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exhibit, and which are truly surprising. The be counted out like those of culprits at the Opera House, called the Theatre San Carlos, Old Bailey! What huge criticisms of Corneille is, except on a few particular occasions, al- and Voltaire would that little instrument supmost deserted. The audiences are usually so ply! What volumes, founded on its move. thin, that it is not usual to light up the body ments, would it render superfluous! Even of the house, except on particular days, when Grecian regularity must yield before it, and the rare illumination is duly announced in the criticism triumph, by this invariable standard, bills. I visited it fortunately on the birth-day at once over Sophocles and Shakspeare. of the king, which is one of the most splendid The scenery was wretched-the singers

its festivals. Its interior is not much smaller tolerable-and the band excellent. "he ballet than that of Covent Garden Theatre, though took place between the acts of the opera, and it appears at the first glance much less, from was spun out to great length. The dancing the extreme beauty of the proportions. The consisted partly of wonderful twirlings of the form is that of an ellipse, exquisitely turned, French school, and partly of the more wonderintersected at the farther extremity by the ful contortions of the Portuguese; both kinds stage. The sides are occupied by five tiers of exceedingly clever, but exhibiting very little boxes, at least in appearance, for the upper of true beauty, grace, or elegance. At the circles, which are appropriated to the populace close of the first act, a perfect shower of roses, by way of gallery, are externally uniform with pinks, and carnations, together with printed the rest of the theatre. The prevailing colour sonnets, was poured down from the top of the is white; the ornaments between the boxes, theatre in honour of his majesty, whose abconsisting of harps and tasteful devices, are sence, however, even Portuguese loyalty canof brown and gold, and elegantly divided into not pardon. compartments by rims of burnished gold. The The churches are the most remarkable of middle of the house is occupied by the grand the public buildings of Lisbon; though plain entrance into the pit, the royal box, and the on the outside, they are exceedingly splendid gallery above it, which is in continuation of in the interior. The tutelary saints are richer the higher circle. The royal box is from than many Continental princes, though their twelve to fifteen feet in length, and occupies treasures are only displayed to excite the rein height the space of three rows of the com. verence or the cupidity of the people on high mon boxes. Above are the crown and regal and festal occasions. The most beautiful, arms in burnished gold, and the sides are sup- though not the largest of the churches which I ported by statues of the same radiant appear- have examined, is that of the Estrella, which ance. Curtains of green silk, of a fine texture, is lined with finely-varied and highly-polished usually conceal its internal splendours; buton marble, vaulted over with a splendid and this occasion they were drawn aside at the sculptured roof, and adorned, in its gilded same moment that the stage was discovered, recesses, with beautiful pictures. Were it not, and displayed the interior illuminated with indeed, for the impression made on me by one great brilliancy. This seat of royalty is di- | of the latter, I should scarcely have mentioned vided into two stories—a slight gallery being this edifice, unable as I am technically to dethrown over the back part of it. Its ground scribe it. The piece to which I allude is not, is a deep crimson; the top descends towards that I can discover, held in particular estima. the back in a beautiful concave, representing tion, or the production of any celebrated artist; a rich veil of ermine. In the front of the but it excited in me feelings of admiration and lower compartment, behind the seats, is the delight, which can never die away. It reprecrown of Portugal, figured on deep green vel- sents Saint John in the Isle of Patmos, gazing vet; and the sides are adorned with elegant on the vision in which the angels are pouring mirrors. The centre of the roof of the theatre forth the vials, and with the pen in his hand, is an ellipse, painted to represent the sky with ready to commit to sacred and imperishable the moon and stars visible ; the sides sloping record the awful and mysterious scenes opened to the upper boxes are of white adorned with before him. Never did I behold or imagine gold and crimson. The stage is supported on such a figure. He is sitting, half entranced each side by two pillars of the composite order, with wonder at the revelation disclosed to of white and gold, half in relief, with a brazen him, half mournfully conscious of the evils statue between each of them. It forms an which he is darkly to predict to a fated and excellent framework for a dramatic picture. unheeding world. The face, in its mere form The most singular feature of the house is a and colouring, is most beautiful: its features clock over the centre of the stage, which regu- are perfectly lovely, though inclining rather to larly strikes the hours, without mercy. What cherubic roundness than Grecian austerity, a poble invention this for the use of those who and its roseate bloom of youth is gently touchcontend for the unity of time! How nicely ed and softened by the feelings attendant on would it enable the French critics to estimate the sad and holy vocation of the beloved disthe value of a tragedy at a single glance! ciple. The head is bent forward, in eagerHow accurately might the time be measured ness, anxiely, and reverence; the eyebrows out in which eternal attachments should be arched in wonder, yet bearing in every line formed, conspiracies planned, and states over some undefinable expression of pity; the eyes thrown; how might the passions of the soul are uplifted, and beaming with holy inspirabe regulated to a minute, and the rise and tion, yet mild, soft, angelical; around the exswell of the great emotions of the heart deter- quisitely-formed mouth, sweet tenderness for mined to a hair; with what accuracy might the inevitable sorrows of mankind are playing; the moments which the heroes have yet to live and the bright chestnut hair, falling in masses

