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the result of early care.

Did | been from the United States. The over. they over-eat themselves, (a common case,) throw of the old system came suddenly. menials were always ready to do that for the system, which, otherwise, active exercise could The example of the southern groups, in the only have effected. People were especially destruction of their idols, added much to the trained to lomi-lomi; a kind of luxurious knead-spreading disbelief. Incontestable evidences of ing or shampooing, and stretching and cracking the falsity of their oracles, together with the inthe joints, which served completely to renovate creasing inconvenience of their absurd rites, the system, when suffering either from a surfeit confirmed the skepticism. Those interested in or fatigue. The fatter the chiefs, the more they required this operation.

Their most common position was reclining upon divans of fine mats, surrounded by a retinue, devoted solely to their physical gratification. Some fanned, brushed away insects, and held spittoons; others fed them, lomi-lomied, or dressed their hair or persons. In short, the extremes of activity or laziness, temperance or sensuality, were wholly at their option. Ambition and apathy, superstition and avarice, love and pleasure, by turns controlled them; and war, priestcraft, and oppression, varied by occasional acts of good nature, or the ebullitions of innate benevolence, which even such an education could not wholly eradicate, were the lot of their subjects.

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This was the life of a lord or of a lurdane in all its glory. From this sort of exalted condition must have come the common English phrase descriptive of vinous beatitude, as drunk as a lord." Cannibalism had not long ceased prior to the visit of Cook; and infanticide was a prevailing custom, but secretly practised, for its existence was a subsequent discovery. The condition of the women was even more degraded than among other savages. Even when a woman, in right of blood, held the sovereign authority, she was not permitted to eat with the men. The lives of the sexes were more apart than that of the humbler classes of other countries and their domestic animals.

the continuance of paganism, redoubled their efforts; threats, prophecies, and promises were freely uttered, and as freely falsified by their own failure. Like Laocoon and his offspring in the folds of the serpent, heathenism writhed and gasped, each moment growing fainter, under the strangling embrace of public opinion. Foreigners conformed to none of their rites, yet they lived and prospered; their own country. men who had gone abroad, lived in equal disregard of their ritual, and with like impunity. Individually, their memories convicted them of frequently breaking tabus, yet no evil had overtaken them, for they were unknown to the priests. Men and women had eaten together, and of forbidden food; still the predicted judgments slept; their priests must be, as the for. eigners described them, liars, and the tabu system altogether foolish and contemptible. Drunken chiefs often had violated the most sacred injunctions; no vengeance overtook them; the female rulers had of late broken through all restrictions, yet prosperity and health were still theirs. They encouraged others to do the same; and in this way the conviction of the folly of supporting an oppressive and corrupt faith for the benefit of a lew, daily strengthened.

On the very day of Kamehameha's death, a woman eat a cocoa-nut with impunity, and certain families displayed their contempt for these laws, by feasting in common.

Kaahumanu, the Queen-mother and ReSent, proved the Henry VIII. of the native priests.

Kaahumanu, determined in her opposition to the priests, prepared for decisive measures. In Their aliment was separately prepared. A November, she sent word to the king, that upon female child from birth to death was allowed his arrival at Kailua, she should cast aside his no food that had touched its father's dish. The god. To this he made no objection, and, with choicest of animal and vegetable products were his retainers, pushed off in canoes from the reserved for the male child, for the female the shore, and remained on the water two days, inpoorest; and the use of many kinds, such as dulging in a drunken revel. On the last evenpork, turtle, shark, bananas, and cocoa-nut, were ing, Kaahumanu despatched a double canoe altogether interdicted. Whatever was savory for him, in which he was brought to Kailua. or pleasant, man reserved for his own palate, Between them matters were arranged for the while woman was made bitterly to feel her sex-further development of their designs. He then ual degradation. Her lot was even worse than that of her sex generally in the southern groups She was excused from no labors, excepting such as were altogether too arduous for her weaker frame. When young and beautiful, a victim of sensuality; when old and useless, of brutality.

