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ter accounted for by changes of climate, arising “Shedaud! I claim thy soul!" Death's angel land and water, than by the hypothesis of central

from a very different geographical distribution of speaks,

heat, or by the supposed passage of the solar sysAnd Shedaud hears, as in a dream, the call.

tem through planetary spaces of differing teinIt is no dream! Again the summons breaks

perature. If the whole of Europe had been

at any The silence of the waste, else silent all,

time submerged, other tracts now beneath the sea As though no foot of man had dared intrude

must have been elevated, and a change of temperaUpon the vastness of its solitude.

ture might bave been produced similar to that A moment more, and that stout heart of pride

which still obtains in the Southern ocean.- Mr. Rallies. “Do then, if thou must do, thy worst;

Hopkins observed, that the difference in the elevaBut let me enter this my Eden first,

tion of raised beaches in different parts of Ireland Said Shedaud. “It is not so written !" cried

did not prove an unequal elevation of the land ; the The messenger of wrath. Nor imore he spoke,

beds of oysters &c. might have originally occupied But with a sudden stroke Hurl'd from his shudd'ring steed

different depths in the sea ; and the beaches might

have been formed at different periods. He did not The tyrant. Then avenged was Heaven, and earth think that any change in the distribution of land was freed!

and water would account for the depression of tem-
perature during the glacial period. The Andes

were the chief cause of the low temperature preTh Avenger raised his hand on high, vailing along the eastern coast of South America; Thunder shook the murky sky;

and such mountains could not have existed in EuDown a fiery deluge came,

rope, since the level of the land had been proved to Grove and garden fed the flame;

be lower; and if the whole of Europe were subShook and yawn'd the cumber'd ground; merged, he thought the temperature of the region Sudden fell with crashing sound

would rather be raised than depressed. With reDome and minaret, tower and wall,

spect to Poisson's hypothesis, he stated that such Fell the shatter'd palace all;

a movement of the solar system was much more Buried in a dark abyss,

consistent with analogy than the usual assumption Lay that pile of promis'd bliss.

of its rest; and it was the only hypothesis which Heap'd by many a whirling blast,

would account for geological changes of such an Hills of 'whelming sand were cast

order and magnitude as those under consideration, On the black and blasted scene;

Sir J. W. F. HERSCHEL · On a remarkable PhoNone may trace what there hath been.

tographic process, by which dormant pictures are One alone was spared to tell

produced, capable of development by the breath or What that Paradise befell !

by keeping in a moist atmosphere.'-If nitrate of
silver, specific gravity 1.200, be added to ferro-tar-

taric acid, specific gravity 1.023, a precipitate falls, Ages have past--the tale is old

which is in great measure redissolved by a gentle Yet still, aa roves some Arab bold

heat, leaving a black sedirnent, which being cleared Those buried ruins nigh,

by subsidence, a liquid of a pale yellow color is obThe dimly shadow'd forms he sees

tained, in which a further addition of the nitrate Of impious Shedaud's towers and trees, causes no turbidness. When the total quantity of Marking the hazy sky.

the nitrated solution added amounts to about half But ever, as the spot he gains,

the bulk of the ferro-tartaric acid, it is enough. The The vision fades, and nought remains liquid so prepared does not alter by keeping in the Of his fancy traced ;

dark. Spread on paper and exposed wet to the sunHe only views a sparkling rill,

shine (partly shaded) for a few seconds, no impresThat through the sand-heap struggles still, sion seems to have been made, but by degrees, alTo cheer the lonely waste.

though withdrawn from the action of the ligbt, it

developes itself spontaneously, and at length beNOTE. The authority, if I may use so grave a term, which I have chictly followed in this little poem, is a legend (by whom

comes very intense. But if the paper be thoroughly and whence translated I know not) in the Lady's Magazine for dried in the dark, (in which state it is of a very pale October, 1809. It is entitled " The Garden of Irim: a Persian greenish yellow color,) it possesses the singular

