of the mother-country. Morillo was the general chosen. Espartero was presented to him, appointed lieutenant, and soon after the sailing of the expedition was placed on the staff of the general.
The provinces of the Spanish main were then the scene of awful warfare. It is needless to inquire on which side cruelty began; the custom of both was almost invariably to sacrifice the lives, not only of captured foes, but of their relatives, young and aged. The war, too, seemed interminable. A rapid march of a general often subdued and apparently reduced a province in a few days, the defeated party flying over sea to the islands, or to the other settlements: but a week would bring them back, and the victors in their turn thought fit to fly, often without a struggle. Even
Espartero had his share of most of these actions. As major he fought in 1817 at Lupachin, where the insurgent chief, La Madrid, was routed. Next year he de feated the insurgents on the plains of Majocaigo, and in 1819, Espartero and Seoane reduced the province of Cochalamba. Soon after, the revolution that had for its result the establishment of the constitution, broke out in Spain; and the political parties to which it gave rise, began to agitate the Spanish army in Peru. Then the viceroy, who held out for the absolute power of Ferdinand, was deposed; and the other generals, La Serna, Valdez, and Canterac, declared for liberty abroad, as well as at home, though they still fought for preserv ing the links that bound the South American colonies to the mother country. Espartero was of this liberal military party, and served as colonel in the division which under Canterac and Valdez defeated the Peruvian independents at Torrata and Maquega, in January 1823: actions which led to the evacuation of the Peruvian capital by the congress. The Peruvians then summoned Bolivar and the Colombians to their aid, whilst the two parties in the Spanish army, royalist and independent, divided, and began to war with each other, on the news arriving of the restoration of Ferdinand. This afforded great advantage to Bolivar, and that chief pushed them with so much vigor, that the contending royalist parties ceased their strife, and united to overwhelm, as they thought, the Colombians under Paez, the lieutenant under Bolivar.
The Colombians had, however, learned era for Spain. His will conferred the sucto stand in action, and their cavalry even cession upon his daughter, and the regency to return to the charge after being routed. upon her mother. As the only hope of Their obstinacy in this respect, here dis- preserving the crown to Isabella, and influplayed for the first time, routed the old ence to herself, Christina summoned to Spanish cavalry, hitherto thought so supe- her counsels the liberals. They were of rior; and won the battle of Ayacucho, many shades; she chose the most mowhich dismissed to Spain all upholders of narchical; but was gradually obliged to Spanish supremacy. The officers and gen- accept the counsels and aid of those who erals sent home under this capitulation, frankly meditated a liberal constitution. have been since known under the epithet The ousted prince, Carlos, appealed to the of Ayacuchos. Among them were Cante- farmers and the priesthood of the northern rac, Valdez, Rodil, Seoane, Maroto, Nar- provinces; the absolutist powers of the vaez, Carrabate, Alaix, Araoz, Villalobos. east supplied him with funds; and the war Espartero had been previously sent home began. with colors and the account of success in Peru; successso soon reversed.
With very few exceptions, all the military men embraced the side of the queen When these generals returned, there and constitution. The army felt no incliwere, of course, many prejudices against nation to undergo once more the yoke of them. They had taken no part in the lib- the priesthood. And even old royalist general movement at home, which had never- erals, such as Quesada and Sarsfield, turntheless begun in the ranks of the army. ed their arms willingly against the Carlists. Their having taken previous part in the The Ayacuchos, or officers, who had served war of independence, ought to have plead- in America, showed equal alacrity; espeed for them; but most of them had been cially those who, like Espartero, had even too young to have been then distinguished. on the other side of the Atlantic been faRiego and Quiroga were the military he-vorable to a constitution. Maroto was the roes of the day. The soldiers of the con- only one of them, who, at a later period, stitution made indeed but a poor stand took command under Don Carlos. against the French invading army; still their efforts were not destined to be altogether vain, and the country preserved its gratitude towards them. On the other hand, Ferdinand and his ministers showed no inclination to favor or employ the Ayacuchos; the royalist volunteers and the monks were the only militants that the old court trusted; and thus the largest body of officers of experience were inclined to range themselves under the constitutional banner, whenever it should again be hoisted.
The years from 1825 to 1830 were spent by Espartero, as colonel of the regiment of Soria, which was quartered the most part of that time in the island of Majorca. Previous to going there he commanded the depôt of Logrono on the Ebro, where he became acquainted with his present duchess, Senora Jacinta de Santa Cruz. Her father, an old officer, brother of the late captaingeneral in the south of Spain, was one of the wealthiest proprietors of the banks of the Ebro, and Senora Jacinta was his only child. The father was not willing to give her to the soldier, however high his rank. But the marriage took place, as such marriages do, the determination of the young overcoming the scruples of the old. The present Duchess of Victory was renowned for her beauty and conjugal attachment.
