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"For the moment I was not perceived; but the natives soon got sight of me, and a volley of spears around me, one of which struck me in the back, but dropped out again, proclaimed that they were in chase. I kept on running as long as I could towards a tree that was in the middle of the little plain over which I was passing, intending to make that my fighting place, by setting my back to it, and so to protect myself in the rear.
and, catching hold of a branch within reach, I clambered up. The natives who were watching my motions, renewed their shouts and yells at this manœuvre, and rushed towards the tree in a body.
"I scrambled as fast as I could to the fork of the tree, and found to my infinite relief that my anticipation was right; there was a hollow large enough to admit my whole body, and effectually to shield me from the spears of the savages, As my foot reached the bottom, it encountered some soft body, which I quickly learnt was an opossum, the owner of the habitation, which asserted its rights by a sharp attack on the calf of my leg with teeth and claws; I was not in a humor to argue the matter with my new assailant, so with my thick bush shoes I trampled the creature down into a jelly, though it left its renot a little. When I recovered my breath, I listened to ascertain the motions of my enemies
"The spears flew around me and near me, but I reached the tree, and instantly turning round, I fired among the advancing natives. This checked them, for they were now becoming afraid of my formidable weapon, and seeing that I stood resolute and prepared for them, they rstreated to some distance; but they continued to throw some spears, most of which fell short, and kept up a shouting and yelling in a fright-membrances on my torn flesh, which smarted ful manner, capering and dancing about in a sort of frenzy,-ferocious to get at me, but kept at bay by my terrible gun.
"My blood was now up! I was excited to a pitch of joyful exultation by my escape from the burning hut, and I felt that courage of excitement which almost prompted me to rush on my enemies, and to bring the matter to an issue by a bodily conflict with my broadsword. But prudence prevailed; and I placed my hope and my dependence on my trusty gun, which had already done me such good service.
"They had ceased their yells, and there was dead silence, so that I could hear my own quick breathing within the trunk of the tree. What are they about? thought I. While I mentioned ejaculately this thought, I felt an agitation of the tree, from which I guessed that some venturous savage was climbing up to attack me in my retreat. I cautiously raised myself up to look around me, but the appearance of my "Taking advantage of the temporary inaction hat above the hole was the signal for half-aof the natives, I felt for my powder-horn, to re-dozen spears, three of which passed through it, load the barrel which I had discharged. To my one of them grazing the scalp of my head. unspeakable horror and disappoinment it was "That plan will not do,' thought 1; I must missing! I searched every pocket in vain! I keep close.' had laid it on the table in the hut, and there I had left it! To recover it was impossible, as the hut was all in flames, and while I gazed on the burning mass, a dull report and a burst of sparks from the building made known to me that the powder had become ignited, and was lost to me for ever!
"As I crouched myself down, I thought I heard a breathing above me. I looked up, and behold the hideous visage of one of the savages glaring on me with his white eyeballs, which exhibited a ferocious sort of exultation. He had his waddie in his hand, which he slowly raised to give me a pat on the head, thinking that he In my agony of mind at this discovery, my had me quite safe, like an opossum in his hole. hair seemed to bristle up; and the sweat ranYou're mistaken, my beauty,' thought I; 'I'm down my forehead and obscured my sight! I now felt that nothing but a miracle could save me: but the love of life increasing in proportion to the danger of losing it, I once more summoned up my faiting energies for a last effort. I had three barrels loaded; one in my fowling-piece and two in my pistols; I had also my broadsword, but that would not avail me against their
"If I could hold out till night, I thought I might be able then to elude my savage enemies, as the natives have a fear of moving about at night, believing that in the darkness an evil spirit roams about, seeking to do them mischief, and who then has power over them. Casting my eyes upwards to the branches of the tree under which I was standing, I observed that it was easy to climb, and there appeared to me indicatious of a hollow in the trunk between the principal branches, which might serve me for a place of shelter till the night should enable me, under the cover of its darkness, to escape from my pursuers.
"I formed my plan on the instant, and without losing a moment I slung my gun behind me,
not done for yet. Drawing out one of my pistols from my pocket, which was rather a matter of difficulty in my confined position, I fired. The ball crashed through his face and skull, and I heard his dead body fall heavily to the ground.
