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is elected, the report of the proceedings of several of the large marble flags of the the previous year is read, and any question pavement have likewise been replaced. concerning the administration and applica- These excavations have not been made tion of the funds determined. The excava- on the principle adopted by Klenze, the tions already made have been very success celebrated Bavarian architect, who visited ful, and reflect great credit on the commit. Greece in 1834, in order to propose a plan tee of management.

for the restoration of the Parthenon, and The entrance to the Acropolis has been choose a site for the palace of King Oiho. cleared, and all the ruins and rubbish which He seems to have been equally unfortunate encumbered the centre of the propylæum in his opinions on both subjects, though have been removed. All the modern build- his hurried visit may afford some apology, ings have been taken down which blocked if his orders were not to exceed the time up the northern wing, and the pinakotheke he devoted to the subject. In this work, is now completely laid open. A consider- published after his return,* he expresses able portion of the cella of the Erechtheium some aların lest the actual palace should has been re-constructed, by replacing the be flooded by the llyssus, and with regard ancient blocks which had fallen, and a sixth to the restoration of the Parthenon, he caryatide has been found, so that the little considered it sufficient to take any drum portico might be restored, except for the of any column at hand, the diameter of one in the British Museum.

which nearly corresponded with the spot But the most important labor of the So- it was to occupy, and replace it on the ciety is the clearing the basement of the column to be restored. In this way he re. Paribenon, and the restoration of those placed one of the drums of a column on the parts of the building wbich were uninjured, northern side of the temple, where it still to the original places. The northern side remains, as a specimen of the unsightly fig. has been completely cleared from the earth" ure which the Parthenon would have been and rubbish which covered the fragments rendered had his play been adopted. I canof the temple, which now remain exposed not, myself, understand how a learned to view in ruined majesty. A well preserv- scholar and an architect of the classic ed metope, three more pieces of the frieze, school, like Klenze, could have entertained and several fragments of sculpture from the idea of defacing a work of the purest different parts of the temple have been architectural taste in this manner. It is found—amongst the rest a colossal owl, well known that no two columns of the about whose position the Athenian anti. Parthenon correspond exactly. The axis quaries have expressed a multitude of opin- of no column being exactly through its cenions. The old mosque in the centre of the tre, every column has likewise an inclina. Parthenon has disappeared, but it was not tion towards the centre of the building, and removed until the fall of its portico warned the basement on which they stand, and the the conservator of antiquities to remove all architrave which they support rises in the the fragments of sculpture it contained, and middle of the side. Since the time of Verres destroy it, lest it should destroy something nothing so unclassical has been done in the valuable, by the fall of its heavy dome. way of restoration, and one would almost The centre of the Parthenon would have fancy Mr. Klenze appreciated so little the presented a very meagre appearance after true principles of Hellenic art, that he con. the removal of the mosque, and even the sidered it sufficient to make a column pergeneral appearance of the Acropolis would pendicular. Cicero seems to have held that have lost something of its picturesque a man must have been an utter barbarian beauty, had nothing been done to enable who could so utterly fail to admire one of the eye to connect the two masses of build the most distinctive beauties of the Greing which formed the eastern and western cian peristyle, and we subjoin the whole fronts, and which were left almost entirely passage as possessing especial interest, for unconnected by the explosion of the Turk- it has not yet been sufficiently attended to ish powder magazine, during the last siege in illustrating this peculiarity of Doric arof Athens by the Venetians. Several columns chitecture.t in this interval bave been almost rostored froin the fragments found merely overturn

* Aphoristische Bemerkungen.

† Venit ipse in ædein Castoris : considerat temed by the explosion ; 34 drums of coluinns plum : videt undiqne tecrum pulcherrime laquea. on the northern side have been replaced in tum. præterea cælera nova atque integra : versat their original positions, and 12 on ihe south e, quærit quid agat. Dicit ei quideni ex illis cani. side. Part of the wall of the cella, and Tu Verres! hic quod molinre nihil habes, nisi forte The Society adopted a very different fological zeal and judgment of the central principle, as they considered the plan of government. For some years no one was Mr. Klenze implied a re-making, not a re. allowed to build, nay, the houses balf built, storation, of the Parthenon. No piece of were ordered to be left unfinisbed, within marble has been replaced, unless in the po- a certain limit, and government determined sition it occupied before the explosion re. to purchase all the ground for excavation. moved it. The Athenian antiquaries con- Many individuals remained ill-lodged, with sider that it will be time enough to discuss half-finished houses, and paying enormous the question, how far restoration ought to rents for upwards of eighteen months. Sudbe carried, when all the fragments in the denly the government plans were changed, Acropolis still prostrate have been reinstated and orders were given to build a large barin their original positions.