over the shoulders, gives to all this expression learn only to feel our weakness. But in the of high yet soft emotion, a finishing grace and sacred place where all that could perish of our completeness. This figure displays such un- orators, philosophers, and poets, is reposing, we speakable sweetness tempering such prophetic feel our mortality only to lend us a stronger fire ; such religious and saintly purity, mingled and more ethereal sense of our eternal being. with so genial a compassion; it is at once so Life and death seem met together, as in a holy individual and so ideal; so bordering on the fane, in peaceful concord. While we feel that celestial, and yet so perfectly within the range the mightiest must yield to the stern law of of human sympathies; that it is difficult to necessity, we know that the very monuments say, whether the delicious emotions which it which record the decay of their outward inspires partake most of wonder or of love. frame, are so many proofs and symbols that The image seemed, like sweet music, to sink they shall never really expire. We feel that into the soul, there to remain for ever. To see those whose remembrance is thus extended such a piece is really to be made better and beyond the desolating power of the grave happier. The recollection is a precious trea- over whose fame death and mortal accidents sure for the feelings and the imagination, of have no power, are not themselves destroyed. which nothing, while they endure, can deprive And when we recollect the more indestructible them.

monuments of their genius, those works, which The church at Belem, a fortified place on live not only in the libraries of the studious, the Tagus, three or four miles from Lisbon, but in the hearts and imaginations of men; where the kings and royal family of Portugal we are conscious at once, that the spirit which have, for many generations, been interred, conceived, and the souls which appreciate and must not be forgotten. It is one of the most love them, are not of the earth, earthy. Our ancient buildings in the kingdom, having ori- thoughts are not wholly of humiliation and ginally been erected by the Romans, and sorrow! but stretch forward, with a pensive splendidly adorned by the Moorish sovereigns. majesty, into the permanent and the imFormed of white stone, it is now stained to a mortal. reddish brown by the mere influence of years, Having inspected the city, I was naturally and frowns over the water “cased in the un- anxious to visit the celebrated Aqueduct, which feeling armour of old time.” Its shape is is carried across a deep valley two or three oblong, its sides of gigantic proportions, and miles from Lisbon. Having passed the suits massive appearance most grand and awe- burbs, and reached the open country, I saw, at inspiring. The principal entrance is by a a sudden turn in the pathway, the mighty obdeep archway, reaching to a great height, and ject of my wanderings. I found myself on the circular within, ornamented above and around summit of a gently sloping declivity, at a little with the most crowded, venerable, and yet distance from the foot of which a hill rose to fantastic devices-martyrs and heroes of chi- an equal height, with a bold and luxuriantsweep. valry-swords and crosiers-monarchs and It is across the expanse thus formed, that the saints—crosses and sceptres—“the roses and stupendous bridge runs, in two straight lines flowers of kings” and the sad emblems of from each eminence, which form an obtuse mortality-all wearing the stamp of deep anti- angle in the centre. The whole is supported quity, all appearing carved out of one eternal by thirty-six arches, which, as the ground from rock, and promising by their air of solid each extremity sinks, increase in height, or grandeur to survive as many stupendous rather depth; till in the middle of the pile, the changes as those which have already left them distance to which they ascend from the vale is unshaken. The interior of this venerable fearful. This huge structure is composed of edifice is not less awe-breathing or substantial. dark gray stone, the deep colour of which gives Eight huge pillars of barbaric architecture, to its massiveness an air of the sternest granand covered all over with strange figures and deur. The water is conveyed across the level grotesque ornaments in relievo, support the thus formed, through a chain of building which roof, which is white, ponderous, and of a noble occupies its centre, and appears almost like a simplicity, being only divided into vast square line of solid and unbroken rock. Above this compartments by the beams which cross it. erection, turrets of still greater height, and of Such a pile, devoted to form the last resting the same materials, are reared at regular inplace of a line of kings who have, each in his tervals, and crown the whole. The road is brief span of time, held the fate of millions at thus divided into two passes, which are sehis pleasure, cannot fail to excite solemn and cured by high ridges of stone, in the long, unpensive thought. And yet what are the feel- interrupted straight lines, which have an air ings thus excited, to those meditations to of so awful a grandeur in the noblest remains which the great repository of the illustrious of Roman art. The view from the southern deceased in England invites us! Here we road, though romantic, is, for the most part, think of nothing but the perishableness of man confined within narrow boundaries, as rugged in his best estate—the emptiness of human hills arise on this side almost from the foot of honours—the low and frail nature of all the the Aqueduct, to a height far above its towers, distinctions of earth. A race of monarchs cultivated only towards the lower parts, and occupy but a narrow vault: they were kings, covered on the loftier spots with a thin grass and now are dust; and this idea forced home and shapeless blocks or masses of granite. upon us, makes us feel that the most potent This mountainous ridge breaks, however, in and enduring of worldly things — thrones, the centre, and abruptly displays a piece of the dynasties, and the peaceable succession of Tagus, like an inland lake, with its tenderly high families—are but as feeble shadows. We rimpled blue, and the wild and lofty banks

