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be done, since parliament had refused supplies? L. Lt. Ir.-Absolved from rules of government, prosecute the war vigorously an army in Ireland to subdue this kingdom. A. B. C. G.-some sharp expressions against parliaments, fierce advice to the King." It required no great decyphering to discover that the former was the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, the latter the Archbishop of Canterbury's grace. And here, said Pym, is our second witness: it is not easy to see how--if he meant the paper itself, paper is no person, and therefore no witness; if he meant Sir Harry Vane, he was the same witness as before. But this was not a moment for metaphys
Up then rose Sir Harry Vane the younger, "in some seeming disorder," considering the communication he was going to make, one would not have imagined it necessary to feign a blush-he would tell the House how he had become possessed of the valuable note. His father had sent him to unlock some chests of family papers; he saw with the rest a red velvet cabinet; he felt curious to know what was in that red velvet cabinet; he must have the key of that red velvet cabinet to look for more family papers; the key sent from the unsuspecting father, what should he stumble on but this note a curious note; he took a copy of it on the spot; very curious indeed-he showed it to Pym afterwards. Alas, young Sir Harry Vane was afraid his patriotism had got him into difficulties, and lost him the affection of a father for ever.
abandons the ground of law to their opponents. A bill for the total abolition of Episcopacy was soon the appendage, a proud and honorable one to Strafford, of the act of attainder: another bill, in plain palpable violation of the whole framework of the State followed, for making that parliament indissoluble except by themselves. mask of constitutionalism was torn off; daring, reckless innovation was proclaimed; and had royal army forthwith proceeded to action, Charles might justly have pleaded the defence of the established laws of the country for taking the step. It may be interesting to those who regard this parliament as the founders of our civil and religious liberties, to be reminded of another fact or two. The eighteenth charge upon which death was demanded on Strafford was, that he had actually connived at the existence of Roman Catholic Chapels in Ireland, and allowed Roman Catholics to use their own form of worship; that he had reduced the fines imposed on account of their religion, and actually tolerated them in the army. These first discoverers and institutors of the sacred rights of conscience, formally petitioned Charles in their House for the death of an unfortunate Romish priest, purely on account of his religion; the very first instance in history in which such punishment had been put on that exclusive ground. The no popery cry, so loathed by the advocates of freedom now, was carried to the highest pitch, and the House made itself a stage of the lowest farce exOld Sir Harry Vane rose up, also "in hibitions on the subject. While a report much pretty confusion," professing to be on the increase of popery in the country exceedingly indignant, and wounded to the was reading before the House, two large quick-Young gentleman, you ought not fat county members, happening to be sitto have done this-you have injured my ting together on a rickety board, it broke character irreparably-I am very angry with a loud crack. An honorable gentlewith you, and I shall frown.-And there- man, Sir John Wray by name, swore he upon the father frowned, and looked ex- smelt gunpowder, and rushed out into the ceedingly indignant and black. A variety lobby followed by a whole crowd of memof "passionate gestures" passed between bers; the people in the lobby rushed into the two actors, killing glances were ex- the streets, shouting that the House was changed; and it would require the pencil blown up, and every body killed: the alarm of a Hogarth to do justice to the exuding was carried by water into the city trainhypocrisy, the shining glutinous knavery ed bands came up with the beat of drum, of the scene. The House carried on sym- and were surprised to see the parliament pathetically the fraud! stroked, and sooth-house still standing. Mr. Hollis went up ed, and patted "the young gentleman," with an address of the Commons to the and enjoined, by formal vote, the father to be reconciled to the son.
