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ninth part even of a tailor? Does it beseem thee to weave cloth of devil's-dust instead of true wool; and cut and sew it as if thou wert not a tailor, but the fraction. of a very tailor! I cannot endure every thing!" Francia, in despair erected his

tion of the country did actually exist in Paraguay; men and workmen saw it with eyes. A most remarkable, and, on the whole, not unbeneficial institution of society there. Robertson gives us the following scene with the Belt-maker of Assumpcion; which, be it literal, or in part poetic, does, no doubt of it, hold the mirror up to Nature in an altogether true, and surely in a very surprising manner :


with a couple of grenadiers' belts, neither ac"In came, one afternoon, a poor shoemaker, cording to the fancy of the Dictator. Sentinel,' said he-and in came the sentinel; when the following conversation ensued:

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says; Débout: aux champs, aux ateliers! | meant to shave. In vain, all in vain! At Can I have you sit here, droning old metre length, Francia lost patience with them. through your nose; your heart asleep in "Thou wretched Fraction, wilt thou be the mere gluttony, the while; and all Paraguay a wilderness, or nearly so-the Heaven's blessed sunshine growing mere tangles, lianas, yellow-fevers, rattlesnakes, and jaguars on it? Up, swift, to work-or mark this governmental horsewhip, what the crack of it is, what the cut of it is like to be!" Workman's Gallows." Yes, that instituIncurable, for one class, seemed archbishops, bishops, and such like; given merely to a sham-warfare against extinct devils. At the crack of Francia's terrible whip they went, dreading what the cut of it might be. A cheap worship in Paraguay, according to the humor of the people, Francia left; on condition that it did no mischief. Wooden saints and the like ware, he also left sitting in their niches: no new ones, even on solicitation, would he give a doit to buy. Being petitioned to provide a new patron saint for one of his new fortifications once, he made this answer: "O people of Paraguay, how long will you continue idiots? While I was a Catholic I thought as you "Dictator: Take this bribonazo' (a very do but I now see there are no saints but favorite word of the Dictator's, and which being good cannons that will guard our fron- interpreted means most impertinent scoundrel') tiers!"* This also is noteworthy. He intake this bribonazo to the gibbet over the quired of the two Swiss surgeons, what their religion was; and then added, "Be of what religion you like, here: Christians, Jews, Mussulmans-but don't be Atheists." Equal trouble had Francia with his laic workers, and indeed with all manner of workers; for it is in Paraguay as elsewhere, like priest like people. Francia had extensive barrack-buildings, nay city-buildings (as we have seen), arm-furnishings; immensities of work going on, and his workmen had in general a tendency to be imaginary. He could get no work out of them; only a more or less deceptive similitude of work! Masons so called, builders of houses, did not build, but merely seem to build; their walls would not bear weather; stand on their bases in high winds.-| Hodge-razors, in all conceivable kinds, were openly marketed, "which were never meant to shave, but only to be sold!" For a length of time Francia's righteous soul struggled sore, yet unexplosively with the propensities of these unfortunate men. By rebuke, by remonstrance, encouragement, offers of reward, and every vigilance, and effort, he strove to convince them that it was unfortunate for a Son of Adam to be an imaginary workman; that every Son of Adam had better make razors which were * Rengger.

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way; walk him under it half-a-dozen times: and
,' said he, turning to the trembling shoema-
ker, bring me such another pair of belts, and
instead of walking under the gallows, we shall
try how you can swing upon it'

"Shoemaker:-Please your excellency, I have done my best.'

"Dictator:-"Well, bribon, if this be your best, I shall do my best to see that you never again mar a bit of the state's leather. The belts are of no use to me; but they will do very well to hang you upon the little framework which the grenadier will show you.'

"Shoemaker:-'God bless your excellency, the Lord forbid! I am your vassal, your slave: day and night have I served, and will serve my ord; only give me two days more to prepare the belts; y por el alma de un triste zapatero (by the soul of a poor shoemaker) I will make them to your excellency's liking.'

"Dictator:-Off with him, sentinel!' "Sentinel: Venga, bribon: come along, you rascal.'

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Shoemaker:-'Senor Excelentisimo: This

very night I will make the belts according to your excellency's pattern.'

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Dictator:-"Well, you shall have till the morning; but still you must pass under the gibbet: it is a salutary process, and may at once quicken the work and improve the workmanship.'

"Sentinel:- Vamonos, bribon; the supreme commands it.'