Christianity had much to accomplish in the Sandwich Islands; and, within the last twenty years, the change is, indeed, little short of miraculous. The principal Missionaries to the Sandwich Islands have


smoked and drank with the female chiefs. A feast was prepared, after the customs of the country, with separate tables for the sexes. number of foreigners were entertained at the king's. When all were in their seats, he deliberately arose, went to the place reserved for the women, and seated himself among them. To complete the horror of the superstitious, he indulged his appetite in freely partaking of the likewise; but with a violence which showed he viands prepared for them, directing them to do had but half divested himself of the idea of sacrilege and habitual repugnance. This act was

sufficient; the highest had set an example, Missionaries in any way averse to the sewhich all rejoiced to follow. The gladdening verity shown to the French "Jesuits" by cry arose, The tabu is broken! the tabu is "the State;" nor by their final expulsion, broken!" Feasts were provided for all, at which and the introduction, by a native official, both sexes indiscriminately indulged. Orders were issued to demolish the heiaus, and destroy of a system which would have delighted the idols; temples, images, and sacred Sir Andrew Agnew. The natives were property were burnt; the flames consumed the sacred prohibited from attending the religious relics of ages. Idolatry services of the Papists, which had the natuwas abolished by law; Kaumúalii cordially gave ral effect of sending them in greater numhis sanction, and all the islands uniting in an exbers; and some of them became true mar. ulting jubilee at their deliverance, presented the singular spectacle of a nation without a religion. though for an absurd tenet, entitles any one tyrs, if suffering for conscience' sake, The author of the History is as jealous to the name. About this time a prime of the Roman Catholic Missionaries, who minister, or rather a viceroy, took a very arrived a few years after the Protestants, decided line of conduct. as if he had been a Missionary himself. He entered upon the duties of his station with It is sometimes-and very inconsiderately, a determination of enforcing the very letter of as we think-said, that the Roman Catholic the law; this was done with a rigor which gave religion is better adapted to a barbarous cause of offence to many foreigners; but his people than the purer faith and simpler dination. He was equal to the task of subduing sternness quelled every appearance of insuborworship promulgated by Protestant Mis- the impertinence of lawless whites, and compelsionaries; as if the doctrines and teachings ling them to keep within their proper spheres. of the gospel in their primitive simplicity and plainness, stripped of all perversions and additions, were not the lessons best adapted to every creature possessing human reason and affections. The Sandwich Islanders are, at all events, no proof that a superstitious or ritual religion is better adapted to semi-barbarians than that which the first Missionaries to the South Seas taught. A small congregation of Catholics, foreigners, was formed after the arrival of the Catholic priests, to which the native government offered no molestation.

At the same time his officers, with a rudeness which was inexcusable, entered private houses, and carried liquor from tables. Horses were seized for their owners violating the law resed. The violence with which the statutes were pecting the Sabbath, but were eventually releasnow enforced contrasted forcibly with the laxity of the previous rule. Armed bands paraded the streets; grog-shops, gaming-houses, and haunts of dissipation, were suppressed; even quiet riding on Sundays was forbidden. But the strong arm of government was not capable of ulation; though outward decorum prevailed, infusing order and sobriety into a dissolute popfar preferable to the former laxity of society, Curiosity attracted some natives to witness secret means of indulgence were sought out; the ceremonies; they speedily reported that all his measures met at first a strong opposition, images were worshipped. This excited much and many continued to be evaded. It was prosurprise, and drew many of the chiefs to the posed to sell rum to foreigners only: Kuakini chapel; among them went the young king. He replied, "to horses, cattle, and hogs, you may afterwards confessed he could scarcely avoid sell rum; but to real men you must not on these laughing at the absurdity of worshipping a life-shores." A national temperance society was less stock. This led to an investigation of the formed, in the objects of which the chiefs cornew rites: the popish doctrines of veneration of dially united. holy relics, use of images, fasts and feasts, were

found strikingly analogous to their previous idolatry. To use the words of the chiefs, "This new religion was all about worshipping images

and dead men's bones, and tabus on meat."

The Islanders could not comprehend the nice distinction between the worshipped symbol and the essence it signified, any more than they might the mystery of the priests' vestments, and lighted candles of the Puseyites. The new religion seemed to them, in externals, very like that idolatry which they had abjured; so much so, that the Queen began to persecute the new converts to Romanism upon an edict that had been made against the old exploded religion of the islands; nor were the American

Entirely to suppress all opposition to government, Kuakini next determined to send away the Romish priests; on the 2d of April, 1831, leave the islands in three months. As they they were summoned to the fort, and ordered to manifested no disposition to comply, this order was repeated twice afterwards.