The Commons once started and set going, rushed upon that wild and unconstitutional career, which, to the eye of impartial history, stamps with unreality all their previous professions, and entirely
Lords on the subject of this apprehended increase of popery, in which, with the ordinary puritanical cant, so well taken off by Scott, the House of Commons was compared rather indiscriminately to the fig-tree that had not yet produced fruit, and to Elijah who was carried up by a whirlwind,
back by such a sophism, is unworthy of a respectable historian. Mr. Hallam, we may add, seems ultimately to repose in the notion of a summary national justice, of which we shall only remark, that, if a nation, when it wants more liberty than it has had in past ages, has a right to destroy the man who opposes the claim, it is not easy to see why an individual who wants to have more money, may not exercise the same right, and cut the first man's throat who refuses to stand and deliver. It was unnecessary that Mr. Hallam should combine weak reasoning with bad morals, and use the arts of a sophist, when he had in reserve the doctrine of a barbarian.
and the king's advisers to the locusts and decision of the court of justice the latter to Ahitophel. being only the medium through which the The bill of attainder set going, the Com-legislative authority acts, it necessarily mons returned to Westminster Hall, pro- ceases when that authority acts immediatefessing themselves no longer accusers, but ly. The reluctant candor that first makes judges. With an inimitable life and grace, a necessary admission, and then steals it to use the words of a spectator, Strafford made before an audience pledged to his destruction, a farewell defence too wel known to be here quoted. Toward the conclusion, alluding to his children, those dear pledges a saint in heaven had left him, the memory of his deceased wife rushed vividly across his mind; for a short time he was unable to speak; the tears fell down, and he had only strength, when he resumed, for another sentence. "You will pardon my infirmity; something should have added, but am not able; therefore let it pass. Now, my lords, for myself; I have been, by the blessing of Almighty God, taught that the afflictions of this present life are not worthy to be compared to the glory which shall be revealed hereafter. And so, my lords, even so, with all tranquillity of mind, I freely submit myself to your judgment, and whether that judgment be for life or death, Te Deum laudamus." With upraised eyes he added, "In te, Domine, confido, ne confundar in æternum."
Pym answered him with the flowing hardened rhetoric of an old spokesman of the House, which failed him however remarkably, when he came to reply to some parts of that morning's defence. He broke down, became confused, looked foolish, and fumbled among his papers; showing, somewhat to the entertainment of Strafford's friends, that however fine might be his premeditated flash, he could not help showing where it ended and the real extempore began.
The inevitable downward course only now remained, which rude power could dictate to the semblance of a government and a constitution. The bill of attainder passed the Commons, and went up to the Lords, accompanied with the formidable hint which fifty-six names of Straffordian members who voted against the bill, posted up and cursed by infuriate mobs, would suggest to a poor frightened upper house. A melancholy humble visit of Charles to the Lords, begging only for Strafford's life, offering perpetual banishment, imprisonment, any thing to purchase simple existence-the feeblest tone that monarch ever had assumed before a country, brought a storm about their ears that quite overwhelmed them: boisterous crowds besieged the House, and dogged every peer in the streets with the cry of justice, justice, justice! Strafford's friends stayed away beOne word on Mr. Hallam's defence of cause they could do him no good, the this bill. It is a questionable attempt to bishops stayed away because they would save at once his credit as a lawyer, and in- not vote on a question of blood-the bill dulge his full resentment as a partisan. He passed the Lords, and went up to the king. is compelled to allow the illegality of judg- He received it on the Saturday evening, all ing Strafford by act of attainder, but he Sunday he was in an agonizing suspense. thrusts in obliquely a saving clause, that A note from Strafford in the Tower arrived the Lords voted judicially. This is mere-set your conscience at liberty, it said, special pleading. The Lords received the remove this unfortunate thing out of the bill from the Commons; they passed the way, my consent shall more acquit you, bill, and sent it up for the royal sanction. In what particular form they gave their vote, does not signify the least; they acted as a house of parliament, and not as a court; Westminster Hall was over and done with. It is self-evident that when the omnipotence of the legislature decides a point, it ipso facto removes it from the VOL. III. No. I.