See, also, Sale's Koran, Preliminary Discourse, in the former property of receiving a dormant, or invisible picpart of Sect. I.,) and note on chap. Ixxxix.

ture; to produce which, (if it be, for instance, an engraving that is to be copied,) from thirty seconds to a minute's exposure to the sunshine is requisite. It should not be continued too long, as not only is the ultimate effect less striking, but a picture begins

to be risibly produced, which darkens spontaneously Extracts from the Proceedings of a Meeting of the British Sci- after it is withdrawn. But if the exposure be disentific Association.

continued before this effect comes on, an invisible Mr. Nevins mentioned the occurrence of a sub- impression is the result, to develope which all that is marine forest at the mouth of a small stream in necessary is to breathe upon it, when it immediately Tramore Bay, showing a recent change of level in appears, and very speedily acquires an extraordinary a direction contrary to that indicated by the raised intensity and sharpness as if by magic. Instead of beaches.- Mr. Phillips also mentioned evidences the breath, it may be subject to the regulated action of local elevation and depression, occurring in the of aqueous vapor, by laying it in a blotting-paper space of one mile, on the eastern coast of York- book, of which some of the outer leaves on both shire, from which he inferred that the movement sides have been damped, or by holding it over warm had not been uniform, but oscillating.--Mr. Lyell water. Many preparations, both of silver and gold, stated, that he believed the complicated evidence possess a similar property in an inferior degree, but of changes of level during the latest geological pe- none that I have yet mei with to any thing like the riods, both in Europe and America, would be bet- extent of that above described.-Athenæum.


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HISTORY OF LETTER-WRITING. present is, perhaps, a juncture in which that From the Literary Gazette.

portion of this work will be found especially in

ieresting.” History of Letter-Wriling from the earliest Pe

The first stone also is thus laid: riod to the Fifth Century. By W. Roberts, Esq. , Barrister at Law. 8vo. pp. 700. W. writing, we shall in vain look for any certain

"In tracing the history and origin of letterPickering

date. The honor of the invention has been given This massive tome is full of learning and re- to Atossa, the daughter of Cyrus ; married sucsearch; too full, we fear, for popularity in these cessively to Cambyses and Darius Hystaspes, days, however much it may be prized by the by which latter prince she became the mother judicious few who continue to regale on more of Xerxes. The authority for this supposed fact solid literature. After briefly referring to Cice- is the testimony of Hellanicus, a general historo, Pliny, Libanius, (the preceptor of the Empe- rian of the dynasties and catastrophies of anror Julian,) and others, who have either left cient states, including that of the Persians, whose examples or precepts as regards the proper works are lost, and who seems to have lived till epistolary style, Mr. Roberts says :-"I cer- about the beginning of the Peloponnesian war, tainly so far agree with the prevailing doctrine The fact as recorded by Hellanicus is preserved on this subject, as to think that letters must be by Talian and Clemens Alexandrinus. Tatian natural, to be good for much. It is not necessa- in his celebrated Oration against the Greeks, ry that they should be light or sententious, a work which has come down to us, contends sprightly or severe, rambling or methodical. that none of those institutions of which the Their excellence rather consists in their affect- Greeks were so boastful, had their origin with ing nothing, dissembling nothing, imitating no-them, but were all invented by the Barbarians : thing ;-in their fidelity to the feelings; in their and, according to this author, it was said by character of genuineness ; in a complexional Hellanicus, that a Persian queen, whose name rather than a conventional humor; in an elo- was Atossa, first composed epistles; which quence of expression, borrowing little from with statement is copied by Clemens Alexandrinus." out, but sparkling and racy from the fountains We trust our readers will not seel disappointof thought and sensibility. The play of a letter ed if we stop here, and recommend to all who should be natural, its wit unconscious, and its wish for full information on the subject, elucidatvigor involuntary. In a real good letter there ed by many very curious and interesting letters, should be something vital, something in accord- to refer to the work itself. There they will find ance with a healthy pulse of sentiment, some- what epistolary correspondence was in scriptuthing belonging to the interior man, as he stands ral ages and the period of Homer--the history of affecied by passing events, or his own experi- writing materials, forms, and conveyancesences and recollections. But letter-writing has Greek and Roman letter-writing; and, finally, its laws; and it is one of its laws that nothing examples from the fathers of the Church. We dried or "laid up for use should find admission; are tempted to copy some passages from Sidoits fruit should have upon it the bloom of our nius Apollinaris, residing at the villas of two of youngest thoughts, and a maiden dew should be his intimate friends, in a letter to his friend Doupon its leaf. In the best letters we find a cer- nidius, and affording a striking picture of the tain naive and arch use of language, in which manners and habits of the last days of Rome in images are made to play before the fancy of the west, the latter half of the fifth century. His the reader, without the formality of decided sim- first reception is by Ferreolus, a man of prefecilitudes or figures, giving a secret but a lively torean rank, and we are told: “We were hurflow to the current of composition. To know ried from one luxurious entertainment to anothe mystery of these happy combinations is the ther. Hardly had we passed the threshold, when, talent and fact of the initiated alone. These, behold, regular matches of tennis-players, withhowever, are the secrets of familiar writing, and in the rings or circular enclosures, and the freespecially of letters, as they form a part of polite quent noise and rattling of the dice, with the literature. They defy imitation, and refuse to clamors of the players! In another part were be transplanted. They are delicacies which placed such an abundance of books ready for will not bear handling-felicities which seem to use, that you might suppose yourself in the licome of themselves, while they mark the per- braries of the grammarians, or among the fection of skill."