"Off was the shoemaker marched: he was, according to orders, passed and repassed under the gibbet; and then allowed to retire to his stall."

He worked there with such an alacrity pitcher of water; the water is made to boil and sibylline enthusiasm, all night, that his there. The Dictator then prepares, with the belts on the morrow were without parallel greatest possible care, his mate, or Paraguay in South America ;-and he is now, if still in this life, Belt-maker general to Paraguay, a prosperous man; grateful to Francia and the gallows, we may hope, for casting certain of the seven devils out of him!

tea. Having taken this, he walks under the interior colonnade that looks upon the court; and smokes a cigar, which he first takes care to unroll, in order to ascertain that there is nothing dangerous in it, though it is his own sister who makes up his cigars for him. At six o'clock comes the barber, an ill-washed, ill-clad mulatto, given to drink, too; but the only member of the good humor, he chats with the barber; and often in this manner makes use of him to prepare the public for his projects: this barber may be said to be his Official Gazette. He then steps out, in his dressing-gown of printed calico, to the outer colonnade, an open space with pilhe walks about, receiving at the same time such lars, which ranges all round the building: here

Such an institution of society would evidently not be introduceable, under that simple form, in our old constituted Euro-faculty whom he trusts in. If the Dictator is in

pean countries. Yet it may be asked of constitutional persons in these times, By what succedaneum they mean to supply the want of it, then? In a community of imaginary workmen, how can you pretend to have any government, or social thing whatever, that were real? Certain tenpersons as are admitted to an audience. Topound franchisers, with their "tremendous wards seven, he withdraws to his room, where cheers," are invited to reflect on this. he remains till nine; the officers and other funcWith a community of quack workmen, it is tionaries then come to make their reports, and by the law of Nature impossible that other receive his orders. At eleven o'clock, the fiel than a quack government can be got to ex-de fecho (principal secretary) brings the papers ist. Constitutional or other, with ballot- which are to be inspected by him, and writes boxes or with none, your society in all its cers retire, and Doctor Francia sits down to taphases, administration, legislation, teach-ble. His dinner, which is extremely frugal, he ing, preaching, praying, and writing periodicals per sheet, will be a quack society; terrible to live in, disastrous to look upon. Such an institution of society, adapted to our European ways, seems pressingly desir able. O Guachos, South-American and European, what a business is it, casting out your seven devils!—

But perhaps the reader would like to take a view of Dr. Francia in the concrete, there as he looks and lives; managing that thousand-sided business for his Paraguenos, in the time of Surgeon Rengger? It is our last extract, or last view of the Dictator, who must hang no longer on our horizon here:

from his dictation till noon. At noon all the off


always himself orders. When the cook returns from market, she deposits her provisions at the door of her master's room; the Doctor then comes out, and selects what he wishes for himself. After dinner, he takes his siesta. awakening, he drinks his mate, and smokes a cigar, with the same precautions as in the morning. From this, till four or five, he occupies himself with business, when the escort to attend him on his promenade arrives. The barber then enters, and dresses his hair, while his horse

getting ready. During his ride, the Doctor ticularly those of the cavalry, where he has had inspects the public works, and the barracks, para set of apartments prepared for his own use. While riding, though surrounded by his escort, he is armed with a sabre, and a pair of doublebarrelled pocket-pistols. He returns home about nightfall, and sits down to study till nine; then he goes to supper, which consists of a roast pigeon and a glass of wine. If the weather be fine, he again walks in the outer colonnade, where he often remains till a very late hour. At ten o'clock he gives the watchword. On returning into the house, he fastens all the doors himself."

"I have already said that Doctor Francia, so soon as he found himself at the head of affairs, took up his residence in the habitation of the former Governors of Paraguay. This edifice, which is one of the largest in Assumpcion, was erected by the Jesuits, a short time before their expulsion, as a house of retreat for laymen, who devoted themselves to certain spiritual exercises instituted by Saint Ignatius. This structure the Dictator repaired and embellished; he has detached it from the other houses in the city, by interposing wide streets. Here he lives, with four slaves, a little negro, one male and two female mulattoes, whom he treats with great mildness. The two males perform the functions of valet-de-chambre and groom. One of the Francia's escort of cavalry used to two mulatto women is his cook, and the other" strike men with the flat of their swords," takes care of his wardrobe. He leads a very much more assault them with angry epiregular life. The first rays of the sun very thets, if they neglected to salute the Dicrarely find him in bed. So soon as he rises, the negro brings a chafing-dish, a kettle, and a

