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and trembling. 'Baptiste,' I pronounced, and he trembled. Cela a changé de face, Baptiste.' 'Tant mieux, Monsieur le Docteur, tant mieux; mais Monsieur parle très bien Français ! What satisfaction did he experience in paying me this compliment !

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expression startled me a little, and the more so as it was in a hotel in the Faubourg St. Germain. 'Tout ce qui est ultra esle bête,' said the doctor, as he was criticising the conduct of one of his patients, who, not having attended to the doctor's injunctions, was suffering for his disobedience by confinement to his bed.

"Permettez-mois de vous presenter le Médecin de mon frère,' said the lady of the house, interrupting him, 'c'est un Anglais.' The doctor rose and bowed in honor of my country. Several commonplace phrases were interchanged between us; but nothing which passed denoted any thing extraordinary in the mental endowments of the phrenologist. Still, as I gazed upon his brow, I seemed to see indelibly imprinted the iron character of his soul; the stern, unyielding physiognomy which scarce allowed a smile to play upon it. His countenance was one, however, expressive of great intellect; for thus far we will go, but no farther, that the head is the 'mansion of the mind, and the index of its "And how is poor N-?' inquired the hostess.

"Now, how did Nicholas conduct himself under bodily suffering? He had received a kick from a horse, which had produced a considerable contusion. I was absent when the accident happened; but upon my return I found Nicholas stretched upon a mechanical bed. It was impossible to keep my countenance. He was beating his breast with one hand with all his might, and holding a Bible in the other. I asked him how he felt, he replied, Graces à Dieu, Monsieur le Docteur.' He continued his lamentations morning, noon, and night. It happened to be in Lent, and nobody could persuade him to touch a bit of meat; and he said grace over every glass of water which was given him to drink. His friends who came to see him got so tired of his misereres, and so disappointed at find-powers.' ing no good cheer, that they soon abandoned him. When left quite to himself, he held sweet converse therewith; and thumping his breast, and turning round the image of the Virgin, he soliloquized, Eh bien bon Dieu, tu m'as tappé fort-tu as bien fait, j'ai été un grand pécheur.' Then he crossed himself again. Laissez-moi échapper cette fois-ci-Oh bon Dieu-je confesserai à l'avenir trois fois par semaine.' Thus did he amuse himself for days and weeks, until, the bones uniting, (for he had broken his thigh,) he began to stump about as usual; and as he improved in health, his piety decreased in fervor." -Vol. i. p. 137.

In this curious family our physician seems to have spent his time pleasantly enough, between Paris in the winter, and Dieppe in the summer. He gives us very little of his French reminiscences; but we extract the following sketch of Drs. Gall and Spurzheim, then in the full bloom of their respective theories. The rival thumaturgi were men of very different char


"Dr. Spurzheim's physiognomy indicated every thing which was kind and benevolent, and he was what he appeared. A better man never lived. He had, perhaps, too great faith in his own opinions. As to the countenance of Gall, I should say that it indicated that feeling had been absorbed in interest, and that it betrayed a disbelief in every thing, and even in his own system; and if the world judges rightly, such was really the case. In conversing with several of the French professors upon this subject, I found them unanimously of this opinion. Spurzheim croit au moins à tout ce qu'il dit, comme un bon enfant. Gall n'y croit pas un mot.' Such was the opinion in Paris.


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"I first met with Dr. Gall at a patient's break fast-table. He was busily employed in eating dried salmon, for which his organs of taste seemed to have been particularly created. His first

"Oh, voilà encore un animal,' replied the doctor. 'He has taken some offence at what I said to him yesterday, and I suppose I shall not be sent for again. Indeed, I hardly think that he will live through the night.'

"Good God! is the poor old chamberlain so near his end as you say?"

"He has lived long enough,' he replied, 'to be wiser than he is. He took offence at something which I said to him, and which wounded his pride; but it was true, and had I not wrapped the bird in warm towels, it certainly would have died.'

"Pray, be more explicit,' continued the lady, and tell me what has passed. You know that we are related, and I take a great interest in all

that concerns the old

666 Why, then,' continued the doctor, 'if you will know all the gossip of the town, I was sitting yesterday by his bedside, and had paid him rather a longer visit than usual, when one of those convulsive fits of asthma to which he is so subject, and which sooner or later will put an end to his existence, began to manifest its attack. I rose to go away, and see my poor patient at home, and who wanted my care; but the asthmatic man made signs to me to stay with him till the fit was over. 1 told the attendants that I was in a hurry, that I had a patient at home waiting for me. They pressed my remaining, but I insisted that I could not; for unless I hastened to wrap the peacock, who had caught cold, in warm towels, he might perhaps die.'