The death of Ferdinand opened a new
The first constitutional general, Sarsfield, was successful. He delivered Bilboa, the first seat of the insurrection, and ever afterwards the key of the war, from the insurgents. Espartero was appointed captaingeneral of the province. But the apparition of Don Carlos in person, the funds he commanded, and the promises he made, gave fresh importance and duration to the war.
The greatest and most effectual military achievements are often those least talked about or noticed. The general who can organize an army fitly, often does more than he who wins a battle; though indeed it is the organization that leads to the winning of the battle. The organization of the British army was the first and the greatest achievement of the Duke of Wellington; and it was for the Carlists the great act and merit of Zumalacarreguy. Espartero did the same for the Spanish constitutional army, and thereby enabled it to overcome, by degrees, and in partial encounters, the formidable and spirited bands opposed to it. Valdez, who commanded after Quesada, and who had been the old commander in Peru, committed the great blunder of fighting a general action against mountaineers: whom, if he beat, he did not destroy, whereas their repulsing him was his ruin. Rodil, more cautious, ran about the hills to catch Carlos. Mina, with a regular army, waged
a war of partisans with peasants, who were another Biscay in the mountainous south. far better partisans than his troops. Cor- The indifference of the population caused dova, who succeeded, kept his army togeth- this to fail, and Don Carlos returned to the er; and handled the Carlists so roughly in north. The aim of his general was then one action, that they shrunk from attack- turned to the possession of Bilboa and Saning him. But he conceived the same fears; tander, strong places, which if mastered, declared that the war could only be carried the Carlist insurrection might repose there on by blockading the insurgent provinces; and act on the defensive. To secure these and finally resigned. points, more formidable intrenchments Espartero had, till then, distinguished were raised on the heights leading to these himself more as a brilliant cavalry officer, towns. Don Carlos hoped to form a Torres and a spirited general of division, than as Vedras on the hills of Ramales and Guara military leader of first-rate merit: but danimi. The great exploit of Espartero his honest, frank character, his abstinence was his series of successful attacks upon from the heat of political party, and the these intrenchments in May, 1839. He opinion that he wanted political genius and drove the Carlists from all of them with ambition, led to his appointment by the more very great loss; and from that moment liberal government which then took the the war drew to and end. The spirit of inhelm. The first care of the new com-surrection was broken, and justice allotted mander was to restore discipline, by a se- to Espartero the title of DUKE OF Victory. verity till then unknown in the constitutional army. His execution of the Chapelgorris for plundering a church, is well remembered. His efforts to keep the army paid, often compromised his own private fortune; and placed him in many quarrels with Mendizabal and the finance ministers of the time. He certainly gained no pitched battles: but from Bilboa round to Pampeluna he kept the Carlists closely confined to their mountain region, punished them severely when they ventured forth, and never allowed himself to be beaten.
The military struggle over, and the open rebellion put down, the parliamentary but scarcely more peaceful struggle between the two parties calling themselves constitutional, became prominent. emigration of the Spanish patriots took place in 1815 and 1823, in consequence of the absolutist reaction of Ferdinand, some of the emigrants betook themselves to England, some to France. Though paid little attention to by the governments of either country, the Spanish emigrants were cordially received by the liberal opposition in Nothing could be more advantageous both countries; and each came to admire than Zumalacarreguy's position; intrench- and adopt the ideas and principles with ed like a spider in an inaccessible and cen- which he was placed in contact. If Artral spot, from whence he could run forth guelles admired the frank school of English with all his force upon the enemy. Then, liberty, which allows popular opinion its by threatening Bilboa, the Carlist general full expression; Toreno and Martinez de could, at any time, force the Christino gen-la Rosa adopted the more cautious tenets eral to take a most perilous march to its of the French doctrinaires, or moderate relief. Twice, indeed three times, were liberals, who were for giving freedom but the Christinos forced to make this perilous march-the second time the most critical, for then Bilboa certainly could not have been saved but for the energy and aid of the British officers. To Lapidge, Wylde, and others, was due the deliverance of Bilboa. Espartero was then suffering under a cruel illness. No sooner, however, was the Luchana river crossed by British boats, than he sprang on horseback, forgot bodily pain in martial excitement, and led his troops through the Carlist cantonments and intrenchments, once more to the gates of Bilboa.