But "conscience," and the interests of the true faith, commanded them to remain and intrigue against the government. The story of their expulsion is well-known. Our American does the Papist priests but scanty justice, though we are not defending their deceptive conduct, and actual defiance and contempt of the government of the country they had entered uninvited and unwelcomed. A period of great laxity followed the stern ascetic rule of the viceroy.

When the young king assumed the government, it was exactly a Charles II. succeeding an Oliver Cromwell; the dissolute licentious cavalier to the rigid Puritans and Roundheads. The pertinacious "Jesuits" made other attempts; the "persecution" was renewed, and the American Missionaries still maintained their influence with the native government and their converts. This strife of rival sects is not likely soon to terminate.

SPAIN.-Espartero has abandoned the field, and is now a refugee from Spain. The siege of Seville was raised on the night of the 27th July; having lasted twenty-one days, and the bombardment ten Espartero himself left it for Cadiz on the night of the 26th, with an escort of three or four hundred cavalry; his retreat being covered by a stronger force. His soldiers remained true to the last, and defended the bridge of Suazo, which connects the island of Leon with the main, against Concha, who pursued the retreating chief. Concha took another road, and near Puerto Real he came up with Espartero's escort; and had a smart engagement with it, whilst Espartero, his Minister of War, (General Nogueras,) his Minister of the Interior, (Gomez de la Serna,) Van Halen, Linage, and many other officers, succeeded in embarking at Puerto de Santa Maria. The boat on board which they went soon tion of the cannon of the Malabar British ship-ofgained an offing, and placed itself under the protecthe-line; the commander of which, Captain Sir George Sartorius, refused to admit them on board until authorized to do so by the English Consul at Cadiz. The order, however, soon reached him, and the Regent and his friends were received in the Malabar. When on board, Espartero hesitated whether or not to be landed at Cadiz, which was supposed still to hold out for him: the bells and Lisbon, then!" exclaimed he; and the Malabar cannon were heard, celebrating his defeat: "To weighed anchor and sailed for that capital. Shortly after the embarkation of Espartero, the cavalry of his escort surrendered to Concha ; when Generals Juan Van Halen, (a brother of the Van Halen,) AlColonel of the Regiment of Luchana, General Osorio, Governor of Tarragona, and a number of other officers, were made prisoners.

The American Missionaries are not more jealous of the French Roman Catholic priests in the Sandwich Islands than is this author of English ascendency there. It is asserted in his book that the English are, at present, very unpopular in Hawaii; and the English Consul, Mr. Charlton, is run down and calumniated in a style which, perhaps, required to be modified before the work was published in England. So would the account of the death and visits of Cook. If American writers were thus fierce before, what will they be now that the Sandwich Islands, which were long since ceded to Vancouver, have been taken formal possession of. Though the book is alloyed by these jealous feelings, and some unfairness, it pos-varez, Captain-General of Granada, General Osset, sesses merit, and both value and interest, as a fresh and faithful picture of a group of the great human family placed under very peculiar circumstances.



Down the rosy-tinted West,
Sinking fast, effulgent star,
Whither in your regions blest
Guid'st thy tranquil course afar?
O'er the golden year presiding,

Autumn woos thy glistening light;
Still through Heaven's pure ether gliding.
Star of Eve-good night, good night.

Oh, how oft in life's soft leisure,

World-worn spirits past away
Thus have drawn a secret pleasu re,
Felt thy calm, benignant ray-
Nearer, now, perchance, they view thee,
Nature's mystic veil remove,
Rapt in endless bliss pursue thee,
Through their native skies above.

Downward, lo! the sun forth speeding,
Bids thee to thy early rest,
Ere the twilight hour receding,

Shuts the crimson-curtain'd West;
Still as one last look to borrow,

Lingering on the verge of light,
Thee I trace with parting sorrow,
Faded Star of Eve, good night!

On the 2d instant, a deputation left Madrid for Seville, to present a gold crown of laurel to the Ayuntamiento in the name of the Queen, together with a letter from S. Lopez, complimenting the city in the most glowing terms upon its resistance.

Seoane was a prisoner at large, in Burgos; detained as a hostage for the safety of important prisoners who might fall into the hands of Espartero or Van Halen.

A strong protest against the usurpation by the Provisional Government of the authority of the Provincial Juntas, who gave it life and support, was received from Galicia on the 2d instant, and caused such a sensation that the Government had immediately issued orders for the march of a strong force on the province. Letters from Barcelona, of the 4th, announce that the Junta of that town is in a state of open hostility with the Provisional Government of Madrid. It has refused to obey orders to stop demolishing the ramparts.