"Good God!' said the hostess,' and was this the patient who interested you so? and could you leave a human being in his sufferings, to look after a peacock?'

"It is a great favorite of my's,' and he stopped himself. Your relation, the Mareschal, sent it to me from Poland. I would not lose it for any money; and when I could do good in the one case and none in the other, is there any thing so monstrous in it, pray?" "Vol. i. p. 144.

The father of Phrenology was by no

means popular with his brethren of the pro- | ladies' man, for ladies like to hear about wonder. fession at Paris; and was considered guilty of many deviations from orthodox practice. Among others, he was in the habit of denoting the drugs in his prescriptions by numbers, to which only a few confidential chemists had the key-by which means he effectually precluded not only the patient but the faculty from criticising his exhibitions. He was once persuaded to become a candidate for the Academy of Sciences, but was blackballed by every voter but one-M. Geoffroi de Saint-Hilaire, his pro


ful things, and with all such he is conversant;
but dead languages require study and applica-
tion, and these it does not enter into his heart
to conceive. He has studied truly in a great
book, and retains the best part of its contents;
but this is a book which owes nothing to the art
of printing. When in a library, he is completely
out of his element, though by his conversation
you would suppose he was quite at home; and,
without ever having read a volume, he is more
conversant with the facts therein contained than
the mere bookworm who has been groping in it
for years, but who, with all his labor and infor-
mation, cannot make himself agreeable in socie-
ty for a single hour. The other loses nothing
that he hears; he gains his knowledge as he
does his florins, by the toil of others; and he is
the calls he has upon them.
satisfied with both when they are sufficient for
They are both
equally necessary to him; he can live neither
without money nor without society; he procures
both at a cheap rate, inheriting the one, which
affords him the means of purchasing the other:
nor is he content with a modicum of either. If

he is in society he must enjoy it—he must shine

in it.

"Few people have more active or penetrating minds, better memories, and a more happy method of converting every kind of information to an useful currency.'-Vol. i. p. 277.

At the end of the stipulated five years, the physician accepts an invitation to winter with the Prince in Poland, and to proceed thence, via Odessa, to St. Petersburg; and here the really interesting part of his narrative begins. Travelling in the society of a party of high rank, he saw at least the outside of Polish high life, such as it is, or was found in the great castles of the interior, some three years before the Revolution, which spread such bitter desolation, not over the kingdom of Poland only, in which its chief military events took place, but wherever the Polish language was spoWhether it be the effect of bad education, ken; for from every corner of that ancient or of his irrepressible restless nature, and realm, some of the noblest of its children made their way to take a part in the strug on life as not worth the trouble of serious a sort of practical epicureanism which looks. gle. It is but a gloomy picture which he investigation, the Pole studies nothing; and draws of Polish society. The old destiny his knowledge is confined to what may be weighs still on the nation, and generations creditable in conversation. His life passes of trial have not yet redeemed it-patriot-in a routine of crowded, uninteresting sociism without unity, bravery without energy, ety, with little excitement but that of gamand genius without application. A hun bling;-the vice and ruin of his race from dred thousand of the nobility of this devo- the earliest period. The Russian is in mated country have peopled the deserts of Siberia since Catharine first placed its y respects a similar being; but then the Russian of rank, whatever may be his crown on the head of her paramour. Few qualifications as an individual, fills a post years have passed in which some of her children have not departed on that pilgrim- cal machine in the world, which gives his as a component part of the mightiest politiage without hope; where the last prayer of life a very different significance from the parting friends is, that they may never meet wretched, purposeless existence of the Poagain. And, in these last times, every part lish nobility. of Europe has been witness to the heroism, and the dignity, with which her high-mind-gendered by such habits as are unfortunateed exiles have endured their unequalled ly inevitable in a community of nobles and privations. Yet the Pole, at home, seems slaves, is that excessive fear of death which to be the same reckless being as ever-ex- is apt to steal over the rich and prosperous, hibiting the same insignificant, listless ways and vents itself in a thousand strange ecof living, the same mixture of indolence and impatience, the same mobility of temperament, which fills his painstaking German neighbor with astonishment, dislike, and self-exaltation.

"The nobleman of the present day is a linguist, because chance has made him so; he can talk of wars and battles, because they have been familiar to him from his cradle; he is a perfect

One curious effect of the selfishness en


"I should say that the Poles were more certain in succeeding in their attempt to kill time than the English, and that they were more apprehensive also that time would kill them. I have been consulted by many of them, not for any particular complaint, but for the sake of ascertaining my opinion as to the probability of their longer or shorter duration upon earth.