which rise precipitously beyond it. As the sun / with solemn yet pleasing thoughts, which“ do was declining when I traversed this path, the often lie too deep for tears." portion of craggy shore thus disclosed, and the Having traversed both sides of the aqueduct, shrubs which flourish among its steeps, were I resolved to ascend one of the hills beyond it, overcast with the richest tints from the west, for the purpose of obtaining a still more extenand the vessels gently gliding through the sive view. After a most weary ascent, of opening made by the shaggy declivities of the which my eye had taken a very inadequate nearer hills, completed the feeling of genial estimate, I reached the summit and was amply composure diffused over the scene. From the rewarded for my toils. To the north lay the northern side, the prospect appears arrayed prospect which I have endeavoured to dein far gayer charms. The valley here, from scribe, softened in the distance; beneath was the narrow point at which it is seen, spreads the huge pile, with its massive arches and out into a fanlike form, till the eminences on lone turrets bridging the vale. To the south each side seem gradually to melt away, and was the Tagus, and, a little onward, its the open country lies in full expanse to the entrance, where it gently blended with the sea. view. It is a scene of fresh, reposing, and Completely round the north-eastern side of the perfect beauty. Not an angular intersection horizon, the same mighty and beautiful river breaks the roundness, or interrupts the grace, appeared flowing on far beyond Lisbon in which characterize the whole. The hills in a noble curve, which seemed to dissolve in the foreground sink from each side of the the lighter blue of the heavens. And full to Aqueduct, gradually to the depth of the vale, the west beyond the coast of Portugal, now covered with the freshest verdure, fluctuating irradiated with the most brilliant colouring, in a wave-like motion ; and the more distant was the free and circling ocean, on which landscape appears composed of a thousand amidst visionary shapes of orange and saffron gentle undulations, thrown up by Nature in glory, the sun was, for his last moment, resting. her sweetest mood, as though the earth were Soon the sky became literally “fretted with swelling with an exuberant bounty, even to the golden fire," and the hills seemed covered rim of the circling sky, with the form of which with a tender haze of light, which rendered all is harmonious. The green in which the them yet lovelier. The moon began to blend prospect is clothed, is of a softer and more her mild radiance with the sweet twilight, as I vivid hue than in England; the pastures seem took the last glance at the vale, and hastened absolutely to sparkle on the eye; and, amidst to Lisbon. this “splendour in the grass, this glory in the On Thursday, the 21st of May, a grand festiflower," the lively groves of orange and the val was holden in honour of Saint George, villas of purest white scattered thickly around, who is held in peculiar reverence in Lisbon. give to the picture a fairy brightness. And On this most sacred occasion, all the buildings yet, setting individual associations aside, I around the vast area of the Rocio were hung prefer the scenery of my own country to this with crimson tapestry; a road was formed of enchanted vale. This is a landscape to visit