Francia's brother was already mad. Francia banished this sister by and by, because she had employed one of his grenadiers, one of the public government's soldiers, on some errand of her own.* Thou lonely Francia!



tator as he rode out. Both he and they, the interior; root out his tea-plants; scatmoreover, kept a sharp eye for assassins; ter his four hundred Indians, and we know but never found any, thanks perhaps to the rest! Hard-hearted Monopoly refusing their watchfulness. Had Francia been into listen to the charmings of Public Opinion Paris! At one time, also, there arose an- or Royal-Society Presidents, charm they noyance in the Dictatorial mind from idle never so wisely! M. Bonpland, at full crowds gazing about his Government liberty some time since, resides still in House, and his proceedings there. Orders South America,-and is expected by the were given that all people were to move Robertsons, not altogether by this Editor, on, about their affairs, straight across this to publish his Narrative, with a due rungovernment esplanade; instructions to the ning shriek. sentry, that if any person paused to gaze, Francia's treatment of Artigas, his old he was to be peremptorily bidden, Move enemy, the bandit and firebrand, reduced on!-and if he still did not move, to be now to beg shelter of him, was good; shot with ball-cartridge. All Paraguay humane, even dignified. Francia refused men moved on, looking to the ground, swift to see or treat with such a person, as he as possible, straight as possible, through had ever done; but readily granted him a those precarious spaces; and the affluence place of residence in the interior, and of crowds thinned itself almost to the verge" thirty piasters a month till he died." of solitude. One day, after many weeks The bandit cultivated fields, did charitable or months, a human figure did loiter, did deeds, and passed a life of penitence, for gaze in the forbidden ground: "Move his few remaining years. His bandit folon!" cried the sentry sharply ;-no effect:lowers, who took to plundering again, says "Move on!" and again none. Alas, the M. Rengger, were instantly seized and unfortunate human figure was an Indian, shot."



did not understand human speech, stood On the other hand, that anecdote of merely gaping interrogatively,-where- Francia's dying father-requires to be conupon a shot belches forth at him, the whew-firmed! It seems, the old man, who, as ing of winged lead; which luckily only we saw, had long since quarrelled with his whewed, and did not hit! The astonish-son, was dying, and wished to be reconment of the Indian must have been great, ciled. Francia "was busy ;-what was in his retreat-pace rapid. As for Francia heit ?-could not come." A second still more summoned the sentry with hardly suppress-pressing message arrives: "The old father ed rage, "What news, Amigo!" The dare not die unless he see his son; fears sentry quoted "your Excellency's order;" he shall never enter heaven, if they be not Francia cannot recollect such an order; reconciled." "Then let him enter commands now, that at all events such said Francia, "I will not come!"* If this order cease. anecdote be true, it is certainly of all that are in circulation about Dr. Francia, by far the worst. If Francia, in that death hour, could not forgive his poor old father, whatsoever he had, or could in the murkiest sultriest imagination be conceived to have done against him, then let no man forgive Dr. Francia! But the accuracy of public rumor, in regard to a Dictator who has executed forty persons, is also a thing that can be guessed at. To whom was it, by name and surname, that Francia delivered this extraordinary response? Did the man make, or can he now be got to make, affidavit of it, to credible articulate-speaking persons resident on this earth? If so let him do it-for the sake of the psychological sciences.

It remains still that we say a word, not in excuse, which might be difficult, but in explanation, which is possible enough, of Francia's unforgivable insult to human science in the person of M. Aimé Bonpland. M. Aimé Bonpland, friend of Humboldt, after much botanical wandering, did, as all men know, settle himself in Entre Rios, an Indian or Jesuit country close on Francia, now burnt to ashes by Artigas; and there set up a considerable establishment for the improved culture of Paraguay tea. Botany? Why, yes, and perhaps commerce still more. "Botany?" exclaims Francia: "It is shopkeeping agriculture, and tends to prove fatal to my shop! Who is this extraneous individual? Artigas could not give him right to Entre Rios; Entre Rios is at least as much mine as Arigas's! Bring him to me!" Next night, or next, Paraguay soldiers surround M. Bonpland's tea-establishment; gallop M. Bonpland over the frontiers, to his appointed village in

One last fact more. Our lonesome Dictator, living among Guachos, had the greatest pleasure, it would seem, in rational conversation,-with Robertson, with Rengger,