"I was sitting one fine evening upon a bench was the variety of the species. It happened in the gallery of a country house, when an old also that he died in his bed; and that, too, just at gentleman of sixty years of age approached me the time when he was perfectly convinced of with his pipe, saluted me very politely, and sat the soundness of his doctrines."-Vol. ii. p. 23. down by my side. The sun was declining, and shedding that orange autumnal tint which char- We have no patience with the pedantic acterizes his beam at this season in northern lat-airs of superiority with which strangers itudes. All was still. I was reflecting upon the similarity of the feeling which I experienced with what I have described when I was contemplating the Wrekin in Shropshire; and I thought that I could discover in my companion much the same sensations as were expressed by the ancient lady who dwelt so much upon the cruelty of the word last. Neither of us spoke for some time, till the tolling of the convent bell roused him from his reverie, and he said to me with a sigh, Ah, Monsieur, vous êtes jeune, vous vous moquez de ces cloches, mais pour moi c'est autre chose.'

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"I attempted to joke with him upon the subject; but he continued, Moi qui aime tant à vivre, et de penser que je serai fourré dans la terre comme une bête.'

"I smiled, and told him that he was still strong and hearty, and that he would outlive me yet.


Croyez vous?' he replied, and he rose abruptly, and, saying to me,Attendez un instant, je vous prie,' he went into his room, which was adjoining. He soon returned, and brought me a prescription to look at, which was given to him by Dr. in Vienna. He then asked me my opinion of it. I replied that it was excellent of its kind. His countenance brightened, and he added, 'Mon médecin m'a dit qu'avec cela,' (folding up his prescription.) 'je vivrais tant que je


are apt to condemn great national institutions in the mass; and when an Englishman dilates on the oppression of the lower classes, in countries where slavery prevails, our thoughts involuntarily turn back to the disclosures which have been recently made of the state of the same ranks of the community at home. Still there is a great difference between this purblind way of judging of the comparative evils of different systems; and the utter blindness which refuses to see the existence of evil at all. In every department of life throughout the vast Russian empire, said Dr. Clarke forty years ago, cudgels are going from morning to night.' If one could believe the report of many of our recent travellers in Russia, cudgels and whips are mere bugbears of the imagination; and the name of slaves a mere title, designating only a few legal disabilities still experienced by the happiest, best fed, best treated, and most contented peasantry in the world! Slavery is only another word for kindness and protection, on the one hand-loyalty, attachment, exemption from the cares and evils of life, on the other"Il avait raison,' I replied, and he squeezed festivals, saints' days, dances, and brandy! my hand warmly. He belonged to the class of Our author, we are bound to say, speaks those who fear only that time will kill them.'-everywhere upon this subject as an Eng Vol. i. p. 263. “During our stay in Brody, we were lodged lishman, and a man of right feeling should in an old and dilapidated castle, once capable of speak; and one with his opportunities has defence, the former residence of Count, to seen enough, in Poland and Southern Ruswhom, indeed, the whole town itself belonged. sia, to leave an impression which all the He had lately paid the debt of nature, and died attractions of the manners of the higher in the bed which he had not quitted for many classes cannot counteract, nor even their years previous. He was an eccentric character, kindness and hospitality obliterate. but a man of talent and information; and though rational upon all other points, he seemed to be do not intend to transfer to our pages his hardly so upon one, which was an idea of living pictures of the sufferings of peasants, or the longer by always remaining in bed. He actu- brutality of masters, but one or two traits ally lived, not merely in his chamber, but in his of the odd indifference with which these bed, for many years of his life, and his greatest matters are regarded. consolation was derived from reading accounts in the papers of people dying by falling off their "I was playing at cards on new-year's eve, horses, or by the upsetting of carriages, or by when the cold was very intense-I think 270 bathing in the river, or by congestions of blood Reaumur, and a servant entered the room to into the head from over exertion in walking, in run-form a nobleman that three of his peasants were ning, jumping, &c. &c. He hugged himself found frozen to death, about a mile from the upon the perusal of such accounts, and congrat-town. Il n'y a que trois, c'est peu de chose,' and ulated himself that such accidents could not happen to him. He received his guests as regularly as at any former period of his life, for no infirmi ty of the body compelled him to adopt this reso lution. He read, wrote, took his meals, and lived in fact more comfortably in his bed than Diogenes in his tub. He was no cynic, no sectarian, no philosopher: he was only known by the name of the Count who always lived in his bed. This


continued his game of quinze, without making another observation. The same circumstance might have occurred in England; but would not he to whom the news was communicated make it his care immediately to send his steward to give all the consolation possible to the distressed families? Not so with the Pole; he only became more anxious to win,his game at cards, to make up for the loss of the three peasants. This,

it is true, was an instance only of passive conduct; but I witnessed so much more active brutality exercised by the rich towards the poor, so much want of common humanity in the relations existing between them, on the part of the superior, that, so far from sympathizing with them upon the loss of their liberty, I could not but regret that they ever should have had so much in former times, seeing how cruelly they abused the little which was still left them."-Vol. i. p.