fine gravel, guarded by lines of soldiers; and as a spectacle, not to live in. There is no the troops, to a great number, in splendid unisolemnity about it,-no austere beauty,—no forms, occupied the most conspicuous pasretiring loveliness; there are no grand masses sages. When all was prepared, the train isof shade,-no venerable oaks, which seem sued from a church in one of the angles of coeval with the hills over which they cast the square, and slowly paraded round the path their shadows,—no vast colonnades, in which prepared for it. It consisted of all the ecclethe. fine spirit of the elder time seems yet to siastical orders, attired in their richest vestkeep its state. Nature wears not the palements, and bearing, alternately, crosses of livery which inspires meditation or solemn gold and silver ; canopies of white, purple, joy; her face seems wreathed in a perpetual orange, and crimson silk, bordered with deep smile. The landscape breathes, indeed, of in- fringes; and gorgeous banners, decorated with toxicating delight; it invites to present joy; curious devices. The canopy which floated but it leads to no tender reminiscences of the over the consecrated wafer, formerly borne by past, nor gives solemn indications of the future. the king and the princes, was, on this occasion, It is otherwise in the very deficiencies, as they carried by the chief persons of the regency. are usually regarded, of our happier land. But the most remarkable object was the Saint There “ the pale primrose that dies unmarried" himself, who,“ not to speak it profanely,” is no among the scaniy hedge-rows, as an emblem other than a wooden figure, and, I am afraid, of innocence peeping forth amidst a cheerless must yield in proportion and in grace to that world, suggests more pensive yet delicious unconsecrated work, the Apollo Belvidere. He musing, than the gaudiest productions of this was seated on a noble horse, and arrayed brighter clime. The wild roses, thinly inter- in a profusion of gems, which, according to spersed among our thickets, with their delicate the accounts of the Portuguese, human power colouring and faint perfume, afford images of could hardly calculate. His boots were of rustic modesty, far sweeter and more genial solid silver; his whole person begirt with jewthan the rich garlands which cluster here. els, and his hat glittered in the sun like one Those " echoes from beyond the grave,” which prodigious diamond. He descended in state come to us amid the stillness of forests which from the castle to the church, whence the prohave outlived generations of men, are here cession issued, and remained there during the unheard. In these valleys we are dazzled, solemnities. He was saluted on leaving his surprised, enchanted ;—in ours we are moved | mansion, with a discharge of artillery, and re

ceived the same compliment on his return to powers and energies which dignify man. They that favoured residence. The people, who were have no enthusiasm, no devoted admiration, or of course assembled in great crowds, did not love, for objects anconnected with the necesappear to me to look on the magnificent dis- sities of their mortal being, or the low gratiplay before them with any feeling of religious fications of sense. They have a few mighty awe, or to regard it in any other light than, at names to lend them an inspiration, which the most, a national spectacle.