In despair, the Carlists then tried another mode of warfare. They left the northern provinces, and undertook expeditions through all the rest of Spain, to gain recruits and provisions if possible, and to find
by handfuls, and who maintained that domination and influence should be confined to the enlightened few, and sparingly communicated to the ignorant many. One can conceive the existence of such a conservative party as this in England, where such influence exists, and where the aristocratic and well-informed classes do possess this influence. But the necessity of creating and raising these classes, as was the case in Spain, and the impossibility of getting churchmen and old aristocrats to act moderate toryism when they had been steeped and bred in absolutism, rendered the policy of the moderados a vain dream. They had no upper classes, no clergy, no throne behind them: for that of Isabella required, rather than gave support.
Conscious of this weakness, and seeing
nothing Spanish around them on which municipal institutions of the country, and they could lean, the moderados placed to introduce a new and centralizing system their reliance on France, and trusted to in imitation of the French, and in lieu of that alliance to keep peace in Spain, and the old Spanish system of ayuntamientos. win recognition from Europe. Louis Phi- Their elected municipal body and magis. lippe had been enabled to do in France, trates were certainly the key of the parliasomething like what they labored to effect mentary elections, of the formation of the in Spain: although he had been obliged to national guard, of local taxation, and in fact abandon an hereditary peerage, and to base of all power. But to attack them was the his conservatism on the fears and prejudi- more dangerous; and the first mention of ces of the upper class of citizens and com- the plan raised a flame from one end of the mercial men. Spain wanted this class, yet peninsula to the other. The French court Count Toreno and his friends endeavored, pressed the queen regent to persevere, say. with less materials, to effect in Spain more ing that no sovereign power could exist in than had been done in France. unison with the present state of local and municipal independence: the queen regent did persevere, and obtained a vote of the cortes.
In the conflict between moderado and exaltado, Espartero had remained completely neutral. His sole anxiety during the war was to have his army well supplied. The Duke of Victory had, at that time, He saw that the exaltado minister did not peculiar opportunities for judging of the do this with due effect, and as his army ap- sentiments of the great towns of Aragon proached the capital in pursuit of the pre- and Catalonia and Valencia: his army was tender, he allowed it to remonstrate. This quartered amongst them, and his supplies very unwarrantable act overthrew the ex- were drawn in a great measure from them. altados, and brought back the moderados All these towns had made great sacrifices to power. It was generally believed, how during the war, and their indignation was ever, to have been the result of an intrigue great at finding that the first result of that of the staff, who imposed upon the easy war should be a deprivation of their libernature of the general. Espartero was ties. The Duke of Victory, how much soknown, notwithstanding his anxiety to im- ever he had hitherto kept aloof from poliprove the supply of his army, to have re-tics, now wrote to the queen regent, and gretted the unconstitutionality of the step remonstrated with the ministry on the danwhich produced this ministerial revolution.ger of persisting in the contemplated mea. The circumstance shows, at least, how lit-sures. His counsels were received with tle inclined was Espartero to pay court to secret derision; but as the towns could not the ultra-liberals, or to aim at assumptions of power through their influence.
be repressed without the aid of the army, the general was told that no important resolution should be taken without his concurrence. He, in consequence, quieted the apprehensions and agitation of the townsmen.
After the convention of Bergara, which pacified the north, the war still continued in Aragon, and the army was kept actively employed under Espartero in that province and in Catalonia. There was no doubt, The ministry persisted not the less in however, as to the issue. The moderados, carrying out the law: but fearing the rein power, and delivered from the fear of sistance or neutrality of Espartero, they Carlos and absolutism, entered at once on begged the queen regent to go in person to the fufilment of their principles, and the Catalonia, under pretence of sea-bathing, establishment of more conservative bases in order to exercise her influence over of administration, than those which existed. what was considered the weak mind of the For this purpose they took the most im- Duke of Victory. The French envoy, inprudent step that could have been devised. deed, opposed this journey; and predicted, Had they attacked the press, and restrained with much truth, that if once the queen its license; had they checked the turbu- regent trusted herself to the army, and to lence of the lower classes, even by laws the population of the great and liberal towns against association; had they passed the of Saragossa, Barcelona, or Valencia, she most severe penalties against conspiracy-would be forced to withdraw the obnoxious the Spaniards would have borne all but law. the moderados thought fit to attack the institution which is most truly Spanish, and that in which all classes of citizens, upper and lower, are most deeply interested. The moderados attempted to change the
Christina and her ministers both persisted. Both knew Espartero's devotion to the queen, and they reckoned on his chival rous nature to fly in the face of danger, rather than shrink in prudence from it.