qnos iste Liguri dixerat esse circa se mulios. Vol. III. No. II. 18

vis ad perpendiculum columnas exigere. Homo

rack within the sacred inclosure; and in orNumerous interesting discoveries bave der to remove any respect to Hellenic ruins, likewise been made, but they appertain too part of the building was erected on one of exclusively to the domain of the antiquary the existing walls of the gymnasium of Haand topographer to be interesting to gene-drian, near the old Turkish bazaar, while ral readers. Part of a sculptured frieze of the rest of the area was filled up with a black Eleusinian marble belonging to the layer of rubbish seven feet deep: Erechtheium was found near that building. 'The services which the Archaiological An excavation behind the propylæum has Society of Athens has rendered to Europe, exposed to view a beautiful specimen of a may be appreciated from this fact. It could building destroyed to make way for the not, however, have accomplished as much magnificent gateway to the Acropolis, built as it has already executed, had it not reby Pericles. Many of the sites of temples ceived several donations from Western and monuments mentioned by Pausanias, Europe; and its labors would have been have been ascertained, and the inscription interrupted last year if his Majesty the King on the Trojan horse has been found on a of the Netherlands had not sent a donation vase in the position he mentions that he of 300 drachmas. A request was lately read it. Much, it is to be hoped, will be transmitted to Mr. Bracebridge, who bas found, when it is in the power of the So- been a liberal promoter of the cause of edciety to clear out the southern side of the ucation in Greece, to attempt the formation Parthenon, as they have done the northern. of a society, or the establishment of a Only about half of the metopes of this side branch of the Athenian Archaiological Soare in the British Muesum, and one is in ciety in London ; but from no official authe Museum of the Louvre, so that there thority to act having been forwarded by the seems every probability that many may be committee of management, this was found found covered with the rubbish, which, to be difficult. The state of the Athenian from the lowness of the level of the soil on Society was, however, communicated to this side, has accumulated in a greater de Colonel Leake, who, with his usual promptgree than on the north.

ness and liberality in aiding the cause of In the town, a considerable space has Greece, inmediately sent the Society a subbeen cleared out round the tower of An- scription of 500 drachmas, (£18.) As it is dronicus Kyrrhestes, or the Temple of the probable that many admirers of ancient Art Winds, as it was formerly called. In com- may be inclined to support this useful instimon conversation it is now called the Tem- tution, I have ventured io send you this long ple of Eolus, and forms an appropriate ter- statement of its affairs and proceedings. mination to one of the new streets, of course It must be observed that the archaiologiEolus Street. An excavation was also made cal commission, charged with the publicaby the Society in the Theatre of Bacchus, tion of the Ephemeris Archæologiké, in and near it a curious statue of Silenus, which the ancient inscriptions are printed, with a young Bacchus sitting on his shoul. is not a part of this Society. It consists of der, and holding a mask in his hand, was persons employed by governinent, though found.

several members of the commission have As a contrast to the labors of the Society, been elected also members of the commitI shall now mention a proof of the archai- tee of management of the Society, from pos

sessing the requisite qualification for the omnium imperitus, quærit quid sit ad perpendicu. office in the highest degree. All members lum. Dicunt ei, fere nullam esse columnuni, quæ ad of the Archaiological Society are, however, perpendiculum esse possit. Jam, mehercule, inquit, entitled to receive the journal of the comsic agamus: columnæ ad perpendiculum exigantur. mission at a moderate price. -10° Verr. 1. 'De Sartis Tectis exigendi,' pars ultima.