Near Odessa, the author falls in with a flight of locusts, on the estate of a countan excellent man in his way.

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mulated stores of favorable seasons rotting for lack of markets. The 'Scioto country of Ohio, the valley of Kentucky, are not more productive, or more under-cultivated, than the Ukraine, Poltava, and Lord Stanley's portentous province of Tambov, with their ten feet of black vegetable soil. What makes the difference between the condition of the farmer of the western States, in his rude and immoderate plenty, and the slave who writhes under the literal lash of the Russian slave-driver, whose wife 'goes to the plough forty-eight hours after giving birth to a child-who is kept habitually, for his master's advantage, one degree above starvation, and whom a flight of locusts, or a hard frost, reduces at once below that zero? Simply the institutions of property; which in the one country give the peasant all, and, by the custom of the division of land, enable him to keep it; and in the other nothing. If a successful sol

"We were conversing upon the history of locusts, and lamenting the ravages which they committed, when the steward was announced. He came to report upon the mischief they had done upon the estate. He informed us that the whole crop was destroyed, and that, for the distance of several versts, not a head of corn was to be found upon the stalk; every ear of it had been gnawed off by these destructive insects. Voilà donc mille guinées de perte pour cette an- dier were to erect the standard of military née ci, et ce qui est encore pire c'est que le paysan despotism at Washington; and if, on the n'aura rien à manger.' 'I am glad,' continued other hand, the Russian nobility were to the old count, that I am going to St. Peters- realize their darling vision, and establish burg this winter, for I should not like to see the the aristocratic commonwealth of which misery which these poor people will have to endure. Excusez moi, chère cousine,' turning to they dream, no necessary or immediate the countess, 'il faut que je fasse ma méridi- change would follow in the distribution of enne; and he retired to take his wonted nap." property; but, according to all ordinary Vol ii. p. 88. rules of political foresight, another generation would see a territorial aristocracy Altogether, we can conceive no better slowly erecting itself in America; while cure for the fashionable horror of American that of Sclavonic Europe would be annihihabits and institutions, than a tour in the lated, in the wildest social revolution which physical counterpart and social antipodes of the world has yet seen. Can we say, then, that region-the southern provinces of Rus- that the American sets an exaggerated sia. The traveller in that country soon has value on the principles of social equality to unlearn two or three of the fundamen- and democratic government? Do we not tal principles of Political Economy with see an unerring instinct in that excessive which he may have set out; if he ever com- jealousy with which he regards the slightmitted the mistake of supposing them more est check on the exorbitant power of the than what they are-sound conclusions majority-the slightest symptom of the elefrom assumed premises. He will find that vation of any class, whether by virtue of rent is any thing but the difference between riches, birth, or knowledge, above the genthe product of the most fertile and least eral level? That instinct is as essentially fertile soils under cultivation. He will find conservative as that of the landed gentry of that no notion can be practically less true, Great Britain ;-conservative of those intethan that wages depend on the productive- rests which the present system, whatever ness of labor. He will find regions as ex-politicians may think of it, secures to him tensive as the smaller kingdoms of Europe, in what he has good personal reason to rein which the soil is all of equal and vast gard as le meilleur des mondes possibles. And fertility, monopolized by three or four it must not be forgotten, however unwelmighty proprietors. He will find the peas- come the truth, that as far as history and antry starving amidst fields, in which the experience teach, all or nothing is the altermost unskilled labor is sufficient to raise native of the peasant. He is either absothe most luxuriant crops. Along the great lute owner of the soil he tills, or a mere rivers of Southern Russia, as along those dependent on the owner, a hired servant. of America, he may observe a fertile desert Supposing the law of primogeniture estabcrying aloud for more inhabitants; harvests lished in America, the landless cultivator without hands to gather them in; the accu- must inevitably descend, not indeed to the