than all the world can do besides. So generous an offer it was shocking to think of making use of, still it showed that Strafford saw his difficulties. Could he save him? was it possible? Would his veto be of any use? Charles said not; Strafford himself seemed to say not; would he not forgive him, nay, feel for, pity him, in his
be filling up the awkward void, storing time with acts, and making life substantial. But take away life, and the worldly principle is over; they are no longer bound to it, than they exist in it, they do not regret the loss of that which they only spent because they had, or love the rude unsightly material which their skill and labor moulded. Life the simple animal or passive they never knew or felt or had; nature gave them not the sense or organ which relishes the mere pleasure of being alive; they never thought of life itself, but only of its opportunities; and death will occupy, absorb, content them, if death is all they have to think of.
extremity? Still, though a veto would do Strafford no good, was he not bound to give it on his own account, and to free his own conscience? He summoned the judges -was the bill law? yes, an act of parliament was law, that they could say, the facts of the case were out of their province. He consulted the bishops present on the point of casuistry, and was told by Williams that he had two consciences, a public and a private one: one man only at the councilboard, who did honor to the patronage of Laud, told him plainly what he should do. "Sir," said Juxon, "if your conscience is against it, do not consent." It was the voice of truth, though it spoke alone, and From the first moment, resigned and at had Charles listened to it, could he have home with his fate, Strafford experienced made the venture, faced a raging country, in full all that inward strength which had leapt at once down the monstrous jaws grown up with the unconscious religion of wide open to devour him-it would have a noble life; a career of high motives and been far better than what he did certainly, great ends told; essential heroism passed but it was a terrific thing to do. Poor by a natural transition from its active to its Charles, after struggling through the long, passive state, and the mind which had long day, at last breathless and spent, yielded pushed and strained, and schemed and batto importunity; at nine o'clock in the even-tled while it could, melted into tenderness ing he called for the warrant for Strafford's when the strife was over. He was no man execution, and moistened the parchment to delude himself into a superficial and unwith his tears as he wrote his signature. Strafford was told to prepare himself for death on the following Wednesday.
cupied himself during the time, which his family affairs left him, in religious exercises with his chaplain and Archbishop Usher. Usher told Laud that, for a layman, he was the best instructed person in divinity he ever knew.
real frame of mind, or fancy religious feeling which he had not: his old chaplain Dr. Carr said, he was the most rigid self-examAll was now over--the statesman's life iner and scrutinizer of his own motives he with its troubles, conflicts, commotions-ever knew: yet the entire freedom with the magnificent storm was spent, and Straf- which he felt himself forgive his enemies, ford had one brief awful pause before the destroyers, and all the world-that power world closed upon him for ever. Year of all others the test of the spiritual, and after year, and hour after hour to the last, so defined in gospel law, now comforted the intensity and excitement of his career him greatly, showing that God had not left had increased, had within and around him him to his own strength when he could solquickened, like tropical nature, into a glow-idly do that which was above it. He lifted ing multiplied life, an overflowing luxuri- a natural upward eye heavenwards, and ocance, brilliancy and play of mind; and now in a moment every thought had its quietus, and all was midnight stillness within the prison walls. But the same high temper and finish of character, which had ever made him see and bend to his position, what. ever it was, bore him through his last short stage, as nobly as it had borne him to it: now that he could work no more, he reposed, and life over addressed himself to death. Do we not mistake indeed the temper of great minds all along, when we imagine that because they devote themselves to the business of life, they are therefore devoted to life? Rather should we not say that they adopt that mode of getting through it? Some trial meets all men, adversity the pampered, neglect the proud, occupation the indolent, and life itself the great. The big ardent mind must be doing something, or it pines and dies, must
Earthly trials however had not quite ended; and even this short interval was interrupted by the sad intelligence of Wandesford, who had languished and died brokenhearted in consequence of the recent events;-a mournful testimonial of his affection to send to cheer his patron's prison. Strafford shed tears over his old friend, whom he was just going to follow. He was pre-eminently a fascinating person to those he was intimate with; they were af fected almost like lovers over his loss, and grieved and sickened as if some mysterious fibre of their own life were broken. Radcliffe suffered a great change after Straf
ford's death. He was asked to write his life when he died, and excused himself with great simplicity on this score. He had been a different man ever since that event, was "grown lazy and idle, and his mind much enfeebled."-" When I lost my lord, I lost a friend-such a friend as I do not think any man hath, perhaps never man had the like a treasure which no earthly thing can countervail, so excellent a friend, and so much mine; he never had any thing in his possession and power which he thought too good for his friends; he was never weary to take pains for his friends." Some private and family business was settled with his characteristic coolness and despatch, parting instruction sent to his children, and farewells to friends. A beautiful pathetic note from Radcliffe, brought in answer many thanks for the comfort of it-all freely granted (a blessing for Radcliffe's son) and God deliver you out of this wicked world, according to the innocence that is in you. And to his young boy
"My dearest Will,-These are the last lines you are to receive from a father that tenderly loves you.