I shall now recapitulate the most remarkable discoveries which have been made of these excavations bas appeared in the in the Greek provinces. An excavation Annals of the Archaiological Institute at made by the late General Gordon at the Rome; and the only knowledge the world Herænm, near Argos, at which I was pre- possesses of them, is the singular work of sent, brought to light two interesting frag. Aristocles, which we have noticed; this, ments—a portion of a marble peacock and however, is the best preserved monument a large fragment of a præfix of terra cotta, of the most ancient style of Greek art when painted as a peacock's tail. Several trifles it began to rise towards perfection. in terra cotta and bronzes were likewise I hope that this letter will call the attenfound, and an extended excavation at this tion of some one in England to this subjecí, place would probably yield important re- capable of rendering it more effectual ser. sults. At Delphi several fragments of the vice than lies in my power. great temple, which it was supposed had

GEORGE FINLAY. entirely disappeared, were accidentally discovered; a small temple was also found, and the late Professor Miller made an ex

THE CHINESE FOOT-TORTURE—The means taken cavation into the ancient treasury under the to effect the alteration of the women's feet in China cella of the great temple.

are decidedly prejudicial the health, and freA considerable collection of ancient sta- quently attended with fatal consequences. This tues from all parts of Greece has been as

fact was ascertained by a clever young naval sur

geon who was for some time stationed at Chusan. sembled in the Temple of Theseus, several it happened that during an excursion into the of them belonging to the first school of art, country, he one day entered a house where he and rendering this little museum of great found a child about eight years old very ill, and interest to antiquaries, and worthy of a visit suffering under severe hectic fever; on examinafrom all admirers of classic sculpture.

tion, le discovered that her feet were undergoing

the process of distortion ; he was informed that she One of the most curious monuments in had been a year under this treatment. Moved by the collection is the figure of a warrior in pity for the little sufferer, he proceeded to remove low relief, rather above the natural size, and the bindings, and fomented the feet, which were executed with a degree of stiffness, which covered with ulcers and inflammation. The change

in shape had already commenced by the depression shows far more affinity to the style of the of the toes. The child was much relieved by, and Egina marbles than to the Attic school of evidently grateful for, his treatment. On taking Phidias. Its antiquity, and the visible his leave, he warned the mother that she would traces of the painting with which it was but his remonstrances were of no avail. When

certainly lose her child if the bands were replaced; adorned, give it great value. This curious ever he returned (and this happened frequently), piece of sculpture was found at a place he always found them on again, the woman urging called Velanideza, on the coast of Aitica, as an excuse that her daughter had better die than two or three miles south of Araphen, (Rafi- such a calamity would be her inevitable lot. As

remain unmarried, and that without improved feet na), between Halæ and Prasiæ, in the year might be expected, the child grew worse and worse. 1839. An ancient demos existed in this after a longer interval than usual, he once again plain, and near it there were forty or fifty revisited the house, but found it untenanted, and a anopened tumuli, which had excited the ai. little coffin lying at the door, in which he discover tention of several antiquaries. It is said

ed the body of his poor young patient.— Loch's

Closing Events of the Campaign in China. MAIL that a society of excavators received per. will feel the monstrous character of this madness of mission to open these tumuli, but I have the Chinese females; but is the waist-constriction never been able to obtain any exact infor- of our own any better? The extravagance is not mation on the subject, though I have ap- equally bad in kind, and there can be no doubt that

with us, perhaps, so very great in degree, but it is plied directly to Mr. Pittakis; and Profes- it also causes coffins to be laid down at doors for sor Ross was also as unsuccessful as I was.

young patients."

We fear it is an extravagance Mach mystery attended the whole proceed. not in the way of being diminished. There has ings, for the Greek government has gene- enginery called the French stay, for casing up the

been introduced of late years an atrocious piece of rally been extremely averse to all private frames of young ladies in an artificial and unyieldexcavations, and General Gordon was re- ing shape, in which they believe the ideal of form quested to discontinue his at the Heræum; to be realized. Specimens of it may be seen glass1 suppose

that many of the vases offered to cased in windows in London, and it has also traveltravellers for sale, in 1839, were from Veled into the provinces. It leaves its victims hardly

room to breathe, and entirely takes away the power lanideza. Mr. Pittakis has published no of raising their arms above their heads. "What they account of these excavations, and the Ar- might deem its worst peculiarity, if they could judge chaiological Society took no notice of them, of it at all, it makes one half of them round-shoulas it is dangerous for a body wishing to live dered, and thus adds a real deformity where it only

creates an imaginary elegance. But we must cut in peace with all men to attempt penetrat- short, remembering that this is the subject on which ing where there is mystery. No account it is of no use to speak.Chambers's Edinburgh Jour ..