* Robertson.

with any kind of intelligent human creaTHE TROUSSEAU.-The Duchess of Gloucester, ture, when such could be fallen in with, the Princess Sophia Matilda, and many of the haute which was rarely. He would question you afternoon, to see the trousseau; but, as might be noblesse, attended at Cambridge House on Tuesday with eagerness about the ways of men in expected, the favor was limited, although the asforeign places, the properties of things un-sembled visitors were so numerous that it might known to him; all human interest and in-most properly be called a reception. A spacious sight was interesting to him. Only per- display of the valuable jewels and magnificent preroom at Cambridge House was appropriated for the sons of no understanding being near him sents from the Queen, Queen Dowager, King of for most part, he had to content himself Hanover, and the other relatives of the bride and with silence, a meditative cigar and cup of bridegroom, as well as from the Duchess of Suthermate. O Francia, though thou hadst to exland, the Marchioness of Londonderry, the Marchioness of Ailesbury, and many of the leading arisecute forty persons, I am not without sometocracy. In addition to the bridal dress, there were pity for thee! several costumes du cour, intended to be worn by In this manner, all being yet dark and her Royal Highness on her arrival in Germany. void for European eyes, have we to ima-Her Royal Highness's state robe is a most elegant gine that the man Rodriguez Francia pass- richest light blue satin and silver tissue, most suand magnificent costume. The fabrique is of the ed, in a remote, but highly remarkable, not perbly brocaded over the entire surface with a unquestionable or inquestioned manner, chaste but tasteful pattern of leaves. The Duchess across the confused theatre of this world. of Cambridge presented her daughter with a comFor some thirty years, he was all the go-rings, and other ornaments of diamonds and sapplete set of jewels, including tiara, necklace, earvernment his native Paraguay could be said phires; a most costly and splendid gift. The to have. For some six-and-twenty years Queen, the Queen Dowager, the Duchess of Kent, he was express Sovereign of it; for some the Duchess of Gloucester, and the Princess Sophia, three, or some two years, a Sovereign each made presents to their youthful relative of Her Majesty's present with bared sword, stern as Rhadamanthus: every variety of jewelry was composed of rubies and diamonds; The through all his years, and through all his Duchess of Kent's was entirely of brilliants; the days, since the beginning of him, a Man or Duchess of Gloucester's of turquoises and diamonds. Sovereign of iron energy and industry, of Nor were the bridal gifts on the part of the Royal great and severe labor. So lived Dictator family confined to jewels: other articles of rarity and value were received by the Princess. Her Francia, and had no rest; and only in Majesty presented several magnificent oriental Eternity any prospect of rest. A life of shawls, one of which was particularly splendid. terrible labor-but for the last twenty The friends of the Princess, among the nobility, years the Fulgencio plot being once torn showed their high estimation of her Royal Highness by numerous presents of various kinds. The in pieces and all now quiet under him, it Marchioness of Londonderry forwarded two handwas a more equable labor: severe but some caskets. The Marchioness of Ailesbury preequable, as that of a hardy draught-steed sented a handsome ring composed of a single pearl fitted in his harness; no longer plunging of large size set in brilliants. The Countess of Jerand champing; but pulling steadily,-till sey gave a splendid casket; and many other ladies of rank presented souvenirs of various kinds. he do all his rough miles, and get to his still home.

THE BRIDE-CAKE.-The bride-cake, made by her Majesty's yeoman confectioner, (Mr. Mauditt,) So dark were the Messrs. Robertson was really a most magnificent specimen of the art concerning Francia, they had not been of confectionary. Standing on a gigantic silver-gilt plateau it measured 2 feet in height, and nearly 6 able to learn in the least whether, when feet in circumference; the whole was encased in their book came out, he was living or dead. frosted sugar-work, the base being encircled by He was living then, he is dead now. He a wreath of candied white roses, while immediately is dead, this remarkable Francia; there is above were garlands of orange-flowers, and roseno doubt about it: have not we and our cake a moveable cornice was formed of hollow buds with silver leaves. Around the top of the readers heard pieces of his Funeral Ser- palms, or little tiny hands, in sugar-work, filled mon! He died on the 20th of September, with love bows, encircled with silver bracelets, 1840, as the Rev. Perez informs us; the and holding a boquet of orange-flowers, Portuguese laurel, and myrtle buds. The whole,-being surpeople crowding round his Government mounted with a very beautiful representation of House with much emotion, nay "with Aurora, "fair daughter of the dawn,' stood at tears," as Perez will have it. Three Ex-least four feet high. The weight of the cake, excellencies succeeded him, as some "Di-clusive of its ornaments, was upwards of 160lbs.rectorate," "Junta Gubernativa," or whatever the name of it is, before whom this reverend Perez preaches. God preserve them many years.