might supply the place of contemporary genius; Of the national character of the Portuguese and with those, of which they ought to be in general, I can say very little, as my personal fond in proportion to their rarity, they appear intercourse with them was extremely limited. scarcely acquainted. Of the rich stores of Were I to believe all that some English resi- poetry and romance, which they might enjoy dents in Lisbon have told me, I should draw a from the neighbouring country and almost gloomy picture of human degradation, unre- similar language of Spain, they are, for the most lieved by a single redeeming grace. I should part, unconscious. Not only has the spirit say that the common people are not only igno- of chivalry departed from these mountains, rant and filthy, but universally dishonest; that where it once was glowing; but its marvelthey blend the vices of savage and social life, lous and golden tales are neglected or forand are ready to become either pilferers or gotten. assassins; that they are cruel to their children, The degradation of the public mind in Lislax in friendship, and implacable in revenge; bon is increased by the notorious venality of that the higher orders are at once the dupes the ministers of justice. There is no crime for and tyrants of their servants, familiar with which indemnity may not be purchased by a them one moment, and brutally despotic the bribe. Even offences against the government next; that they are in nstant jealousy of their of the king may be winked at, if the culprit is wives, and not without reason; and that even able to make an ample pecuniary sacrifice. their vices are without dignity or decorum. It is a well-known fact that some of the chief All this can never be true, or Lisbon would not be conspirators in the plot to assassinate Marshal subsisting in order and peace. To me, the in- Beresford, and change the whole order of habitants appear in a more amiable light things in Portugal, were able to make their Filthy and ignorant the common people doubt- peace with the judges, and, on the ground of less are; but they are sober ; and those dreadful some technical informality, were dismissed excesses and sorrows which arise from the use, without trial. When any one is accused of an in England, of ardent spirits, are consequently offence, he is generally sent at once to prison, unknown. They are idle; but the warmth of where he remains until he can purchase his the climate may, in some degree, excuse them. freedom. There does not seem, however, any No rank is destitute of some appearance of disposition to persecution for opinions, or native courteousness. The rich are not, indeed, to exercise wanton cruelty. The Inquisition Howards or Clarksons; they have no idea of is no longer an engine in the hands of the exerting themselves to any great degree, to priests, but is merely a tribunal for the exdraw down blessings on the heads of others or amination and the punishment of political of. their own; they do not go in search of wretched- fences. Death is rarely inflicted; for it brings ness in order to remove it, but when misery is no gain to the magistrate. Criminals guilty brought before them, as it is constantly here, in of the highest offences are kept in prison until a thousand ghastly forms, they are far from with they are forgotten, without any one knowing holding such aid as money can render. The or caring about their fate. In the absence of gardens of their country villas, which are ex- the sovereign almost all the civil authorities ceedingly elegant, are always open in the even have become totally corrupted, for there is no ings to any of the populace who choose to patriot to watch, and no public voice to awe walk there, so that the citizen, on the numerous them. The people appear sunk in apathy to holidays which the Romish church affords, all excepting gain; and the greater number is not compelled to inhale the dust in some of them crawl on with little hope, except to wretched tea-garden, which is a libel at once on supply the cravings of hunger. The city, notnature and art, but may rove with his children withstanding its populousness, exhibits all the through groves of orange and thickets of roses. marks of decay--buildings in ruins amidst its When the company thus indulged meet any of stateliest streets, and houses begun on a magthe family which reside in the mansion, they nificent scale, and left unfinished for years. acknowledge the favour which they are enjoy. The foreign merchants, especially the British, ing by obeisances not ungracefully made, which who use it as a central port, give it an artiare always returned with equal courtesy. Ificial life, without which its condition would am assured, that this privilege is never abused; be most wretched. In bidding farewell to this even the children walk amidst the flowers and bright abode of degraded humanity, I felt it imthe fruits, without the slightest idea of touching possible to believe that it was destined grathem. This circumstance alone would induce dually to become desolate and voiceless. Glome to doubt the justice with which some have rious indeed would be the change, if knowledge attempted to fix the brand of dishonesty on the should expand the souls now so low and coninferior classes of Portugal. The people want tracted, into a sympathy with the natural wonnot the natural tenderness and gentle move- ders around them if the arts should once ments of the heart; all their deficiencies arise more adorn the romantic city-and the orange from the absence of high principle, the lan- groves and lovely spots among the delicate guishing of intellech, and the decay of the loftier cork trees, should be vocal with the innocent

gayety of happy peasants, or shed their in- and their spirit was regulated by wise and Auences on the hearts of youthful bards. If, beneficent governors, the capital of Portugal indeed, the people were awakened into energy, i would assuredly become the fairest of cities.