Fom the Athepæum.

our

DISCOVERIES ON THE NORTH COAST OF| discovery at an enormous expense, and AMERICA.

composed of individuals baving plenty of zeal, but who, possessing very little expe

rience of the polar climate, necessarily Narrative of the Discoveries on the North Cound difficulty and danger in journeys

Coast of America ; effected by the Officers which, to the practised fur-trader, would of the i/udson's Bay Company during the have been safe and easy. In July 1836, Years 1836-39. By Thomas Simpson, Messrs. Deasc and Simpson received the Esq. Bentley

commands of the Company to conduct an This modest, unpretending volume con expedition northwards in the following tains the lively history of one of the most year, and, in the first place, descending remarkable expeditions, or rather series of Mackenzie River, and proceeding westexpeditions, on record ;-remarkable, as wards to Return Reef, the furthest point filling up and giving continuity to

reached by Sir J. Franklin in 1826, 1o exknowledge of the northern circumpolar plore the coast onwards from that point to coasts of America, through seventy-four Point Barrow, which had been reached by degrees of longitude, or, following the Mr. Elson in Beechy's voyage. Returning windings of the shore, above 2,000 miles, from this western exploration, the expedi. all explored by British enterprise ; remark-tion was to winter at the north-eastern anable as an example of bold and compre gle of the Great Bear Lake ; thence to dehensive plans, carried into execution with scend, in the following summer, the Copa rare union of consummate prudence and permine River, and to follow the coast indomitable courage, and completely suc

eastwards, as far as the mouth of the Great cessful, without a serious accident or mis. Fish River, discovered by Back in 1834. hap, during three trying campaigns. With. This eastern survey eventually proved to out accident or mishap, we say ; but alas! be the work of two summers. in the train of so signal a triumph there

Mr. Simpson started to join the expedi. followed at no great distance a sad disas- tion at its first winter quarters, near Lake ter, to which we shall return in the sequel

. Athabasca, from the Red River seulement, Owing to the untimely fate of the author which is situate in the beart of the North of this narrative, the task of vindicating his American Continent, about 300 miles W. share in the expedition has devolved on

N. W. from the remotest borders of Cana. his brother, who says, –

da, above Lake Superior. This colony lies

so far from the ordinary track of tourists, " Although Mr. Simpson's name appears and is in itself of so interesting a character, only as second or junior officer of the expedi- that we cannot refuse to glean from our Lion, the senior being Mr. Peter Warren Dease, author's pages some information respectan old and experienced officer of the Hudson's Bay Company, who co-operated with Sir John ing it: Franklin on his last expedition, - yet a glance “Situated under the 50th degree of north lati. at the narrative in the following pages will prove tude, and 97th of west longitude, at an elevation that Mr. Simpson was really the main-spring of of eight or nine hundred leet above the sea, and the expedition. He alone was at all conversant streiching for upwards of filty niles along the with science: and the most arduous parts of the wooded borders of the Red and Assiniboine service performed by the expedition—the com- rivers, which flow through a level country of pletion of the survey between Mackenzie River vast extent, it possesses a salubrious climate and Point Barrow; the exploration of the coun- and a fertile soil; but summer frosts, generated try between Great Slave Lake and the Copper-by undrained marshes, sometimes blast the mine River-essential to the transport across hopes of the husbandman, and the extremes of that rugged and sterile country (well called the abundance and want are experienced by an imBarren Grounds) of the boats and provisions of provident people. Horses, horned cattle, hogs, the expedition; and the pedestrian journey along and poultry, are exceedingly numerous. Sheep the coast, of the summer of 1838, which opened have been brought by the Company, at great the prospect of a clear sea to the eastward, se expense, from England and the Un ted siates, curing the success of the expedition in summer and are reared with success. Wheat, barley, 1839, —were performed by him alone.”

oats, potatoes, turnips, and most of the ordinary

culinary vegetables, thrive well. Pumpkins, On the failure of Sir G. Back's attempt melons, and cucumbers come to maturity in the to reach the Polar Sea by Wager Inlet, or open air in favorable seasons. Maize, pease, Repulse Bay, the Hudson's Bay Company and beans, have not been extensively cultivated ; determined to lend its aid in completing hops grow luxuriantly; flax and hemp are poor the geography of that nearly inaccessible The banks of the rivers are cultivated to the region. "It had often smiled at the expedi- width of from a quarter to half a mile. All the tions fitted out by Government for Arctic back level country remains in its original state-a vast natural pasture, covered for the greater on the region of oak terminated; but fine part of the year with caitle, and also furnishing woods of elm are found much further the inhabitants with a sufficiency of coarse hay northward, when these in turn give way to for the support of their herds during the winter. The length of this severe season exceeds five pine, poplar, and willow. Much of the months, the rivers usually freezing in Novem- country now lying desert on the western ber and opening in April