benches of the Roman Athenæum, or the furniWe fancy this quotation to be a sort of speci- ture of the shops of the booksellers. These men of the required character in letter-writing; means of entertainment were so disposed, that rather ornate, perhaps, but what the writer the books of a serious character were placed would commend as a pattern. In speaking of near the seats assigned to the matrons, while his design, he states :-

near the benches of masters and fathers of fami“ To the letters of the wisest and most accom- lies such compositions were ranged as were in plished heathens I have added pretty copious esteem for their Latin gravity and tragic elevaspecimens from the fathers of the evangelical tion; though these volumes, the productions of Church, of the fourth and fifth centuries; in various writers, might all possess an equality of whose epistolary intercourse there will be found merit on subjects very different; for men of like matter of the gravest import, and the fullest ex-intellectual rank were mingled together: here hibition of a class of men, whose habits of Augustin, here Varro, here Horace, here Pruthought and expression were framed after a dentius, caught the eye of the reader. Among model entirely different from that which surnish- whom Adamantius Origenes, as interpreted by ed the standard of heathen morality: and the Turranius Ruflinus, was submitted to the inspec

tion of the serious readers professing our faith ; paper put that stop to my loquacity which mo-
so that the maintainers of the different opinions desty does not; of which, however, I should
on this subject might discuss the grounds upon have been much pleased to give you an account,
which some of our greatest divines have con- were I not ashamed to blur over the back of my
demned this interpretation as a very sinister paper with my ink. Besides which we are on
performance, and to be altogether avoided, al- the point of starting, and we please ourselves
ihough it was so exact a translation of each word with the hope of soon seeing you again, if God
and sentence, that neither Apuleius nor Tully permit; and then we shall best commemorate
had more faithfully executed, the one the Phædo ihe suppers we have had with our friends in the
of Plato, and the other the Ctesiphon of Demos- suppers we shall exchange with each other, only
thenes, as a rule and model for Roman elocu: let a complete week first elapse to bring us back
tion. With these studies each of us occupied to our appetites, afier this luxurjous banqueting;
himself as he pleased, until a messenger from for a stomach surfeited by luxurious fare is re-
the chief cook reminded us that it was time to paired by nothing so much as by stinting it for a
think of taking care of our corporeal part: which iime."
messenger, marking the time by the clepsydra, Upon this the author justly remarks :-“The
came very punctually at the fifth hour (11 letter presents an image of more ease and cheer-
o'clock.) Dinner was soon dispatched, alter fulness than might have been expected to exist
the senatorian custom, according to which a co- at a time when the Roman empire was falling
pious repast is served up in a few dishes, al- to pieces, and successive incursions of barbar-
though the banquet consisted both of roast and ous and unknown enemies were shaking to their
boiled. Little stories were told while we were foundation the elements of society. But there
taking our wine, which conveyed delight or in- is a tenacity in the habits of civilized life, and
struction, as they happened to be diclated by an exigency in its usages and reciprocities,
experience or gaiety. We were decorously, which sustain it in being and operation, amidst
elegantly, and abundantly entertained. Rising all the casualties and revolutions to which civil-
from table, if we were at the villa called Voro- ized communities are exposed; and thus in the