THERE is no more remarkable instance of the ciates-offering a child-like feebleness in con“cant of criticism,” than the representation trast to Wordsworth's nerve-and ranging currently received as distinctive, whereby through mythologies and strange fantasies, not several authors, chiefly residing in the neigh- only with less dominion than Coleridge, but bourhood of the lakes, were characterized merely portraying the shapes to which they gave as belonging to one school of poetry. In existence, instead of discovering the spirit of truth, propinquity of residence, and the bonds truth and beauty within them. Nor does the of private friendship, are the only circum- author before us, often combined with these stances which have ever given the slightest by the ignorance or e artifice of criticism, colour to the hypothesis which marked them differ less widely from them. Without Wordsout as disciples of the same creed. It is worth’s intuitive perception of the profoundest scarcely possible to conceive individuals more truths, or Coleridge's feeling of beauty, he has dissimilar in the objects of their choice, or in a subtile activity of mind which supplies the the essential properties of their genius. Whe, place of the first, and a wonderful power of for example, can have less in common than minute observation, which, when directed to Wordsworth and Coleridge, if we except lovely objects, in a great degree produces the those faculties which are necessarily the effect of the latter. All these three rise on portion of the highest order of imaginative some occasions to the highest heaven of thought minds? The former of these has sought for and feeling, though by various processes, his subjects among the most ordinary oc- Wordsworth reaching it at once by the divine currences of life, which he has dignified and wingedness of his genius-Coleridge ascendexalted, from which he has extracted the ing io it by a spiral track of glory winding on holiest essences of good, or over which he through many a circuit of celestial light-and has cast a consecrating and harmonizing Lloyd stepping thither by a firm ladder, like light " which never was by sea or land.” that of Jacob, by even steps, which the feet The latter, on the other hand, has spread of angels have trodden! abroad his mighty mind, searching for his The peculiar qualities of Mr. Lloyd's genius materials through all history and all science, have never been so clearly developed as in the penetrating into the hidden soul of the wildest chief poem of the work before us. In his superstitions, and selecting the richest spoils Nugæ Canoræ,” all his thoughts and feelof time from the remotest ages. Wordsworth ings were overcast by a gentle melancholy, is all intensity-he sees nothing, but through which rendered their prominences less distinct, the hallowing medium of his own soul, and as it shed over them one sad and sober hue. represents all things calm, silent, and harmo- Even, however, in his most pensive moods, nious as his own perceptions. Coleridge the vigorous and restless activity of his intelthrows himself into all the various objects lect might be discerned, curiously inquiring which he contemplates, and attracts to his for the secret springs of its own distress, and own imagery their colours and forms. The regarding its sorrows as high problems worthy first, seizes only the mighty and the true with of the most painful scrutiny. While he exhi. a giant grasp ;-the last has a passionate and bited to us the full and pensive stream of emoalmost effeminate love of beauty and tender- tion, with all the images of soft clouds and deness which he never loses. One looks only licate foliage reflected on its bosom, he failed on the affections in their inmost home, while not to conduct us to its deep-seated fountains, the other perceives them in the lightest and or to lay open to our view the jagged caverns remotest tints, which they cast on objects the within its banks. Yet here the vast intellecstrangest and most barbarous. All the distinc- tual power was less conspicuous than in his tion, in short, between the intense and the ex- last poems, because the personal emotion was pansive-the severe and the lovely—the phi- more intense, single, and pervading. He is losophic and the magical-really separates these now, we rejoice to observe, more “il the sun," great poets, whom it has been the fashion to cen- and consequently, the nice workings of his sure as united in one heresy. If we cast the reason are set more distinctly before us. The slightest glance at Southey's productions, we Desultory Thoughts in London" embrace a shall find him unlike either of these, his asso- great variety of topics, associated in the mind

of the author with the metropolis, but many other Poenis. By CHARLES LLOYD, author of Nugæ Canoræ, tion which might as fidly be contemplated in a

* Desultory Thoughts in London, Titus and Gisippus, with of them belonging to those classes of abstracand translator of Alfieri's Tragedies, 12mo, 1821.

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