level of the Russian serf; not so low, proba- finger, which, by contrast, made the smooth skin bly, as the eight shilling a-week laborer of appear even more than naturally white. the South of England, or the half-starved "I am happy, sir, to make your acquaintmétayers of Lombardy; but certainly very doubt seen many fine gardens; but I do not ance. As an Englishman, sir, you have no far indeed below his present standard. No think, sir, that you will find any thing in Poland variety of social economy has yet shown superior to Alexandrine. There is the garden fair division of profit between the owner of of Potemkin, dedicated to friendship; and, not soil and the actual tiller of it, so as to ren- far off, you will find some trees planted by the der each practically independent ;-cer- Emperor Alexander, at his last visit. You will tainly not in Tuscany, where M. de Sis-see his bust surrounded by an iron railing; it mondi imagined he had discovered this was upon that spot that he once took a cup of tea. The pagodas and statues cost me a deal economical Utopia. Perhaps future ages of money; but I paid all ready cash, and got a may see the problem solved. good discount. My garden has cost me four There are some amusing personal sketch-millions of rubles; but, as the angel said, 'you es in this part of the book. We are much bored with an old Count, who is introduced to preach on English politics, which he does a good deal in the tone of the leading articles in the Standard; but pleased with an old English General Cobley, metamorphosed into the seigneur of the lordship of Coblevoy, who is caught administering personal correction, in the most paternal fashion possible, to his drunken shepherd.

Who has not heard of the three nieces of the great Potemkin?-especially the fair and favorite Countess of Branitzka, in whose arms

know, Countess, the money has been spent in the country. You will find in your walks, sir, several pavilions; the windows in them are all of them. I made a vow that I would commemoplate glass. I have to thank Bonaparte for rate the expulsion of the French by spending ten thousand rubles in embellishments, and these windows form one of the items. In the great pavilion you will find a marble bust of the emperor, and underneath, engraved on a brass plate, (I suppose you do not read Russ, sir?) but will not sheath my sword whilst an enemy rethey are the words of the emperor himself-'I mains in my dominions.' She was running on in this style, without having allowed me to put in a word, when a sudden twinge in her face stopped her for a second, and changing her tone of voice, which was mild and harmonious, though sufficiently commanding, she turned to me and said-'Have you discovered, doctor, any remedy for the tic douloureux? I have been plagued the partner of her august mistress's most with it these ten years past.' I had now had suffisecret intimacy-the ornament of the far- cient opportunity of observing her person, and famed 'Little Society' of Czarskoe-Seloe again admired the beauty of her hand, as she and the heroine of many strange anec-reclined in her voltaire, and stroked her cheek dotes. We must observe, in passing, that of all court stories, those of the court of Catharine seems to us the most apocryphal. To find them once more on the stage carries us back to the romances of Segur and De Ligne.

"He died beneath a tree, as much unblest on The soil of the green province he had wasted, As e'er was locust on the land it blasted?"

with two fingers, passing them rapidly over the nerves of the face. She was of middle stature and stout. Her features retained all the marks of former beauty; her countenance was placid and expressive; her eyes had naturally lost much of their former brightness, but they still retained some of that animation and playful satire which are so strikingly represented in her "Nothing surprised me more than my intro- portrait, painted in her youth, where, reclining duction to the old Countess. I had expected to against a column, she points with one hand to find something noble and majestic in her exterior, the bust of Catharine. All the features of this and I had almost dreaded the presentation. portrait are still traceable in her octogenarian Imagine my surprise when I was ushered by a face. She wore a white muslin cap, and the Cossack servant into a small chamber, which rest of her dress was comprised in a Turkish was almost bare of furniture. The walls were robe-de-chambre. She took snuff in large quanmerely whitewashed, and upon the chimney-ties, which fell upon her dress." — Vol. ii. piece rested an oval cast, in plaster of Paris, of p. 38.) the late empress, which was daubed over with We should like, if we had room, to expaint. Some logs of wood were hissing beneath, and upon an oaken table were scattered some tract the account of the dinner which folloose papers and rolls of parchment. The old lows, at which, while the other dishes were lady was occupied with her steward when I en-making the usual circuit, this distinguishtered; but, after having signed a few papers, ed lady was employed in groping with her and given him her hand to kiss, he retired, and fork in a black earthenware jug, from the she returned my bow. I was struck with the


beauty of her hand, with its delicateness, its top of which a bladder had been partially apparent softness, and its unwrinkled smooth-removed, to pick out some stewed kidneys, It was worthy of a maiden of eighteen. which she consumed with a peculiar gusto. There was an immense turquoise on the middle This dish was not handed round.'


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