The decree convoking the new Cortes, for the 15th October, is observed to depart from the constitution, in requiring that body to be totally renewed; thus prematurely expelling two-thirds of the senators. A second decree, equally unconstitutional, had dissolved the Provisional Deputation of Madrid, and appointed other Deputies to replace those whose services were dispensed with, until another election shall take place. The President and nine other Judges of the Supreme Tribunal of Justice had been summarily dismissed for refusing, without qualification, to recognize the Revolutionary Government; and a new Tribunal, with Olozaga at its head, appointed.

Madame Blake, the widow of an officer of Irish extraction, had been appointed to succeed Madame Mina as preceptress of the Queen.-Spectator.

ARCHÆOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN GREECE. | vulgarly called the Lantern of Demosthenes,

From the Athenæum.

July, 1843.

was chosen, and the whole of this interesting building was laid open to public view, its basement having been previously concealed by an accumulation of earth to the depth of 12 to 15 feet. The intention of the excavators was to inculcate, by a practical illustration, the necessity of an excavation round most of the ancient buildings, in order to display, as far as possible, the peculiarities of their original sites. This excavation led to nothing further at the time, as the excavators were not allowed to extend their researches, and it excited the jealousy of the royal government, which has permitted the little square formed round the monument of Lysicrates to be ruined, and almost filled with rubbish, for the purpose, as it is maliciously asserted, of clearing it out again, and making such improvements as will give a specious claim to say the excavation is a government work.

THE interest you have always taken in keeping the public accurately informed concerning the progress of Archaiological Research in Greece, induces me to send you an account of all that has been done in the Hellenic kingdom since the establishment of the German government. One object of this statement is to call the attention of the friends of Greek art in England to the importance of lending some aid towards furthering these researches, which, it will be seen from the following summary, have not been without important results both to art and literature. The artists and antiquaries at Athens have had quite as great difficulties to encounter from the supineness and illiberality of the Greek government as the mercantile and agricultural classes; yet venture to refer to the essays of Professor Ross, on various questions of Greek topog Some time after this first attempt, a secraphy, to the splendid work on the Tem- ond was made, and the foundation of an ple of Victory Apteros in the Acropolis of Archaiological Society was laid. Most of Athens, which he published in conjunction the Greeks of wealth at Athens subscribed, with the architects Hausen and Schaubert, and it was determined to make a consider-to the learned travels of Professor Ul-able excavation in the Acropolis, in order richs, in Baotia and Phocis,―to the disser- to greet King Otho on his first arrival at tation of the late General Gordon on the his future capital, with matter to excite his pass of Thermopylae, with his map,-to the enthusiasm. As Count Armansperg, Mr. large Greek map of the Hellenic kingdom, Maurer, and General Heideck, the members by the engineer Aldenhoven, and to the ex- of the regency, were also to visit Athens tensive collection of unedited inscriptions, for the first time in his Majesty's company, by Messrs. Rangavé and Pittakis, published it was expected that they would all join the periodically, under the title of the Ar- Society as patrons and subscribers. Very chaiological Journal,'-to these works I re- liberal subscriptions were collected among fer as proofs of the services which the in- the Greeks and Philhellenes; Mr. Gropius, habitants of modern Athens have already the patriarch of Attic Archaiologists, was rendered to the cause of ancient art and requested to select the ground to be exliterature.* amined, and Mr. Pittakis, the present conIt may not be superfluous to recapitulate servator of antiquities in Greece, undertook the various attempts made at different times to direct the operations of the workmen in to excite the attention of King Otho's gov- person. The success of the undertaking ernment to the importance of forming a so- was most encouraging, as might have been ciety for the purpose of pursuing a regular anticipated, under such able superintendsystem of excavation. The first attemptence. Five portions of the frieze of the was made by four strangers residing at Parthenon were discovered, four of which Athens, as soon as it was known that the son of a monarch so devoted to the cultivation of ancient art as King Louis of Bavaria was elected sovereign of Greece. The beautiful choragic monument of Lysicrates,

* I may mention as a proof of my own anxiety to aid the exertions of abler men and better scholars, a map of the northern part of Attica, and an Essay printed at Athens in English, on the topography of Diacria and Oropia, as they have been adopted as authority for laying down that district in the

new Topographisch-historischer Atlas of Greece and its colonies, by Kiepert.