angum, we retired to our apartments to get our last catastrophe of Rome, with Goths, and Van-
necessaries from our packages. If we were at dals, and Visi-Goths, at her gates, and tramp-
Prusianum, the other villa, we turned out To- ling on her provinces, we find the bishop of Ar-
nantius and his brothers, some very select young verne and his friends, at a retreat among the
men of quality of the same standing, to make mountain-passes, enjoying all the pleasures of
room for us and our furniture. Having shaken the festive board, and as happy as good cheer
off our after-dinner nap, we amused ourselves and hospitable friendship could make them.”
with a short ride, to get an appetite for our sup-
per. Neither of our hosts had their baths com-
pleted for use, though each was constructing
them. But after the train of servants and at-
tendants which I had brought with me had a who would have thought that, in the year 1843, a

little respite from their cups, whose brains were
somewhat overcome with the hospitable bowls persecution of the Jews would have commenced'in

An edict, extraordinary at this era, of which they had freely partaken, a sort of pit though of a class common enough in the good old was dug in haste near a rivulet or spring, into times, has been issued by the General Inquisitor in which a quantity of hot bricks were thrown, a Ancona, and other districts in his jurisdiction. circular arbor being made over it by the inter- This officer, whose name is Fra Vicenzo Salina, of texture of the boughs of willows or hazels, by the order of Predicatori, master in theology, in an which the place was darkened, and air at the edict, dated in the Chancellary of the Holy Inquisame time admitted through the interspaces, sition, at Ancona, 24th June, 1843, premising that, while a hot vapor was sent through the willows it being deemed necessary to revive the full observe Here an hour or two passed in the midst of ance of the disciplinary laws relative to Israelites, much wit and merriment during which we were and “having hitherto without effect employed all thrown into a most salubrious perspiration, prayers and exhortations to obtain obedience to being enveloped in the steam as it came hissing these laws, authorized by the despatch of the Safrom the water. When we had been suffused that all Gipsy and Christian nurses must be dis

cred and Supreme Inquisition of Rome," decrees with this long enough, we were plunged into missed from Jewish families, and that Jews are the hot water; and being well cleansed and re- prohibited from availing themselves of the service freshed, we were afterwards braced by an of any Christian in any domestic occupation whatabundance of cold water from the river or foun- ever, under pain of being immediately punished tain. The river Vuardus* runs between the according to the pontifical decrees and constitutwo villas, and except when it is thickened and tions ;” that all Jews possessing permanent or discolored by the influx from the snow on the movable property, rents or shares in funds, shall neighboring heights, it is a transparent and dispose of the same within three months, or the gentle stream, with a pebbly bottoin, nor on that Holy Office will sell it; that no Jew shall inhabit account the less abounding in delicate fish. I any place where there is no Ghetto, or place of res. might go on to give you a description of our idence for Jews, &c. &c. It is not said whether suppers, which were sumptuous, did not my imputed to their brethren at Damascus. No part

the Ancona Jews are suspected of any of the pranks * “This river runs through the country of the of the secular history of this nation is more remark. Volcæ Arecomici into the Rhone, once famous for a able than the barbarous and shameful persecutions Roman bridge and aqueduct, of Roman structure, of they have endured in all times from people calling which it is said some traces may yet be seen.”

themselves Christians.--Asiatic Journal.