"A yell of fear and rage arose from his black companions. I took advantage of the opportunity, and raised myself up so as to look about me, but their threatening spears soon drove me back to my retreat. There was now another pause and a dead silence; and I flattered myself with the hope that the savages, having been so frequently baffled, and having suffered so much in their attacks, would now retire. But the death and the wounds of their comrades, it appears, only whetted their rage, and stimulated them to fresh endeavors; and the cunning devices of that devilish savage Musqueeto were turned in a new and more fatal direction.
"As I lay in my retreat, I heard a sound as if heavy materials were being dragged towards the tree. I ventured to peep out, and beheld the savages busy in piling dead wood round the trunk, with the intention as I immediately sur
mised, of setting fire to it, and of burning me in my hole.
"My conjectures were presently verified. I saw emerging from the wood one of their females, bearing the lighted fire-sticks which the natives always carry with them in their journeys. I looked on these preparations as a neglected but not indifferent spectator, the natives and waiting with a sort of savage patience for disregarding my appearance above the opening, the sure destruction which they were preparing for me.
"The native women approached with the fire, and the natives, forming circle round the tree, performed a dance of death as a prelude to my sacrifice. I was tempted to fire on them; but I did not like to part with my last two shots, except in an extremity even greater than this.
"In the meantime the natives continued their dance, seeming to enjoy the interval between me and death, like the epicure who delays his attack on the delicious feast before him, that he may the longer enjoy the exciting pleasure of anticipation. Presently, however, their deathsong broke out into loud cries of fury; they applied the fire to the faggots, and as the blaze increased, they danced and yelled around the tree in a complete delirium of rage and exultation.
"The fire burned up!-the smoke ascended! I already felt the horrid sensation of being stifled by the thick atmosphere of smoke before the flames encompassed me. In this extremity, 1 determined, at least, to inflict some vengeance on my savage persecutors.
"I scrambled up from my hiding-place, and crawled as far as I could on one of the branches which was most free from the suffocating smoke and heat, and fired the remaining barrel of my fowling-piece at the yelling wretches, which I then hurled at their heads. I did the same with my remaining pistol, when, to my amazement, I heard the reports of other guns; but whether they were the echoes of my own, or that my failing senses deceived me, I know not, for the smoke and flames now mastered me. Stifled and scorched, I remember only falling from the branch of the tree, which was not high, to the ground, when my senses left me.
"I was roused from my trance of death by copious deluges of water, and I heard a voice which was familiar to me exclaiming
"Well, if this is not enough to disgust a man with this horrid country, I don't know what he would have more! For years and years I have been preaching to him that nothing good could come of this wretched den of bush-rangers and natives, and now, you see, the evil is come at last!'
"I opened my eyes at these words. It was the voice of Crabb, whom heaven had directed with a party of friends to this spot to deliver me! Overcome with the intensity of my emotions, racked with pain, and sick from the very fulness of joy at my escape from death, I uttered a piercing cry of mingled pain and delight, and fainted!"
This is a world of wo,
Of heaviness, and of anxiety; Why cling we then to evils that we know?
Let the old die!
Wrestlings with fell disease,
Vain lamentations o'er departed years; Is not age rife with these?
Death dries all tears!
This is a world of pain;
There is a "better land" beyond the sky;
But let those shrink with dread,
Whose days have been of evil, lest they find, When all their earthly hopes are withered, Despair behind!
Let them implore for aid,
A fitter record of their years to give; And lean on Him who mercifully bade The sinner live!
CALICO PRINTING.- Great as have been the improvements in this branch of the cotton trade, there is every probability of still greater ones taking place, and which appear calculated to produce a complete revolution of the present system. There The first, which claims priority of notice from its are two methods by which it is sought to be done. great novelty, is that which is termed the galvanic process; and which those who profess to be in the secret are pleased to aver, is accomplished something after the following fashion-Let it be supposed, then, that a piece of calico has to be printed by this process. This is done by machine and roller, in the ordinary way, but on which roller is placed or fixed (not engraven) a pattern composed of various metals, as iron, tin, brass, zinc, &c. This premised, the roller now passes through an acid (its composition a secret,) and coming in contact with the cloth, imparts thereon the desired pattern, say black, blue, green, red, &c.; and on the piece passing through the machine, and being then quickly dried, the work is perfect without being subject has been successfully tried, is that of laying on the to any other process. The other method, and which colors (supposed mineral ones) in oil. This is also effected by machine and roller, but with an engraved pattern. The colors, by either of the processes, will, it is said, be fast ones-a most important desideratum.-Manchester Herald.
From Tait's Magazine.