are in an exquisite state of preservation; one belongs to the assembly of the gods at the east end, and the others to the festal procession on the north side of the temple. Several other fragments of minor interest were also found, but all the exertions of this Society met with no encouragement from the Regency,—indeed, quite the contrary; it was met with the most distinct declaration that all further exertions would be dispensed with. I had exerted myself a good deal in persuading the Greeks that

their new rulers would view their liberality | for earth-scratching. The soil of almost as a proof of great merit, and that their pa- every ancient site was rendered in turns, triotic conduct would be highly applauded. though for a very short space of time, the I own I was utterly confounded, when I scene of a little digging. But as the object laid the matter before Mr. Maurer and of this activity was only to supply a preGeneral Heideck, who were my guests on text for a series of articles in the German their royal visit to Athens. I had made newspapers, by which it was thought glory sure of their support at least, as the one was and popularity would be gained in Europe, an accomplished artist and the other a and very little reference was made to the learned scholar, and I prepared them for service likely to accrue to art or literature, the sight of the Acropolis by recounting these excavations were without any importhe formation of the Society and its achieve- tant results. Some ground was, however, ments; all this was met by a very cool ob- turned over at Olympia, at Tega, at Sparta, servation on the part of their Excellencies, at Megalopolis, at Tenea, near Corinth, at that the Society need give itself no further Thera, at Anaphé, and at Delos. It would trouble, nor incur any additional expense, certainly have been wiser to have pursued as the royal government had resolved to these researches on a more regular and intake the antiquities under its especial care, telligible system; but they deserve praise, and would appoint its own agents for exca- as activity is always preferable to idleness, vating. if the cause be in itself a good one.

For two years the Bavarian government In 1837 a new era dawned on Greece. did not appear to consider that the antiqui- Public opinion extended its influence everyties required much care. Antiquaries are, where, and the government was compelled however, a persevering, obstinate race, and to abandon all the outworks of its antithe regency was not allowed to rest, until hellenic system, in order to defend Bavariat length Professor Ross was charged to anism in the central departments of public make excavations in the Acropolis of business. An Archaiological Society was Athens, in order to continue the researches then formed by the Greeks themselves, and commenced by the advice of Mr. Gropius. it exists to this day, though its funds are The results of these excavations were also of the greatest importance to the history of ancient art. The beautiful temple of Victory at the entrance of the Acropolis, was found to have been thrown down with out its materials having been destroyed, and almost every stone of the building, with the exception of the portion of the frieze in the British Musuem, was discovered. The restoration of this elegant little treasure of Grecian art was almost completed when Professor Ross was removed from his office of conservator of antiquities, and Mr. Pittakis appointed in his place. From that day to this, the temple remains incomplete, in consequence of the jealousy which, in Greece, invariably induces every new of ficial to adopt a totally opposite line of conduct from that pursued by his predeces


One of the most valuable discoveries was an exquisite figure of a winged victory tying on her sandal to fly forth in attendance on the armies of the republic, which formed the last in a series of winged figures disposed in front of the temple, as a substitute for a balustrade. Many portions of the other figures have likewise been found; but all is left huddled together in a dusty magazine, or exposed carelessly in the ruined temple.

As soon as the Bavarian Regency awoke from its lethargy, it was seized with a fever

not very large, as the annual subscription of the members is only about 10s. 6d., and from the Report drawn up and published by the president and secretary, it appears that a large proportion have allowed even this small subscription to fall into arrear during the last two years. This Society has nevertheless rendered great service to art and literature, and its affairs have been conducted in the most popular and prudent manner. One general meeting has been held annually in the Parthenon, in the open air, and all the world has been free to attend; nor have the meetings failed to attract some of the fair dames from distant lands, who have chanced to visit Athens at the time. Indeed it must be owned, that such sights can never fail to leave agreeable reminiscences. The unrivalled splendor of the setting sun, seen from the Acropolis, has excited many a noble verse: an assembly of Greeks discussing in their own language the affairs of their ancestors-the venerable president, Mr. Rizos, eloquently expounding the new light thrown on some point of ancient history, in which he shines. far more than in penning despatches as Minister of Foreign Affairs-all this makes a stranger proud on such an occasion to be a member of this Society, or even to have attended one of its meetings. At this annual meeting a committee of management

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