The Court Journal.

the number of persons in Russia who can read is It appears from a recent statistical return that 4,167,995, or about 1 in 13 of the entire population.



From the Dublin University Magazine.


THE night is dark, and the billows roar,
And 'tis half-past twelve by the clocks on shore,
And the landsmen are soundly asleep in their beds,
Unheeding the "pother that's over their heads,"
And the Landswomen, 'wakening perhaps in a

Cry" God help the poor sailors this terrible night!"
Then turning again on their pillows to sleep,
Forget all the perils of those on the deep.

The night is dark, and the billows roar,
And a vessel is driving directly a-shore;
Were she in port you might thus read her name:
The "Goed Vrouw," and near it the word "Am-

She is not one of the "go ahead" sort,

Her stern is round, and her bows are short, And her masts do not stand so presumptuously high,

As to carry her "sky-scrapers" up to the sky; And she's stuffed to the throat with her cargo within,

Full of tobacco and good Holland's gin;

And her captain, the worthy Mynheer Vandergoose,

Stands five feet exactly when wearing his shoes; Which shoes, as polished as polished may be, Alas! and alack! he never could see,

Since his paunch stood a foot farther out than his knee:

And as to her mate, and indeed every sailor,
They all might be clothed by the very same tailor,
From the very pattern, so well are they chosen,
To match with each other, thirteen to the dozen,-
All save ose, and his bones are sharp,
And his sinews as hard as the strings of a harp;
And his cheeks are pale, and his nose is blue,
Where every other is crimson in hue;

And he stands in his stockings just six feet two-
All save ONE, that remarkable man,
And he gives no name but the name of "JAN."

'Tis a pleasant thing, when the morn is bright,
To glide o'er the waves that are dancing in light,
And to hear the dash of the feathered oar,
And the watch-dog's bark from the distant shore.-
Tis a pleasant thing, when the storm is past,
And the ocean still heaves from the recent blast,
To watch the waves 'neath the sunset rolled,
Like mountains of amber or torrents of gold;
But however delightful such scenes may be,
There are pleasanter things than a shore on your


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And took the pipe from each lazy jaw,


And pointed slowly, and drawled out "
When that wonderful an on his trunk they saw;
For light as a feather it seemed to swim,
Bearing him safe o'er the waters grim,
'Till a boat was lowered as fast as might be.
It was two when all sonk

Save the man and the trunk,
And they reached him at just five minutes to three,
Though the wind had begun pretty freshly to blow,
And they'd nearly five hundred yards to row:
But he seemed not the worse by a single pin,
And as they made ready to take him in,
Lightly he sprung,

And his trunk they flung Into the boat "with a kick and a spin;" And with oaths, that for me to repeat were a sin, Desired to know

"What hurried them so?"

And also, "What made them so pale and so thin?” Small blame to thee, reader! already thou rumorest,

That the odd little man was a bit of a humorist.

Back to the ship doth the small boat glide,
Quicker, I trow, than it left her side,
For fear began their hearts to fill,
And through their well-stuffed sides to thrill;
Especially now that the stranger's brow
Grew darker and darker, they knew not how.
No word they uttered;

The stranger spluttered

In some unknown tongue, then, in high Dutch muttered,

That "before he had done with the lazy dogs, They'd be far more like sailors, and far less like hogs."

His speech was in Dutch, you remember, but if I lent

It an English dress, this would be its equivalent.

He's out of the boat with a bound and a skip,
He's over the bulwarks, he's into the ship;
And, regardless alike of the crew and their "funk,"
He roars to them loudly to "hand him his trunk!"
Slowly their broad-clothed backs they bend,
Slowly they grasp it by either end,

Each of those sailors was thought a good puller,
Wouter Van Twissler, and Barnet van Muller-
But though Didrick Van Ranslaer, the second
mate, aided,

And mortals sure never pulled wildly as they did; And Nicholas Block to the rescue had hastened, The obstinate trunk to the bottom seemed fastened; And the stranger stood laughing and cheering them

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