History of the Sandwich Islands. By James
As the past condition of these islands is less familiar to ordinary readers than their history, since the Missionaries have labored to civilize and Christianize them, we shall select our few samples of this work from the description of the earlier period.
THE ARISTOCRACY OF HAWAII.
No regular police existed. The immediate attendants of the chiefs executed their orders. These attendants were numerous, every person
of rank being supplied according to his grade. A certain number were bosom friends, who always remained privileged idlers about the persons of their lords, having no voice in political affairs; the others held different offices in the household, more or less menial, and constituted a permanent establishment. The principal of these were "pipe lighters," "spittoon carriers," "kahili bearers," "purloiners," "assassins," "cooks," &c. All ate, drank, and slept in com
Rank was hereditary, and descended chiefly of government in their own right. This custom from the females, who frequently held the reins originated in the great license existing between the sexes; no child, with certainty, being able to designate his father, while no mistake could be made in regard to the mother.
Jackson Jarves. London: Moxon. If it be true that the Sandwich Islands have been taken formal possession of in the name of the Queen of Great Britain, this history of our newest colony appears opportunely. But independently of this circumstance, the work is one that was wanted, and, moreover, one which fairly, if not faultlessly, supplies the want felt. The author appears to be an American, who, partly "in pursuit of health and recreation," visited the Sandwich Islands in 1837, and remained for some years. He became the editor of The Polynesian, a weekly newspaper, published at Honolu; which vocation brought him into intimate relations with the chiefs and natives, and enlarged These retinues were formed immediately his opportunities of acquiring the materials upon the birth of a chief of either sex, and each which he has turned to good account in this was designated by some peculiar title, generally "the fragments," history. He went with a strong prejudice of a whimsical character--as against his countrymen, the missionaries, "musquitoes," "umbrellas," &c. The care of the children devolved upon "kahus,” or nurses, and imagining the natives, (the Hawaiians,) who assumed the sole direction, until the child though improved in morals, a priest-ridden was capable of exercising its own will; a period people. In the course of a four years' resi- which, as no contradiction to its caprices was dence he completely changed this opinion. allowed, soon arrived. Much of the curious information which he obtained respecting the history, manners, religion, and traditions of the islands of the Hawaiian Archipelago has been derived 'from the missionaries, and especially from those of them who were schoolmasters. A history written in the native language by the pupils of what is called the High School at Lahainaluna has been translated by a late American missionary, and has been drawn upon for materials. The Tour of the Rev. Mr. Ellis, and the Missionary Records, have also furnished much useful information. The volume displays no fact more clearly than the extreme jealousy which the Americans feel of British interference with these islands, or with what they seem to assume as their superior claims. The Oregon Territory, according to Mr. Jarves, would ill compensate for the loss of the Sandwich Among the chiefs a considerable degree of Islands, and next to occupying them, the courtesy prevailed, and a difference of language United States Government, or many of the and demeanor, which betokened conscious rank. citizens, would wish to see their independ- of the aristocracy more strongly characterized. Perhaps in no other point was the exclusiveness ence guaranteed.. There are more natives In every department of life a distinction was of the United States at present in the Sand-made, as if contact with the people by touch, use wich Islands than of all other foreigners of the same articles, houses, food, or bathing put together. Next to Yankees in number are the Chinese. The native population shows a tendency to decrease, and has decreased considerably within the last twenty years, though the rate of mortality is less within the last few years.
Three distinct orders of nobles existed.
first embraced the kings, queens, and all branches of the royal family. It also included ferior birth. Governors, or chiefs of large disthe chief advisers or counsellors, though of intricts, were included in the second; and the third embraced the lords of villages, priests, and those who held estates, by payment of regular taxes, which were raised by their own dependents, or those to whom they had farmed out lands.
Servile homage was paid to superiors, particularly to priests and chiefs of the highest rank. Their persons could not be touched, or their houses entered, without permission.
places, would produce contamination. From such rules and deportment, so great a physical difference arose, that many superficial observers considered the two as distinct races. The chiefs formed a conventional dialect, understood only among themselves; in it novel words were incorporated or formed, which, if they came to be
The overthrow of the goddess, which we do not find noticed in this volume, forms a remarkable event in the Missionary annals. There was no limit to the number of subordinate gods in the Sandwich Islands. The power of the priests, there as everywhere, was maintained by the severity of their rule, and by the systematic prostration of the understanding of their followers; though, like other priests, they knew human nature too well not to permit a Carnival to relieve the gloom and severities of the season of Lent. Human victims were sacrificed to the idols, and were often selected from such individuals as made themselves obnoxious to the priests. The priests held in their own hands much of the land, and taxed the whole of it; and, like the nobles of England, their rank was hereditary.
