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PREFACE.

Political laws, wisely framed, have made the United States powerful and wealthy to a degree unexampled in modern times; and I have thought that a book of facts, recording the public services of our National law-ma^rs, from the foundation of the Government, would be a deserved tribute to them, and, at the same time, be generally useful. The record has been made in each case as correct and concise as possible. Of many men more might have been written, but that was not deemed expedient in a work of this kind; and where not enough has been said, the fault must be attributed to the indifference of the persons mostly interested, or to the neglect of their friends. Not" being a politician, it has given me but little trouble to be impartial. My intention has been to express no opinions of living men, and but seldom to echo public opinion in regard to the dead. My leading object has been to prepare a kind of labor-saving machine, for the benefit of all who feel an interest in the political history and future prosperity of the Kepublic; and, in the Appendix, I have endeavored to bring together, from the Government archives, a mass of Legislative and Executive information, calculated to be of serviceto Members of Congress, while engaged in their public duties, and especially in their examination of the Public Documents.

Washington, January, 1864.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.

Abbott, Amos,—Born at Andover, Massachusetts, September 10,1786. He was educated at a district school, but spent the most of his life as a trader and merchant. During the years 1835,1836, and 1842, he was a Representative in the Massachusetts Legislature; and from 1840 to 1842 a member of the State Senate. He represented his native State in Congress from 1843 to 1849, and was a member of the Committees on the Militia, and on Manufactures.

Abbott, Joel.—Was born in Fairfield, Connecticut, emigrated to Georgia, and was elected a Representative in Congress, from Wilkes County, in that State, from 1817 to 1825, serving as a member of the Committees on Commerce and the Slave-Trade. Died November 19,1826.

Abbott, Nehemiah.—Born in Sidney, Maine, March 29, 1806. He is a lawyer by profession; was a member of the House of Representatives, in the Maine Legislature, in 1842 and 1843, and was elected to the Thirty-fifth Congress, serving as a member of the Committee on Revolutionary Pensions.

Abercrombie, James.—He was

born in Georgia, and, removing to Alabama, was a Representative in Congress, from that State, from 1851 to 1855.

Adair, John.—He was born in 1758; was a Senator of the United States, from Kentucky, during the years 1805 and 1806; commanded the Kentucky troops at the battle of New Orleans, under General Jackson; and was ap

pointed a general in the army. He was elected a Representative in Congress, from Kentucky, from 1831 to 1833, and was a member of the Committee on Military Aifairs. He died at Harrodsburg, May 19, 1840.

Adams, Benjamin.—Born at Worcester, Massachusetts; was a member of the Legislature, as Representative, from 1809 to 1814, and as Senator, in 1814 and 1815; and from 1822 to 1825; and was a Representative in Congress from his native State, from 1816 to 1821, and was a member of the Committees on Revolutionary Pensions and Public Expenditures. He died at Uxbridge, Massachusetts, in April, 1837.

Adams, Charles F.—Born in Boston, August 18,1807; spent the most of his boyhood in St. Petersburg and London, whilst his father was Minister to Russia and England; he graduated at Harvard University in 1825; studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1828; served three years in the Lower House, and two years in the Upper House of the Massachusetts Legislature; in 1848 he was the candidate for Vice-President on the ticket with Mr. Yan Buren; and; he was elected a Representative from Massachusetts to the Thirty-sixth Congress, serving as Chairman of the Committee on Manufactures. He was at onetime the editor of a paper called the "Boston Whig," has been a contributor to the North American Review, was theeditor of the well-known Adams Let* ters, and is the author of the standard1 Biography of John Adams. Re-elected*

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