"Sweet Will,-Be careful to take the advice of those friends which are by me desired to advise you for your education. Serve God diligently morning and evening, and recommend yourself unto Him, and have Him before your eyes in all your ways. With patience hear the instructions of those friends I leave with you, and diligently follow their counsel: for, till the time that you come to have experience in the world, it will be far more safe to trust to their judgments than your own.
"Lose not the time of your youth; but gather Lose not the time of your youth; but gather those seeds of virtue and knowledge which may be of use to yourself and comfort to your friends for the rest of your life. And that this may be the better effected, attend thereunto with patience, and be sure to correct and refrain yourself from anger. Suffer not sorrow to cast you down; but, with cheerfulness and good courage, go on the race you have to run in all sobriety and truth. Be sure, with an hallowed care to have respect unto all the commandments of God, and give not yourself to neglect them in the least things, lest by degrees you come to forget them in the greatest: for the heart of a man is deceitful above all things. And in all your duties and devotions towards God, rather perform them joyfully than pensively; for God loves a cheerful giver. For your religion, let it be directed according to that which shall be taught by those, which are in God's Church the proper teachers; rather than that you should ever either fancy one to yourself, or be led by men that are singular in their opinions, and delight to go ways of their own finding out."
One remarkable instruction, which he left behind him, should be mentioned-" that
he foresaw that ruin was like to come upon the revenues of the church; and that, perhaps, they might be shared amongst the nobility and gentry; but I charge you never to meddle with any of it; for the curse of God will follow all those that meddle with such a thing." He had an opportunity of showing his love for the Church more solidly than by words. A mysterious visit from his brother-in-law, Mr. Denzil Hollis, one of the leading men in the Commons, intimated to him authoritatively that he was yet safe, if he would but pledge himself to advise the king to give up episcopacy.From what parties this offer really came, does not exactly appear. It may have come from the middle party in the House. It may have been only an attempt on Hollis's own part to save a relation by extracting some concession which might be urged to his advantage. It may have been a trick of his enemies to disgrace him, of which Hollis was made the unwitting medium. Whatever it was, Strafford met it with an answer worthy of him, that "he would not buy his life at so dear a rate ;" and the incident comes in curiously, as a last mark connecting his fate with the cause of religion and the Church.
The evening of Tuesday suggested thoughts for his passage to the scaffold the following morning. Archbishop Laud had been his fellow-prisoner in the Tower all along, and was now waiting in his cell to receive the same sentence: travellers on the same road, they had come to the same journey's end; the fast friends, the sympathizing statesmen, fellow-champions of the Church, reformers, enthusiasts, master spirits, holy man and hero, ghostly father and obedient son-they had held firm to one another in life, and in death they were not divided. They were come to a poor earthly reward of their labors-a sad end of all those letters so full of life, hope, buoyancy and animation-those halloos that flew across the Channel, those spirit-stirring thoughts which doubled the warmth in each breast by the communication-sad end of a policy which had in view the restoration of a Church and kingdom, sad end indeed of
Thorough." Strafford wanted to see Laud just once more, to take a last farewell, and asked leave of the lieutenant of the Tower for a short interview with his fellow-prisoner. The lieutenant said it was impossible without the leave of parliament. "You shall hear all that passes, said Strafford with playful sarcasm; it is too late for him to plot heresie, or me to plot treason." The lieutenant repeated his refusal, but
wished Strafford to send to Parliament for | medical science in the case of those who leave. Strafford would not hear of that- have suffered from long infirmity. The hour no; parliament had done with him, and he had done with parliament. "I have gotten my despatch from them, and will trouble them no more. But my lord," he added, turning to Usher who was by, "What I should have spoken to my Lord's Grace of Canterbury is this: you shall desire the Archbishop to lend me his prayers this night, and to give me his blessing when I go abroad to-morrow, and to be at his window, that by my last farewell I may give him thanks for this and all other his former favors." The message was delivered to Laud-he replied he would do the first, he could not answer for the second.