understood by the common orders, were imme- they bathed in the red surge of the fiery billows, diately discarded, and others substituted. To- as it dashed against the sides of the crater. wards the common people their conduct was of the most oppressive character. No respect to their persons or property was shown. Their only security was to avoid their presence. To use the expressive language of their descendants, "their restrictions were like the poisoned tooth of a reptile." If a common man made use of any consecrated property belonging to a chief; or if a man walked in the shade of the house of a chief, with his head besmeared with clay, or with a wreath about it, with it wet, or wearing a kihei-a kapa mantle-or violated any one of numerous other regulations, equally whimsical and absurd, he lost his life. At sea, if their canoes interrupted their progress, they were overturned; on land, if the shadow of an individual fell upon the king, or he did not prostrate him self when any thing was carried to or from his majesty, the punishment was death. This was likewise the case, should any one place his hand upon his head, or be found in a more elevated position. The laws of etiquette were of the most varied nature, dependent greatly upon the caprices of the prince. Justice, or humanity, were utterly set aside, though, as before remarked, the personal disposition of the sovereign greatly affected the whole system of government. But the humane character of the few was but a slight relief from the cruel and capricious desires of the many. Priestcraft lent all its adventitious aids to support this system, from which it derived its own existence. So that but two classes really existed, the oppressor and oppressed--those who labored and those who reaped.
Ordeals were employed by the priests, and sorcery, witchcraft, and divination were among their arts. A peculiar superstition, "praying to death," appears to have had as strong a hold over the imaginations of the natives, as the Obi has over the Afri"No spirit of benevolence pervaded their religion." How uniformly does this hold of every Heathen superstition!
Savage rites and blood-loving deities, a cruel priesthood and rapacious governments, inhuman faiths and absurd superstitions, were the burdens which the people were required to believe and sustain. From the perusal of the stories of this dark era, as gathered from their own lips, it would seem as if human depravity had reached its limits, and that the people must have gradually wasted away, like a mass of corruption, or have boldly cast off the slough with which they were enveloped.
The power of the priest, though it partook more of a religious character, was scarcely inferior to that of the chiefs. Their persons were sacred, from their supposed familiarity with the gods. It sometimes happened that a chief took the sacred offices upon himself, though, perhaps, from the nature of the intimate connexion existing between the two orders, the absolute power, both in politics and religion, centered in the head of the state. One fact is
everywhere apparent: the spiritual, like the temporal lords of the people, amid all their vagaries, never neglected their own interests. Every ceremony or superstition was framed to aid their already overgrown power; humanity, or a regard for the rights of their inferiors, would have been received as monstrous deviations from governed no more harshly than could have been the true policy of government. Perhaps they expected from a privileged order, nursed in selfishness and brutality.
Like the priests of some Christian countries, those of Hawaii possessed many immunities and privileges.
Offerings to the gods, or more properly to the priests, were required at definite periods, as at all religious ceremonies, and on all occasions when the people desired their services. The wants of the priesthood regulated the amount; and when the regular taxes failed in supplying their desires, the wishes of the god were called into requisition, and the coveted articles tabued for his use. Orisons, chants, and offerings, were made by the priests at their meals. Even in the care of their fowls and quadrupeds, they enjoyed remarkable privileges. When hogs were repunish-ceived alive, they were dedicated to the god of the order, received his marks, and were turned loose, to fatten upon the plantations of the poor cultivators; no one daring openly to injure or drive away the sacred animals.
Yet these people had some confused idea of a future state of rewards and
The goddess Pele, their principal Deity, was supposed to live in the famous volcano of Kilanea.
Here, with her attendant spirits, she revelled in the flames; the unearthly noises of the burning mass were the music of their dance, and
How many common features does the history of every human tribe present!
The taboo, or tabu, as we find the word spelled here, is a very singular feature among the social institutions of all the Islanders of the South Seas. From its obvious utility, an improved or modified form of the taboo is still preserved in communities now professing Christianity.