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THE FREE KIRK OF SCOTLAND. Nobly have the evangelical parsons vindi

cated our belief in their honesty and sinFrom the Westminster Review.

cerity. About five hundred of them have The People and the Church of Scotland. A resigned permanent for precarious incomes,

Reply to Sir James Graham and the embraced a lower status in society, conGovernment. By J. White, A. M. Sher- sented to live on one-half of their former wood.

stipends, and disdained a hundred thousand Three years ago we wrote and published pounds for the sake of their ecclesiastical an article in this Journal, saying why we principles. Knowing from intimacy at thought the Kirk bad strong claims on the school and college, in the play of boyhood, help and sympathy of every friend of Re. in the business of manhood,-aware long form.

before 1840 that the evangelical Kirkmen At that time this was assuming an unique were earnest and honorable men, who position. Letters of remonstrance poured meant what they said, -it was not a love of in upon the editor. It was deemed neces- singularity, but simply an avoidance of a sary to vindicate the article. Many Radi- shameful deviation from veracity, to declare cals and Voluntaries could find no better the faith which we had in these parsons. solution of the circumstance than a love of We were told it was a mere struggle for singularity in the writer. Parliamentary power on the part of the clergy. Their Radicals, astonished to find a journal to popular cries we were loudly told were mere which they defer taking a course beyond crafty shams and delusions to hide selfish their appreciation, could do nothing but lift ends. Nothing could drive this baseless up their hands and eyes in amazement. idea out of the heads of the Radicals. It

Three years have elapsed. Whether we was not an induction from evidence, else a or our various critics best knew the men larger and closer scrutiny of the facts on and the principles involved in the subject which it rested would have destroyed it. has been made clear by what, three years It was in vain to ask these men to look at ago, was the darkness of the future.

facts, they could not see them, because It is a singular satisfaction to the writer, their eyes were blinded by the passion of both for himself and the friends who relied hatred, of which their accusation was only on his judgment, that events have justified the expression. All over Scotland, as vaevery one of his views and realized all his cancies arose in parishes, the people found anticipations. Differing entirely as he did that their will had come to be, and the pafrom almost all the ablest and most experi- tron found that his will had ceased to be, enced men of his party, it will not be the dominant thing in the appointment of egotism, but justice, to show that a love of the pastor. But this fact was disregarded. truth, a knowledge of his subject, to which It was in vain to ask the parson-haters to he could not be false, and not a conceit of remember that when the Moderates insingularity, impelled the writer to maintain truded presentees at the point of the bay. his unique proposition of friendship to the onet it was the will of the aristocratic paKirk.

tron which lorded it over every other con. Liberals who had known skeptics become sideration; and so determinedly blind were parsons for the sake of tithes, manses, and they, that there was no use in showing them chalders, might well be excused when their that by the Veto Act the popular will, exown minds were imbued with the ideas of pressed by the Vetoing cards of communithe French Revolution, if they exclaimed, cants, had obtained the ascendency. The “Ah! we have no faith in Parsons !" But General Assembly gave the election of we declared our faith in the evangelical par- elders to the people, ihus enabling popularsons of the Kirk. We rebuked the narrow-ly-elected laymen to outvote the clergy in ness which calls every kind of honesty dis. all the church courts. The opponents of honest except the kind peculiar to the ac- the Kirkmen could not be made to see that cuser. Against the bigotry which would the whole movement began in a desire on not allow them to be honest because at first the part of the clergy to satisfy the Scripthey did not agitate for the abolition of tural convictions of their people respecting patronage, or immediately separate from the the influence that they ought to have over State, we maintained the wisdom of practical the election of pastors. Instead of being ness, and the honesty of practical men who agitators for clerical power, the clergy do the best they can, seek the best they can were themselves agitated by popular deget, and love a small good which is to be mands, their communicants requiring them had better for the nonce than all the grand to provide for them a voice in ecclesiastical unattainable abstractions out of St. Luke's. l affairs as the only means of preventing them