, when there is a fine side of the Manitobah and Winipegoos sturgeon fishery; but Lake Winipeg, the grand lakes, is capable of producing wheat and receptacle of the river waters, does not break other grains. The cold now became inup till the close of May. The most common tense. On the 23rd, a strong westerly sorts of wood are oak, elm, poplar, and maple; wind, at a temperature of at least 40° bepines are likewise found towards Lake Winipeg. low zero, seriously threatened the safety

* The generality of the settlers dwell in frame or loghouses, roofed with wooden slabs, bark, or of the party, and notwithstanding every shinglee, and, for the most part, whitewashed or precaution, two men were injured by the painted externally. Not a man, however mean cold. After two months' toil, our author or idle, but possesses a horse; and they vie in arrived at Fort Chipewyan, on Lake Athagay carioles, harness, saddles, and fine clothes. basca, and concludes this part of his narA great abundance of English goods is import- rative with the following observation :ed, both by the Company and by individuals, in the Company's annual ships to York Factory, “Thus happily terminated a winter journey and disposed of in the colony at moderate prices. of 1277 statute miles. In the wilderness time Labor is dear, and produce of all kinds sells at and space seem equally a blank, and for the a higher rate than could be expected in such a same reason-the paucity of objects to mark or eecluded place.”

diversify their passage; but, in my opinion, the

real secret of the little account which is made The land at the Red River colony is, in o distance in these North American wilds is, general, given gratuitously to the Hudson's that there is nothing to pay. Every assistance Bay Company's retired servants. These

is promptly rendered to the traveller without fee

or reward, while health and high spirits smile traders, scattered over the country in their at the fatigues of the way.” early years, and far removed from civilized society, usually marry Indian women, and

The forts or trading establishments of consequently, ihe population of the Red the Company, constitute so many fixed River settlement, which now amounts 10 points of Indian resort. The Indian finds five thousand souls, consists, in a great in them a market for the produce of the degree, of half-breeds. The restless, tur. chase, a refuge in case of war, and at all bulent passions of this race, have gradually times relief and instruction. It requires driven from the Red River the original all the eloquence and personal influence of Scotch settlers, who have, for the most the trader to persuade the Indian to spare part, migrated to the United States; and the young of the beaver, and other valua.

So obstinate are the red there now remain, in the vicinity of Lake ble fur animals. Winipeg, less persevering industry, and men in their improvident habits, so deeply more wild recklessness, than might be ex-seated their destructive propensities, that pected in a British colony of thirty years our anthor does not hesitate to pronounce standing. At the same time, the Red them irreclaimable. He gives the followRiver colonists are elevated far above sav. ing curious illustration of their innate love age life, and as the fur-traders now take of slaughtering game: their wives from that settlement, rather “ Near York Factory, in 1831, this propensity, than from the hut of the wild Indian, a contrary to all the remonstrances of the gentlesteady improvement in the character of men of that place, led to the indiscriminate dethe half-breed population, may be looked struction of a countless herd of reindeer, while forward to as a certain result.

crossing the broad stream of Haye's River, in On the 1st of December our anthor of the meat for present use, but thousands of

the height of summer. The natives took some started on his journey northward. There carcases were abandoned to the current, and inwas not yet any snow on the ground. The rected the river banks, or floated out into Huddogs were allowed, therefore, to draw son's Bay, there to feed the sea fowl and the empty sledges, while the travellers amused Polar bear. As if it were a judgment for this themselves with a woll-hunt, a favorite barbarous slaughter, in which women and even pastime in the plains around the colony, visited that part of the country in similar num

children participated, the deer have never since where the horses are trained to the pur: bers.” suit of the buffalo and wolf, and to stand fire at full speed. On the ice of the Lake On the shore of Athabasca lake, were of Manitobah, or the Evil Spirit, the labor built iwo sea boats, each twenty-four feet of the dogs commenced. A little further long, so much alike, and, in the eyes of the

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