Formerly it was applied exclusively to per sons or things in a sacred sense, and was strictly a religious ceremony, imposed only by the priests; but has since come into common use in all the every-day concerns of life. Anciently, those chiefs who pretended to derive their descent from the gods, were called alii kapu, sacred chiefs. A temple, exclusively devoted to the abode and worship of gods, was said to be wahi kapu-sacred place. Any thing dedicated or reserved for the exclusive use of gods, chiefs, or priests, was considered as kapu for them. Certain lands and islands were kapu, as well as hunting-grounds, fish, fruit, or whatever the sacred classes chose to reserve for themselves. These kapus were occasional, or permanent particular fruits, fish, and vegetables, being sometimes tabu both from men and women, for several successive months. The idols, temples, persons, and names of their kings, and members of the royal family; persons and property of the priests; every thing appertaining to the gods; religious devotees; the chiefs' bathing-places, or favorite springs of water; and every thing offered in sacrifice, were strictly kapu. In mod ern times, this magic term has become the property of all. A common man can tabu his house. lands, or make any partial restrictions, and all would respect the prohibition. Any forbidden article or action, is called tabued; hence, its common use in the domestic circle, and its application to laws. A captain can tabu his ship, and none dare approach. Tabued property is generally marked by small white flags, or other signs which are well understood. At the present time, any individual can impose such tabu as suits his necessities or convenience, provided they do not infringe personal rights or the laws of the kingdom.
Formerly, a religious motive was necessary for its assignment; but as the power of the chiefs increased, its use was greatly corrupted, while its influence remained the same, and may be said to have partaken of the preternatural. The bans of the Romish church, in the proudest days of that hierarchy, were not more powerful or obligatory. Every will of a chief, however monstrous, was promulgated as a tabu, and officers were appointed to see that it was observed.
evening at the heiau, during the former. But when the season of strict tabu was in force, a general gloom and silence pervaded the whole district or island. Not a fire or light was to be mouths of dogs were tied up, and fowls put under seen, or canoe launched; none bathed; the calabashes, or their heads enveloped in cloth;
for no noise of man or animal must be heard. the temple, were allowed to leave the shelter of No persons, excepting those who officiated at their roofs. Were but one of these rules broken, the tabu would fail, and the gods be displeased. When the sacred chiefs appeared in public, all the common people prostrated themselves, with their faces upon the earth. The food of chiefs and priests, they being interdicted from handling any thing during this tabu, was put into their mouths by their attendants.
At Hawaii there were two cities of refuge, where criminals, or those in danger of falling victims to revenge, found a sanctuary. The breed-the large, well-fed and lazy aristocratic race, and the stunted, meagre, lower order-were as distinctly marked as they are among the natives of the Hebrides, or among the unmixed Irish. The chiefs, as among the Higlanders,
Were almost invariably tall, stout, and wellformed, and in most instances, as age advanced, increased to unwieldy corpulence; the latter were, upon the average, middle-sized, perhaps falling somewhat short of the European standard. Six feet and upwards were common to the stature of the chiefs of both sexes, with gigantic frames more capable of exerting great strength than of endurance. It is said of some that they could, by taking a man by the head and leg,
break his back across their knees. While some
exhibited persons so perfect, with Roman features, and with such full developmentof muscle, as to have delighted the eye of a sculptor, others were remarkable for their size and weight alone; from three to four hundred pounds being not an uncommon gravity. The female chiefs, when features, which, however, soon became lost, as young, possessed interesting and intelligent their bulk increased; this, fortunately, in the eyes of their lords, only heightened their charms. When these were most matured, they became almost as helpless as the belles of the Celestial empire. The latter tottered from want of feet of sufficient size to support frames of scarcely larger proportions; those of the former, though stout, were equally feeble to sustain the immense bulk above. Their flesh hung in deep Particular seasons were tabu; as on the sick-folds about them; their walk, a majestic stagger; ness of a high chief, preparations for war, or the approach of important religious ceremonies. Their duration was indefinite, sometimes for a day only, then for months, and occasionally for years. Thirty to forty days was the ordinary period before Kamehameha's reign, when they
were much reduced.
These tabus were either common or strict, and were proclaimed by criers or heralds. Men only were required to abstain from their common pursuits, and to attend prayers morning and
as a distinct race.
their carriage lofty, and betokening an innate pride of birth and rank. No aristocracy was ever more distinctly marked by nature. To a superficial observer, they might have appeared The monopoly they enjoyed of the good gifts of Providence, with the greater exercise of their mental faculties, (for they did most of the thinking for the people,) served, every generation, to increase the distinction between the two classes. The great personal size was doubtless partly inherited, and partly