VOL. III. No. III. 20

from joining the Dissenters, among whom State-paid was used by Liberal journals in they would have the power both of electing a way which favored the aristocracy and and ejecting their pastors.

injured the democracy in the distribution It might have been acknowledged, with. of Church power. If there is any truth in out any very great stretch of candor, that the professions of Liberals and Radicals, the an agitation for popular power in the admis- ecclesiastical democracy of Scotland are the sion to benefices was not a very likely rightful owners of Church power in the ap. scheme for adding to clerical power. The pointment of pastors. But in the recent aim of the movement was to wrest power controversy the clergy have been the chamfrom the aristocracy, and give it to its right- pions of these popular rights, and their opful owners, the people. The friends of ponents have been the professedly Liberal popular rights ought all along to have help-press—the men who claim for themselves ed the Church in her struggles. To give on all occasions the honorable character of the people who previously were scarcely friends of the people. consulted a right to say no-a veto, when The pretext, under color of which the they had no such thing before for a century, Liberal press have masked their hostility to was plainly to increase their power, and popular Church power, has been hatred of decrease the patronate power. Yet the clerical power. By the way, it will not do great majority of journals in Scotland which for them to tell us that they were friendly profess to support the cause of the people, to giving the election of ministers into the occupied themselves in vilifying and 'de hands of all the ten-pounders in a parish, faming men at whose hands aristocratic Churchmen and Dissenters. This was never power has sustained greater reductions feasible ; and our argument is that the Kirk from whose hands democratic power has communicants were more entitled to be re. received larger accessions, than from any garded in the State than the patrons, that other men of the present generation in the contest for the power was between the Europe. To make lords less and men communicants and the patrons, and that greater, are the professed objects of the therefore it was the duty of the friends of Liberal press; yet the tendency of the la- popular power to aid the democratic rather bors of most of them were conservative of than the aristocratic claimants. The hatred aristocratic church power. Surely the of clerical power--the outcry against priestcommunicants are worthier depositaries of craft, which these journalists assume to be the State control over the State-paid Church a praiseworthy feeling, was itself in this than the patrons. Let it be granted that, case an illiberal, anti-popular, and anti-deif the State pay the clergy, the State ought mocratic thing. When the people have a to choose them; if the nation supports them, voice in the election of ministers, whether the nation ought to decide who they shall in the shape of a no or an aye, the clergy be. Certainly Liberals cannot consistently can exercise over them only the legitimate maintain that the aristocracy are to be con. influences of wisdom, knowledge, and charsidered the State—the patrons—the repre- acter. The noblest influence one man can sentatives of the nation. Popularly elected exercise over another—the most legitimate, town councils are not the only patrons. desirable, and beneficial, is the power of Most of the patrons are landholders—men convincing his reason, of giving him conwhom Liberals cannot receive as the repre-victions, and determining his conduct by sentatives of the people, nor regard their quickening old or kindling new principles interests as identical with those of the na. in his heart. To give men moral and tion. It is rare Liberalism which would spiritual theories for the guidance of their intrust State control over State-paid clergy lives is the highest and most dignified occuto an irresponsible aristocracy, rather than pation which genius and talent can accomto the communicants who belong to the plish. Man cannot do nobler work. If the people and are identical with them in all clergy implant in the minds of the people their interests. Who are most the State ? their own views of Church politics, and ihe The few patrons or the many communi- people apply those views to the election of cants? In whose hands is any portion of ministers and elders, to vilify this process power best placed? The few or the many ? either quoad the clergy by calling it spirit. According to the opinions of all Liberals, ual despotism, or quoad the people by callthe aristocracy are less identified with the ing it religious gullibility, is to blaspheme State than the electors or communicants, those holy processes of thought appointed and are less worthy depositaries of power. for the elimination of all that is good and But in Scotland, and in some cases in Lon- beautiful in civilization. When men talk of don, the argument of State-control over the the liberty of the press, they mean by it the

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