All London was out the next morning, and a hundred thousand people lined the avenues to the Tower, eager to witness the behavior of the great, once dreaded minister on the scaffold. Strafford left his room, accompanied by the lieutenant and officers of the Tower, and set out on the funeral march. As he passed under Laud's window he stopped-no Laud appeared; he turned to the lieutenant,-might he be allowed to make his reverence at any rate to the dead wall which hid the Archbishop from his eyes? Meantime Laud, apprised of his approach, showed himself at the window; Strafford bowed to the earth-My lord, your prayers and your blessing: the outstretched arms of the aged prelate bestowed both, but, overcome by grief, his utterance failed, and he fell backward in a swoon. Strafford, himself, to the last showed the genuine characteristics of his nature; as, leaving the Tower gates, he encountered the mob with wild staring eyes concentrated upon him. The lieutenant of the Tower, instantly portending mischief from their looks and numbers, desired Strafford to enter a coach, "for fear they should rush in upon him and tear him in pieces." But Strafford had all his life looked people in the face, and he would not shrink from the encounter now he would not hear of a coach. "No," he said, "master lieutenant, I dare look death in the face, and I hope the people too; have you a care that I do not escape, and I care not how I die, whether by the hand of the executioner or the madness and fury of the people-if that may give them better content, it is all one to me."And so singular and incomprehensible is the power of the mind over the body in great emergencies-that morning dissipated the illnesses of a life, producing one of those sudden lightings up of the animal frame, which are not altogether strange to
of death, which has the mysterious power sometimes of restoring even the lost faculty of reason, transformed Strafford all at once into a strong, healthy man: and now, full master of himself, wound up to the highest tone of body and mind, and Strafford all over and complete, he acted on his way to the scaffold the epitome of his life. There was no sullenness or defiance any more than timidity in his behavior, as he marched, a spectator says, like a general at the head of his army, and with open countenance and lofty courtesy bowed to the gazing crowds as he passed along. Was it not a tacit mode of saying, "People, misled, mistaken, I acquit you; I blame not you; you are not responsible for this scene: I have never had any quarrel with you, nor would you have had with me, had not deeper, subtler heads than yours, been at work. All my life I have been your friend; I have had your good in my eye: the poor have been my favorites, and I have stood up for them against the rich oppressor: my arm has been lifted up against the noble and the great, but never against you; and not you, but your betters have now conspired against me." The mob behaved with respectful silence, and not a word was spoken, or a finger raised against him as he passed along.
Having mounted the scaffold, where Archbishop Usher, the Earl of Cleveland, his brother Sir George Wentworth, and other friends, were present to receive him, he begged the people to listen while he spoke a few words.
"My Lord Primate of Ireland, and all my Lords, and the rest of these noble gentlemen, it is a great comfort to me to have your Lordships by me this day, because I have been known to you a long time, and I now desire to be heard a few words.
"I come here, my Lords, to pay my last debt to sin, which is death, and, through the mercies of God, to rise again to eternal glory.
"My Lords, if I may use a few words, I shall take it as a great courtesy from you. I come here to submit to the judgment that is passed against me; I do it with a very quiet and contented mind: I do freely forgive all the world; a forgiveness not from the teeth outward, but from my heart; I speak it in the presence of Almighty God, before whom I stand, that there is not a displeasing thought that ariseth in me against any man. I thank God, I say truly, my conscience bears me witness, that in all the honor I had to serve his Majesty, I had not